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2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873372

ABSTRACT

After implementing a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection prevention bundle, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of non-severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (non-SARS-CoV-2) hospital-acquired respiratory viral infection (HA-RVI) was significantly lower than the IRR from the pre-COVID-19 period (IRR, 0.322; 95% CI, 0.266-0.393; P < .01). However, HA-RVIs incidence rates mirrored community RVI trends, suggesting that hospital interventions alone did not significantly affect HA-RVI incidence.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267353, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the pandemic, transmission risk from asymptomatic infection was unclear, making it imperative to monitor infection in workplace settings. Further, data on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence within university populations has been limited. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study of University research employees on campus July-December 2020. We conducted questionnaires on COVID-19 risk factors, RT-PCR testing, and SARS-CoV-2 serology using an in-house spike RBD assay, laboratory-based Spike NTD assay, and standard nucleocapsid platform assay. We estimated prevalence and cumulative incidence of seroconversion with 95% confidence intervals using the inverse of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. RESULTS: 910 individuals were included in this analysis. At baseline, 6.2% (95% CI 4.29-8.19) were seropositive using the spike RBD assay; four (0.4%) were seropositive using the nucleocapsid assay, and 44 (4.8%) using the Spike NTD assay. Cumulative incidence was 3.61% (95% CI: 2.04-5.16). Six asymptomatic individuals had positive RT-PCR results. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections were low; however, differences in target antigens of serological tests provided different estimates. Future research on appropriate methods of serological testing in unvaccinated and vaccinated populations is needed. Frequent RT-PCR testing of asymptomatic individuals is required to detect acute infections, and repeated serosurveys are beneficial for monitoring subclinical infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Pediatrics ; 149(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a test-to-stay program for unvaccinated students and staff who experienced an unmasked, in-school exposure to someone with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Serial testing instead of quarantine was offered to asymptomatic contacts. We measured secondary and tertiary transmission rates within participating schools and in-school days preserved for participants. METHODS: Participating staff or students from universally masked districts in North Carolina underwent rapid antigen testing at set intervals up to 7 days after known exposure. Collected data included location or setting of exposure, participant symptoms, and school absences up to 14 days after enrollment. Outcomes included tertiary transmission, secondary transmission, and school days saved among test-to-stay participants. A prespecified interim safety analysis occurred after 1 month of enrollment. RESULTS: We enrolled 367 participants and completed 14-day follow-up on all participants for this analysis. Nearly all (215 of 238, 90%) exposure encounters involved an unmasked index case and an unmasked close contact, with most (353 of 366, 96%) occurring indoors, during lunch (137 of 357, 39%) or athletics (45 of 357, 13%). Secondary attack rate was 1.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.6%-4.7%) based on 883 SARS-CoV-2 serial rapid antigen tests with results from 357 participants; no tertiary cases were identified, and 1628 (92%) school days were saved through test-to-stay program implementation out of 1764 days potentially missed. CONCLUSION: After unmasked in-school exposure to SARS-CoV-2, even in a mostly unvaccinated population, a test-to-stay strategy is a safe alternative to quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Quarantine , Schools
6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778883

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles related to the COVID-19 pandemic, AJHP is posting these manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) guideline adherence (primary outcome) as well as length of stay, 30-day all-cause mortality, clinical cure, antimicrobial consumption, and incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens (secondary outcomes) between an infectious diseases (ID) pharmacist-led intervention group and a standard ASP group. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was performed at Thammasat University Hospital between August 2019 and April 2020. Data including baseline characteristics and primary and secondary outcomes were collected from the electronic medical record by the ID pharmacist. RESULTS: The ASP guideline adherence in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group was significantly higher than in the standard ASP group (79% vs 56.6%; P < 0.001), especially with regard to appropriate indication (P < 0.001), dosage regimen (P = 0.005), and duration (P = 0.001). The acceptance rate of ID pharmacist recommendations was 81.8% (44/54). The most common key barriers to following recommendations were physician resistance (11/20; 55%) and high severity of disease in the patient (6/20; 30%). Compared to the standard ASP group, there was a trend toward clinical cure in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group (63.6% vs 56.1%; P = 0.127), while 30-day all-cause mortality (15.9% vs 1.5%; P = 0.344) and median length of stay (20 vs 18 days; P = 0.085) were similar in the 2 groups. Carbapenem (P = 0.042) and fosfomycin (P = 0.014) consumption declined in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group. A marginally significant decrease in the overall incidence of MDR pathogens was also observed in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group (coefficient, -5.93; P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that an ID pharmacist-led intervention can improve ASP guideline adherence and may reduce carbapenem consumption.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746921

