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1.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065659

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to assess the trade-offs between vulnerability and efficiency attributes of contact tracing programmes based on preferences of COVID-19 contact tracing practitioners, researchers and other relevant stakeholders at the global level. Methods: We conducted an online discrete choice experiment (DCE). Respondents were recruited globally to explore preferences according to country income level and the prevailing epidemiology of COVID-19 in the local setting. The DCE attributes represented efficiency (timeliness, completeness, number of contacts), vulnerability (vulnerable population), cooperation and privacy. A mixed-logit model and latent class analysis were used. Results: The number of respondents was 181. Timeliness was the most important attribute regardless of country income level and COVID-19 epidemiological condition. Vulnerability of contacts was the second most important attribute for low-to-lower-middle-income countries and third for upper-middle-to-high income countries. When normalised against conditional relative importance of timeliness, conditional relative importance of vulnerability ranged from 0.38 to 0.42. Conclusion: Vulnerability and efficiency criteria were both considered to be important attributes of contact tracing programmes. However, the relative values placed on these criteria varied significantly between epidemiological and economic context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Choice Behavior , Humans , Logistic Models , Patient Preference , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
International journal of public health ; 67, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970992

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to assess the trade-offs between vulnerability and efficiency attributes of contact tracing programmes based on preferences of COVID-19 contact tracing practitioners, researchers and other relevant stakeholders at the global level. Methods: We conducted an online discrete choice experiment (DCE). Respondents were recruited globally to explore preferences according to country income level and the prevailing epidemiology of COVID-19 in the local setting. The DCE attributes represented efficiency (timeliness, completeness, number of contacts), vulnerability (vulnerable population), cooperation and privacy. A mixed-logit model and latent class analysis were used. Results: The number of respondents was 181. Timeliness was the most important attribute regardless of country income level and COVID-19 epidemiological condition. Vulnerability of contacts was the second most important attribute for low-to-lower-middle-income countries and third for upper-middle-to-high income countries. When normalised against conditional relative importance of timeliness, conditional relative importance of vulnerability ranged from 0.38 to 0.42. Conclusion: Vulnerability and efficiency criteria were both considered to be important attributes of contact tracing programmes. However, the relative values placed on these criteria varied significantly between epidemiological and economic context.

3.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604854, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933949

ABSTRACT

Objective: To estimate the economic impact of border closure and social distancing by estimating the decline of gross domestic product (GDP) in Kenya, Singapore and Thailand. Methods: We analysed secondary data retrospectively. To calculate impact of NPIs on GDP, the relationship between GDP and stock market index was examined using ordinary least squares (OLS). Then, autoregressive and moving averages (ARMA) model was used to examine the impact of NPI on stock market index. The change in GDP due to NPIs was derived by multiplying coefficients of OLS and ARMA models. Results: An increase in stock market index correlated with an increase in GDP, while both social distancing and border closure negatively correlated with stock market index. Implementation of NPIs correlated with the decline in GDP. Thai border closure had a greater decline in GDP than social distancing; Kenya exhibited the same trends; Singapore had the opposite trend. Conclusion: We quantified the magnitude of economic impact of NPIs in terms of GDP decline by linking stock market index and GDP. This approach may be applicable in other settings.


Subject(s)
Retrospective Studies , Humans , Kenya , Singapore , Thailand
4.
J Bioeth Inq ; 19(2): 327-339, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787868

ABSTRACT

High degrees of uncertainty and a lack of effective therapeutic treatments have characterized the COVID-19 pandemic and the provision of drug products outside research settings has been controversial. International guidelines for providing patients with experimental interventions to treat infectious diseases outside of clinical trials exist but it is unclear if or how they should apply in settings where clinical trials and research are strongly regulated. We propose the Professional Oversight of Emergency-Use Interventions and Monitoring System (POEIMS) as an alternative pathway based on guidance developed for the ethical provision of experimental interventions to treat COVID-19 in Singapore. We support our proposal with justifications that establish moral duties for physicians to record outcomes data and for institutions to establish monitoring systems for reporting information on safety and effectiveness to the relevant authorities. Institutions also have a duty to support generation of evidence for what constitutes good clinical practice and so should ensure the unproven intervention is made the subject of research studies that can contribute to generalizable knowledge as soon as practical and that physicians remain committed to supporting learning health systems. We outline key differences between POEIMS and other pathways for the provision of experimental interventions in public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Moral Obligations , Pandemics , Public Health , Singapore/epidemiology
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324623

