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2.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 31(7): 721-728, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772832

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Algorithms for classification of inpatient COVID-19 severity are necessary for confounding control in studies using real-world data. METHODS: Using Healthverity chargemaster and claims data, we selected patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between April 2020 and February 2021, and classified them by severity at admission using an algorithm we developed based on respiratory support requirements (supplemental oxygen or non-invasive ventilation, O2/NIV, invasive mechanical ventilation, IMV, or NEITHER). To evaluate the utility of the algorithm, patients were followed from admission until death, discharge, or a 28-day maximum to report mortality risks and rates overall and by stratified by severity. Trends for heterogeneity in mortality risk and rate across severity classifications were evaluated using Cochran-Armitage and Logrank trend tests, respectively. RESULTS: Among 118 117 patients, the algorithm categorized patients in increasing severity as NEITHER (36.7%), O2/NIV (54.3%), and IMV (9.0%). Associated mortality risk (and 95% CI) was 11.8% (11.6-12.0%) overall and increased with severity [3.4% (3.2-3.5%), 11.5% (11.3-11.8%), 47.3% (46.3-48.2%); p < 0.001]. Mortality rate per 1000 person-days (and 95% CI) was 15.1 (14.9-15.4) overall and increased with severity [5.7 (5.4-6.0), 14.5 (14.2-14.9), 32.7 (31.8-33.6); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: As expected, we observed a positive association between the algorithm-defined severity on admission and 28-day mortality risk and rate. Although performance remains to be validated, this provides some assurance that this algorithm may be used for confounding control or stratification in treatment effect studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Respiration, Artificial
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222959, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748798

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus is critical to control the pandemic. Randomized clinical trials demonstrated efficacy of the single-dose Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine, but data on longer-term protection in clinical practice and effectiveness against variants are needed. Objective: To assess the association between receiving the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and COVID-19-related infections and hospitalizations before and during the Delta variant surge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adults aged 18 years and older who were newly Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated matched to as many as 10 unvaccinated individuals by date, location, age, sex, and comorbidity index. This was followed by 1:4 propensity score matching on COVID-19 risk factors. Data were collected from US insurance claims data from March 1, 2020, through August 31, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S vs no vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated for recorded COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related hospitalization, nationwide and in subgroups by age, high-risk factors, calendar time, and states with high incidences of the Delta variant. VE estimates were corrected for underrecording of vaccinations in insurance data. Results: Among 422 034 vaccinated individuals (mean [SD] age, 54.7 [17.4] years; 236 437 [56.0%] women) and 1 645 397 matched unvaccinated individuals (mean [SD] age, 54.5 [17.5] years; 922 937 [56.1%] women), VE was 76% (95% CI, 75%-77%) for COVID-19 infections and 81% (95% CI, 78%-82%) for COVID-19-related hospitalizations. VE was stable for at least 180 days after vaccination and over calendar time. Among states with high Delta variant incidence, VE during June to August 2021 was 74% (95% CI, 71%-77%) for infections and 81% (95% CI, 75%-86%) for hospitalizations. VE for COVID-19 was higher in individuals younger than 65 years (78%; 95% CI, 77%-79%) and lower in immunocompromised patients (64%; 95% CI, 59%-68%). All estimates were corrected for vaccination underrecording; uncorrected VE, which served as a lower bound, was 66% (95% CI, 64%-67%) for any recorded COVID-19 infection and 72% (95% CI, 69%-74%) for COVID-19-related hospitalization. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study in US clinical practice showed stable VE of Ad26.COV2.S for at least 6 months before as well as during the time the Delta variant emerged and became dominant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , United States , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
CMAJ ; 193(11): E389-E398, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154095

