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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac419, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018041

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients with prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We measured viral nucleocapsid antigenemia in 3 patients treated with anti-CD20 immunotherapy who acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and experienced protracted symptoms. Our results support nucleocapsid antigenemia as a marker of persistent infection and therapeutic response.

3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703768

ABSTRACT

We performed an epidemiological investigation and genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to define the source and scope of an outbreak in a cluster of hospitalized patients. Lack of appropriate respiratory hygiene led to SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and healthcare workers during a single hemodialysis session, highlighting the importance of infection prevention precautions.

4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542793

ABSTRACT

Evidence varies as to how far aerosols spread from individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms. We investigated the presence of aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 inside of dedicated COVID-19 patient rooms. Three National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BC 251 two-stage cyclone samplers were set up in each patient room for a six-hour sampling period. Samplers were place on tripods, which each held two samplers at various heights above the floor. Extracted samples underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for selected gene regions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus nucleocapsid. Patient medical data were compared between participants in rooms where virus-containing aerosols were detected and those where they were not. Of 576 aerosols samples collected from 19 different rooms across 32 participants, 3% (19) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, the majority from near the head and foot of the bed. Seven of the positive samples were collected inside a single patient room. No significant differences in participant clinical characteristics were found between patients in rooms with positive and negative aerosol samples. SARS-CoV-2 viral aerosols were detected from the patient rooms of nine participants (28%). These findings provide reassurance that personal protective equipment that was recommended for this virus is appropriate given its spread in hospital rooms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Patients' Rooms , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(6): e00363, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262701

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mounting evidence demonstrates potential for fecal-oral transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The US Food and Drug Administration now requires SARS-CoV-2 testing of potential feces donors before the use of stool manufactured for fecal microbiota transplantation. We sought to develop and validate a high-sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure for testing stool specimens. METHODS: A modified extraction method was used with an RT-PCR assay adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PCR protocol for respiratory specimens. Contrived specimens were created using pre-COVID-19 banked stool specimens and spiking in known concentrations of SARS-CoV-2-specific nucleic acid. The highest transcript concentration at which 2/2 or 1/2 SARS-CoV-2 targets were detected in 9/10 replicates was defined as the dual-target limit and single-target limit of detection, respectively. The clinical performance of the assay was evaluated with stool samples collected from 17 nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR-positive patients and 14 nasopharyngeal RT-PCR-negative patients. RESULTS: The dual-target and single-target limit of detection were 56 copies/µL and 3 copies/µL, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was detected at concentrations as low as 0.6 copies/µL. Clinical stool samples from known COVID-19-positive patients demonstrated the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in stool up to 29 days from symptom onset with a high agreement with nasopharyngeal swab tests (kappa statistic of 0.95, P value < 0.001). DISCUSSION: The described RT-PCR test is a sensitive and flexible approach for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in stool specimens. We propose an integrated screening approach that incorporates this stool test to support continuation of fecal microbiota transplantation programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/methods , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./standards , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , United States
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2016-2021, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505876

ABSTRACT

There are few detailed investigations of neurologic complications in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We describe 3 patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease who had encephalopathy and encephalitis develop. Neuroimaging showed nonenhancing unilateral, bilateral, and midline changes not readily attributable to vascular causes. All 3 patients had increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of anti-S1 IgM. One patient who died also had increased levels of anti-envelope protein IgM. CSF analysis also showed markedly increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10, but severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was not identified in any CSF sample. These changes provide evidence of CSF periinfectious/postinfectious inflammatory changes during coronavirus disease with neurologic complications.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokines/cerebrospinal fluid , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Fatal Outcome , Female , Georgia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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