ABSTRACT

We assessed environmental contamination of inpatient rooms housing COVID-19 patients in a dedicated COVID-19 unit. Contamination with SARS-CoV-2 was found on 5.5% (19/347) of surfaces via RT-PCR and 0.3% (1/347) of surfaces via cell culture. Environmental contamination is uncommon in hospitals rooms; RNA presence is not a specific indicator of infectious virus.

15.
Pediatrics ; 149(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, masking has been a widely used mitigation practice in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) school districts to limit within-school transmission. Prior studies attempting to quantify the impact of masking have assessed total cases within schools; however, the metric that more optimally defines effectiveness of mitigation practices is within-school transmission, or secondary cases. We estimated the impact of various masking practices on secondary transmission in a cohort of K-12 schools. METHODS: We performed a multistate, prospective, observational, open cohort study from July 26, 2021 to December 13, 2021. Districts reported mitigation practices and weekly infection data. Districts that were able to perform contact tracing and adjudicate primary and secondary infections were eligible for inclusion. To estimate the impact of masking on secondary transmission, we used a quasi-Poisson regression model. RESULTS: A total of 1 112 899 students and 157 069 staff attended 61 K-12 districts across 9 states that met inclusion criteria. The districts reported 40 601 primary and 3085 secondary infections. Six districts had optional masking policies, 9 had partial masking policies, and 46 had universal masking. In unadjusted analysis, districts that optionally masked throughout the study period had 3.6 times the rate of secondary transmission as universally masked districts; and for every 100 community-acquired cases, universally masked districts had 7.3 predicted secondary infections, whereas optionally masked districts had 26.4. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary transmission across the cohort was modest (<10% of total infections) and universal masking was associated with reduced secondary transmission compared with optional masking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(5): 536-541, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial effect on the delivery of psychiatric health care. Inpatient psychiatric health care facilities have experienced outbreaks of COVID-19, making these areas particularly vulnerable. METHODS: Our facility used a multidisciplinary approach to implement enhanced infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions in our psychiatric health care areas. RESULTS: In a 16-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic, our 2 facilities provided >29,000 patient days of care to 1,807 patients and identified only 47 COVID-19 positive psychiatric health inpatients (47/1,807, or 2.6%). We identified the majority of these cases by testing all patients at admission, preventing subsequent outbreaks. Twenty-one psychiatric health care personnel were identified as COVID+ during the same period, with 90% linked to an exposure other than a known positive case at work. DISCUSSION: The IPC interventions we implemented provided multiple layers of safety for our patients and our staff. Ultimately, this resulted in low SARS-CoV-2 infection rates within our facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric health care facilities are uniquely vulnerable to COVID-19 outbreaks because they are congregate units that promote therapeutic interactions in shared spaces. IPC interventions used in acute medical care settings can also work effectively in psychiatric health care, but often require modifications to ensure staff and patient safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(5): 581-584, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676376