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: De nombreuses études sur les complications de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ont reposé sur des séries de cas et de petites cohortes qui ne permettaient pas d'établir un lien causal avec la COVID-19 ni d'estimer les risques dans les différents milieux de soins. Nous avons voulu étudier toutes les complications possibles de la COVID-19 afin de confirmer les complications précédemment déclarées et d'identifier de potentielles complications encore inconnues. MÉTHODES: À partir des données sur les demandes de remboursement de frais médicaux aux États-Unis, nous avons comparé la fréquence de tous les codes de diagnostic de la Classification internationale des maladies, 10 e révision, modification clinique (CIM-10-MC) enregistrés avant et après le déclenchement de la pandémie de COVID-19 dans un modèle d'auto-appariement pré- et post-exposition. Nous avons inclus les patients ayant reçu un diagnostic de COVID-19 entre le 1er mars 2020 et le 30 avril 2020, et calculé les estimations de risque et les rapports de cotes (RC) pour le lien avec la COVID-19 de chaque code de diagnostic de la CIM-10-MC. RÉSULTATS: Sur les 1724 codes de diagnostic de la CIM-10-MC attribués à 70 288 patients atteints de COVID-19, 69 étaient significativement liés à la COVID-19. Les diagnostics étroitement liés à la COVID-19 et comportant un risque absolu élevé comprenaient la pneumonie virale (RC 177,63; intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % 147,19­214,37; risque absolu 27,6 %), l'insuffisance respiratoire (RC 11,36; IC à 95 % 10,74­12,02; risque absolu 22,6 %), l'insuffisance rénale aiguë (RC 3,50; IC à 95 % 3,34­3,68; risque absolu 11,8 %) et la sepsie (RC 4,23; IC à 95 % 4,01­4,46; risque absolu 10,4 %). Les diagnostics étroitement liés à la COVID-19, mais comportant un risque absolu faible comprenaient la myocardite (RC 8,17; IC à 95 % 3,58­18,62; risque absolu 0,1 %), la coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (RC 11,83; IC à 95 % 5,26­26,62; risque absolu 0,1 %) et le pneumothorax (RC 3,38; IC à 95 % 2,68­4,26; risque absolu 0,4 %). INTERPRÉTATION: Nous avons confirmé et établi les estimations du risque de plusieurs complications de la COVID-19. Ces résultats pourraient orienter le pronostic, les décisions thérapeutiques et les conseils aux patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
CMAJ ; 193(1): E10-E18, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies reporting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications have involved case series or small cohorts that could not establish a causal association with COVID-19 or provide risk estimates in different care settings. We sought to study all possible complications of COVID-19 to confirm previously reported complications and to identify potential complications not yet known. METHODS: Using United States health claims data, we compared the frequency of all International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnosis codes occurring before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in an exposure-crossover design. We included patients who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 between Mar. 1, 2020, and Apr. 30, 2020, and computed risk estimates and odds ratios (ORs) of association with COVID-19 for every ICD-10-CM diagnosis code. RESULTS: Among 70 288 patients with COVID-19, 69 of 1724 analyzed ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes were significantly associated with COVID-19. Disorders showing both strong association with COVID-19 and high absolute risk included viral pneumonia (OR 177.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 147.19-214.37, absolute risk 27.6%), respiratory failure (OR 11.36, 95% CI 10.74-12.02, absolute risk 22.6%), acute kidney failure (OR 3.50, 95% CI 3.34-3.68, absolute risk 11.8%) and sepsis (OR 4.23, 95% CI 4.01-4.46, absolute risk 10.4%). Disorders showing strong associations with COVID-19 but low absolute risk included myocarditis (OR 8.17, 95% CI 3.58-18.62, absolute risk 0.1%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (OR 11.83, 95% CI 5.26-26.62, absolute risk 0.1%) and pneumothorax (OR 3.38, 95% CI 2.68-4.26, absolute risk 0.4%). INTERPRETATION: We confirmed and provided risk estimates for numerous complications of COVID-19. These results may guide prognosis, treatment decisions and patient counselling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , United States/epidemiology
7.
Science ; 370(6521)2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873450

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a grave threat to public health and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have carried out comparative viral-human protein-protein interaction and viral protein localization analyses for all three viruses. Subsequent functional genetic screening identified host factors that functionally impinge on coronavirus proliferation, including Tom70, a mitochondrial chaperone protein that interacts with both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b, an interaction we structurally characterized using cryo-electron microscopy. Combining genetically validated host factors with both COVID-19 patient genetic data and medical billing records identified molecular mechanisms and potential drug treatments that merit further molecular and clinical study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Conformation
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