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of lockdown measures can be widespread, affecting both clinical and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aims to assess changes in health services access, diabetes self-care, behavioral and psychological impact of COVID-19 and partial lockdown in Singapore. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional online survey amongst people with diabetes with the Diabetes Health Profile-18 (DHP-18). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed for each DHP-18 subscale (Psychological Distress, Disinhibited Eating and Barriers to Activity) as dependent variables in separate models. Results Among 301 respondents, 45.2% were women, majority were ethnic Chinese (67.1%), aged 40 to 49 years (24.2%), have Type 2 diabetes (68.4%) and on oral medications (42.2%). During the lockdown, nearly all respondents were able to obtain their medications, supplies (94%) and contact their doctors (97%) when needed. Respondents reported less physical activity (38%), checking of blood pressure (29%) and blood glucose (22%). Previous diagnosis of mental health conditions (β=11.44, p= 0.017), diabetes-related comorbidities (β= 3.98, p= 0.001) and Indian ethnicity (β= 7.73, p= 0.018) were significantly associated with higher psychological distress. Comorbidities were associated with higher disinhibited eating (β= 2.71, p= 0.007) while mental health condition was associated with greater barriers to activities (β= 9.63, p= 0.033). Conclusion Health services access were minimally affected but COVID-19 and lockdown had mixed impact on self-care and management behaviors. Greater clinical care and attention should be provided to people with diabetes with greater number of comorbidities and previous mental health disorders during the pandemic and lockdown.

6.
J Travel Med ; 28(7)2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the closure or partial closure of international borders in almost all countries. Here, we investigate the efficacy of imported case detection considering quarantine length and different testing measures for travellers on arrival. METHODS: We examine eight broad border control strategies from utilizing quarantine alone, pre-testing, entry and exit testing, and testing during quarantine. In comparing the efficacy of these strategies, we calculate the probability of detecting travellers who have been infected up to 2 weeks pre-departure according to their estimated incubation and infectious period. We estimate the number of undetected infected travellers permitted entry for these strategies across a prevalence range of 0.1-2% per million travellers. RESULTS: At 14-day quarantine, on average 2.2% (range: 0.5-8.2%) of imported infections are missed across the strategies, leading to 22 (5-82) imported cases at 0.1% prevalence per million travellers, increasing up to 430 (106-1641) at 2%. The strategy utilizing exit testing results in 3.9% (3.1-4.9%) of imported cases being missed at 7-day quarantine, down to 0.4% (0.3-0.7%) at 21-day quarantine, and the introduction of daily testing, as the most risk averse strategy, reduces the proportion further to 2.5-4.2% at day 7 and 0.1-0.2% at day 21 dependent on the tests used. Rapid antigen testing every 3 days in quarantine leads to 3% being missed at 7 days and 0.7% at 14 days, which is comparable to PCR testing with a 24-hour turnaround. CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory testing, at a minimal of pre-testing and on arrival, is strongly recommended where the length of quarantining should then be determined by the destination country's level of risk averseness, pandemic preparedness and origin of travellers. Repeated testing during quarantining should also be utilized to mitigate case importation risk and reduce the quarantining duration required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Imported , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Big Data ; 4: 737507, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448723