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics have been extensively used in COVID-19 patients without a clear indication. We conducted a study to evaluate the feasibility of procalcitonin along with the "Clinical Pulmonary for Infection Score" (CPIS) as a strategy to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. Using procalcitonin and CPIS score (PCT-CPIS) successfully reduced inappropriate antibiotics use among severe-critically ill COVID-19 pneumonia patients (45% vs 100%; P < .01). Compared to "non PCT-CPIS" group, "PCT-CPIS" group was associated with a reduction in the incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and invasive fungal infections (18.3% vs 36.7%; P = .03), shorter antibiotic duration (2 days vs 7 days; P < .01) and length of hospital stay (10 days vs 16 days; P < .01).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Pneumonia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Procalcitonin
18.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674079

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced the suspension of in-person education in schools serving students in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) across the United States. As time passed, teachers, students, and parents struggled with remote education. With limited guidance at the federal level, physicians and school leaders across the country collaborated to develop local solutions for schools. This article describes the lessons learned from the development of 4 academic-community partnerships and collaboration among these partnerships to provide national leadership on managing COVID-19 mitigation in the K-12 environment. In addition, we describe a pathway forward for using academic-community partnerships to improve child health.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19 , Community-Institutional Relations , Pandemics , Schools , Humans
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(6): 704-706, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637344

ABSTRACT

Intensified infection prevention (IP) and health care personnel (HCP) vaccination programs could enhance HCP safety during COVID-19 pandemic. A multi-center survey regarding on intensified IP practices and vaccination uptake among HCP was performed. Working in the emergency medicine department was associated with wearing a double mask and face shield (P = .04). Despite having more confidence in care of COVID-19 patients, there was no significant improvement of intensified IP practices, COVID-19 and influenza vaccination programs among "high-risk" HCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Thailand , Vaccination
20.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S757-S757, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601921

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of several strategies (e.g., masking, physical distancing, daycare/school and business closures, hand hygiene, surface disinfection) intended to mitigate the spread of disease in the community. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of these strategies on the activity of respiratory viral pathogens (other than SARS-CoV-2) and norovirus. Methods At University of North Carolina (UNC) Hospitals, we compared the percent positivity for respiratory viral pathogens and norovirus by calendar year for 2014-2019 and the first three months of 2020 to the percent positivity in the subsequent months of 2020 and the first quarter of 2021. Patients were included in the study if they had a positive specimen obtained in a clinic, ED or as an inpatient. Three molecular tests were used to detect these viruses: adenoviruses, endemic coronaviruses (OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1), influenza A (subtypes H3, H1, H1N1pdm), influenza B, metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza viruses 1-4 (PIV), rhinovirus and/or enterovirus (RhV/EV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Two molecular tests were used to detect norovirus. We calculated point prevalence rates with 95% confidence intervals to assess statistical differences in percent positivity. Results There was a statistically significant decline in percent positivity for endemic coronaviruses, influenza, MPV, PIV, RSV and norovirus during the time-periods after March 2020 when compared to all other time-periods (Figure). RhV/EV, followed by adenovirus were the most prevalent types of respiratory viruses circulating during height of COVID-19. There was a statistically significant decline seen in RhV/EV in April-Dec 2020, but activity increased in 2021. There was no difference seen in adenovirus activity across time-periods. Percent Positivity of Respiratory Viral Pathogens and Norovirus by Time Period Conclusion Our study demonstrated statistically significant decreases in the percent positivity of several respiratory viral pathogens, as well as norovirus, during the time-period of high community prevalence of SARS-CoV-2. Strategies put in place to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission likely contributed to these differences. Non-enveloped viruses like rhinovirus and adenoviruses may have been less impacted by these strategies since they are more resistant to disinfection. Disclosures David J. Weber, MD, MPH, PDI (Consultant) Melissa B. Miller, PhD, D(ABMM), F(AAM), Abbott Molecular (Grant/Research Support)Agena Bioscience (Consultant)ArcBio (Grant/Research Support)Cepheid (Consultant)Luminex Molecular Diagnostics (Consultant)QIAGEN (Consultant)Sherlock Biosciences (Consultant)Talis Biomedical (Consultant)Werfen (Consultant)

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