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social service agencies (SSAs) play a crucial role in supporting renal patients, who are particularly vulnerable to infections. Social media platforms such as Facebook, serves as an effective medium for these SSAs to disseminate information. Content analysis of the SSAs' Facebook posts can provide insights on whether Facebook has been adequately utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic and enable SSAs to improve their social media use in future pandemics. This study aimed to compare renal-related SSAs' Facebook post content before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Facebook posts of three SSAs National Kidney Foundation (NKF), Kidney Dialysis Foundation (KDF), and Muslim Kidney Action Association (MKAC), posted during the pre-COVID-19 period (January 23, 2019 to June 2, 2019) and the peri-COVID-19 period (January 23, 2020 to June 1, 2020) were extracted. A classification scheme was developed by two coders with themes derived inductively and deductively. Each Facebook post was assigned with a theme. Quantitative analyses indicate that the number of Facebook posts increased from 115 in the pre-COVID-19 period to 293 in the peri-COVID-19 period. During peri-COVID-19, posts regarding lifestyle changes, donations and infectious disease surfaced. While the proportion of posts about encouraging kindness increased from one to 77 posts, the proportion of posts about community-based events and psychosocial support decreased from 44 to 15 posts and 17 to 10 posts respectively during the two periods. Facebook was found to be well-utilized by two of the three renal SSAs in engaging their beneficiaries during the pandemic. During future pandemics, renal SSAs should place emphasis on posts related to psychosocial support and encouraging kindness. Further studies are required to ascertain the impact of COVID-19 from the perspective of renal patients and also to validate the classification scheme which was developed in this study. The study's methodology and classification scheme can be used to guide future studies for evaluating the social media outreach performance of renal health support groups.

8.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy ; 19(4): 463-472, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300549

ABSTRACT

With vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) being introduced in countries across the world, policy makers are facing many practical considerations about how best to implement a vaccination programme. The supply of vaccines is insufficient for the global population, so decisions must be made as to which groups are prioritised for any vaccination and when. Furthermore, the aims of vaccination programmes will differ between countries, with some prioritising economic benefits that could stem from the relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions and others seeking simply to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases or deaths. This paper aims to share the experiences and lessons learned from conducting economic evaluations in Singapore and Thailand on hypothetical COVID-19 vaccines to provide a basis for other countries to develop their own contextualised economic evaluations, with particular focus on the key uncertainties, technical challenges, and characteristics that modellers should consider in partnership with key stakeholders. Which vaccines, vaccination strategies, and policy responses are most economically beneficial remains uncertain. It is therefore important for all governments to conduct their own analyses to inform local policy responses to COVID-19, including the implementation of COVID-19 vaccines in both the short and the long run. It is essential that such studies are designed, and ideally conducted, before vaccines are introduced so that policy decisions and implementation procedures are not delayed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy/economics , Immunization Programs/economics , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Thailand
9.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(4): 404-411, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236530

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe Facebook users' beliefs toward physical distancing measures implemented during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic using the key constructs of the health belief model. A combination of rule-based filtering and manual classification methods was used to classify user comments on COVID-19 Facebook posts of three public health authorities: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States, Public Health England, and Ministry of Health, Singapore. A total of 104,304 comments were analyzed for posts published between 1 January, 2020, and 31 March, 2020, along with COVID-19 cases and deaths count data from the three countries. Findings indicate that the perceived benefits of physical distancing measures (n = 3,463; 3.3%) was three times higher than perceived barriers (n = 1,062; 1.0%). Perceived susceptibility to COVID-19 (n = 2,934; 2.8%) was higher compared with perceived severity (n = 2,081; 2.0%). Although susceptibility aspects of physical distancing were discussed more often at the start of the year, mentions on the benefits of intervention emerged stronger toward the end of the analysis period, highlighting the shift in beliefs. The health belief model is useful for understanding Facebook users' beliefs at a basic level, and it provides a scope for further improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
10.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14319, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of lockdown measures can be widespread, affecting both clinical and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aims to assess changes in health services access, self-care, behavioural, and psychological impact of COVID-19 and partial lockdown amongst diabetes patients in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey amongst people with diabetes with the Diabetes Health Profile-18 (DHP-18). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed for each DHP-18 subscale (Psychological Distress, Disinhibited Eating and Barriers to Activity) as dependent variables in separate models. RESULTS: Among 301 respondents, 45.2% were women, 67.1% of Chinese ethnicity, 24.2% were aged 40 to 49 years, 68.4% have Type 2 diabetes and 42.2% on oral medications alone. During the pandemic and the lockdown, nearly all respondents were able to receive care safely from the clinics they attend (94%) and obtain their medications and diabetes equipment and supplies (97%) when needed. Respondents reported less frequent engagement in physical activity (38%), checking of blood pressure (29%) and blood glucose (22%). Previous diagnosis of mental health conditions (ß = 9.33, P = .043), Type 1 diabetes (ß = 12.92, P = .023), number of diabetes-related comorbidities (ß = 3.16, P = .007) and Indian ethnicity (ß = 6.65, P = .034) were associated with higher psychological distress. Comorbidities were associated with higher disinhibited eating (ß = 2.49, P = .014) while ability to reach their doctor despite not going to the clinic is negatively associated with psychological distress (ß = -9.50 P = .002) and barriers to activity (ß = -7.53, P = .007). CONCLUSION: Health services access were minimally affected, but COVID-19 and lockdown had mixed impacts on self-care and management behaviours. Greater clinical care and attention should be provided to people with diabetes with multiple comorbidities and previous mental health disorders during the pandemic and lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore
11.
J Biomed Inform ; 118: 103798, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219218

ABSTRACT

The Singapore government implemented multiple restrictive measures as the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) spread through the community, thereby affecting the support service of cancer-related social service agencies (cancer-SSAs). We are interested to understand how Singapore's cancer-SSAs utilized the social media platform Facebook to overcome the restrictions which were introduced due to COVID-19. Facebook posts from two prominent cancer-SSAs 365 Cancer Prevention Society (365CPS) and Singapore Cancer Society (SCS) between comparable periods in 2019 and 2020 were extracted. These posts were categorized using a classification scheme which was specifically developed by two coders with adequate intercoder reliability. Statistical analyses were performed to determine if there was a significant difference in the frequency of posts between 2019 and 2020, and across three specific periods in 2020. Results indicate that 365CPS appears to have adapted to the pandemic by increasing their posting frequency on Facebook in 2020, but the same was not evident for SCS. However, both SSAs tweaked their social media outreach strategy in line with social distancing measures, publishing posts detailing activities that beneficiaries can participate from home such as healthy recipes and virtual events. SSAs can scale up their efforts to achieve a higher level of health promotion and support for their beneficiaries. Further qualitative studies are required to ascertain the impact of COVID-19 from the perspective of beneficiaries and validate the classification scheme which was developed in this study. The classification scheme could be used in ascertaining the quality of social media communication between public/private support groups and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms/prevention & control , Social Media , Social Work/organization & administration , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Singapore
12.
Circ J ; 85(2): 139-149, 2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the outbreak response measures on door-to-balloon time (D2B). This study examined both D2B and clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).Methods and Results:This was a retrospective study of 303 STEMI patients who presented directly or were transferred to a tertiary hospital in Singapore for PPCI from October 2019 to March 2020. We compared the clinical outcomes of patients admitted before (BOR) and during (DOR) the COVID-19 outbreak response. The study outcomes were in-hospital death, D2B, cardiogenic shock and 30-day readmission. For direct presentations, fewer patients in the DOR group achieved D2B time <90 min compared with the BOR group (71.4% vs. 80.9%, P=0.042). This was more apparent after exclusion of non-system delay cases (DOR 81.6% vs. BOR 95.9%, P=0.006). Prevalence of both out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (9.5% vs. 1.9%, P=0.003) and acute mitral regurgitation (31.6% vs. 17.5%, P=0.006) was higher in the DOR group. Mortality was similar between groups. Multivariable regression showed that longer D2B time was an independent predictor of death (odds ratio 1.005, 95% confidence interval 1.000-1.011, P=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and the outbreak response have had an adverse effect on PPCI service efficiency. The study reinforces the need to focus efforts on shortening D2B time, while maintaining infection control measures.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Singapore/epidemiology
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20493, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health authorities have been recommending interventions such as physical distancing and face masks, to curtail the transmission of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) within the community. Public perceptions toward such interventions should be identified to enable public health authorities to effectively address valid concerns. The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been used to characterize user-generated content from social media during previous outbreaks, with the aim of understanding the health behaviors of the public. OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at developing and evaluating deep learning-based text classification models for classifying social media content posted during the COVID-19 outbreak, using the four key constructs of the HBM. We will specifically focus on content related to the physical distancing interventions put forth by public health authorities. We intend to test the model with a real-world case study. METHODS: The data set for this study was prepared by analyzing Facebook comments that were posted by the public in response to the COVID-19-related posts of three public health authorities: the Ministry of Health of Singapore (MOH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Public Health England. The comments made in the context of physical distancing were manually classified with a Yes/No flag for each of the four HBM constructs: perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers, and perceived benefits. Using a curated data set of 16,752 comments, gated recurrent unit-based recurrent neural network models were trained and validated for text classification. Accuracy and binary cross-entropy loss were used to evaluate the model. Specificity, sensitivity, and balanced accuracy were used to evaluate the classification results in the MOH case study. RESULTS: The HBM text classification models achieved mean accuracy rates of 0.92, 0.95, 0.91, and 0.94 for the constructs of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, respectively. In the case study with MOH Facebook comments, specificity was above 96% for all HBM constructs. Sensitivity was 94.3% and 90.9% for perceived severity and perceived benefits, respectively. In addition, sensitivity was 79.6% and 81.5% for perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers, respectively. The classification models were able to accurately predict trends in the prevalence of the constructs for the time period examined in the case study. CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning-based text classifiers developed in this study help to determine public perceptions toward physical distancing, using the four key constructs of HBM. Health officials can make use of the classification model to characterize the health behaviors of the public through the lens of social media. In future studies, we intend to extend the model to study public perceptions of other important interventions by public health authorities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Models, Psychological , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19334, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presents one of the most challenging global crises at the dawn of a new decade. Public health authorities (PHAs) are increasingly adopting the use of social media such as Facebook to rapidly communicate and disseminate pandemic response measures to the public. Understanding of communication strategies across different PHAs and examining the public response on the social media landscapes can help improve practices for disseminating information to the public. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine COVID-19-related outreach efforts of PHAs in Singapore, the United States, and England, and the corresponding public response to these outreach efforts on Facebook. METHODS: Posts and comments from the Facebook pages of the Ministry of Health (MOH) in Singapore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, and Public Health England (PHE) in England were extracted from January 1, 2019, to March 18, 2020. Posts published before January 1, 2020, were categorized as pre-COVID-19, while the remaining posts were categorized as peri-COVID-19 posts. COVID-19-related posts were identified and classified into themes. Metrics used for measuring outreach and engagement were frequency, mean posts per day (PPD), mean reactions per post, mean shares per post, and mean comments per post. Responses to the COVID-19 posts were measured using frequency, mean sentiment polarity, positive to negative sentiments ratio (PNSR), and positive to negative emotions ratio (PNER). Toxicity in comments were identified and analyzed using frequency, mean likes per toxic comment, and mean replies per toxic comment. Trend analysis was performed to examine how the metrics varied with key events such as when COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. RESULTS: The MOH published more COVID-19 posts (n=271; mean PPD 5.0) compared to the CDC (n=94; mean PPD 2.2) and PHE (n=45; mean PPD 1.4). The mean number of comments per COVID-19 post was highest for the CDC (mean CPP 255.3) compared to the MOH (mean CPP 15.6) and PHE (mean CPP 12.5). Six major themes were identified, with posts about prevention and safety measures and situation updates being prevalent across the three PHAs. The themes of the MOH's posts were diverse, while the CDC and PHE posts focused on a few themes. Overall, response sentiments for the MOH posts (PNSR 0.94) were more favorable compared to response sentiments for the CDC (PNSR 0.57) and PHE (PNSR 0.55) posts. Toxic comments were rare (0.01%) across all PHAs. CONCLUSIONS: PHAs' extent of Facebook use for outreach purposes during the COVID-19 pandemic varied among the three PHAs, highlighting the strategies and approaches that other PHAs can potentially adopt. Our study showed that social media analysis was capable of providing insights about the communication strategies of PHAs during disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Social Media , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
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