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1.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 42(10):1183-1188, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1622903

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the mental health status of rural residents in Southwest Anhui province and its influencing factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.

2.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294962

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a large, initially uncontrollable, public health crisis both in the US and across the world, with experts looking to vaccines as the ultimate mechanism of defense. The development and deployment of COVID-19 vaccines have been rapidly advancing via global efforts. Hence, it is crucial for governments, public health officials, and policy makers to understand public attitudes and opinions towards vaccines, such that effective interventions and educational campaigns can be designed to promote vaccine acceptance. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate public opinion and perception on COVID-19 vaccines by investigating the spatiotemporal trends of their sentiment and emotion towards vaccines, as well as how such trends relate to popular topics on Twitter in the US. Methods We collected over 300,000 geotagged tweets in the US from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. We examined the spatiotemporal patterns of public sentiment and emotion over time at both national and state scales and identified three phases along the pandemic timeline with the significant changes of public sentiment and emotion, further linking to eleven key events and major topics as the potential drivers to induce such changes via cloud mapping of keywords and topic modelling. Results An increasing trend of positive sentiment in parallel with the decrease of negative sentiment are generally observed in most states, reflecting the rising confidence and anticipation of the public towards vaccines. The overall tendency of the eight types of emotion implies the trustiness and anticipation of the public to vaccination, accompanied by the mixture of fear, sadness and anger. Critical social/international events and/or the announcements of political leaders and authorities may have potential impacts on the public opinion on vaccines. These factors, along with important topics and manual reading of popular posts on eleven key events, help identify underlying themes and validate insights from the analysis. Conclusions The analyses of near real-time social media big data benefit public health authorities by enabling them to monitor public attitudes and opinions towards vaccine-related information in a geo-aware manner, address the concerns of vaccine skeptics and promote the confidence of individuals within a certain region or community, towards vaccines.

3.
Journal of Advanced Research ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1536633

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 global pandemic is far from ending. There is an urgent need to identify applicable biomarkers for early predicting the outcome of COVID-19. Growing evidences have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies evolved with disease progression and severity in COIVD-19 patients. Objectives We assumed that antibodies may serve as biomarkers for predicting the clinical outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission. Methods By taking advantage of a newly developed SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray, we surveyed IgG responses against 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2 in 1,034 hospitalized COVID-19 patients on admission and followed till 66 days. The microarray results were further correlated with clinical information, laboratory test results and patient outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore the association between SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies and COVID-19 mortality. Results Nonsurvivors (n=955) induced higher levels of IgG responses against most of non-structural proteins than survivors (n=79) on admission. In particular, the magnitude of IgG antibodies against 8 non-structural proteins (NSP1, NSP4, NSP7, NSP8, NSP9, NSP10, RdRp, and NSP14) and 2 accessory proteins (ORF3b and ORF9b) possessed significant predictive power for patient death, even after further adjustments for demographics, comorbidities, and common laboratory biomarkers for disease severity (all with p trend < 0.05). Additionally, IgG responses to all of these 10 non-structural/accessory proteins were also associated with the severity of disease, and differential kinetics and serum positive rate of these IgG responses were confirmed in COVID-19 patients of varying severities within 20 days after symptoms onset. The area under curves (AUCs) for these IgG responses, determined by computational cross-validations, were between 0.62 and 0.71. Conclusions Our findings might have important implications for improving clinical management of COVID-19 patients.

4.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Public health interventions were associated with reduction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in China, but their impacts on COVID-19 epidemiology in other countries are unclear. We examined the associations of stay-at-home order (SAHO) and face-masking recommendation with epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the United States. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, we modeled the temporal trends in daily new cases and deaths of COVID-19, and COVID-19 time-varying reproduction numbers (Rt) in the United States between March 1 and April 20, 2020, and conducted simulation studies. RESULTS: The number and proportion of U.S. residents under SAHO increased between March 19 and April 7, and plateaued at 29,0829,980 and 88.6%, respectively. Trends in COVID-19 daily cases and Rt reduced after March 23 (P<0.001) and further reduced on April 3 (P<0.001), which was associated with implementation of SAHO by 10 states on March 23, and face-masking recommendation on April 3, respectively. The estimates of Rt eventually fell below/around 1.0 on April 13. Similar turning points were identified in the trends of daily deaths with a lag time. Early implementation and early-removal of SAHO would be associated with significantly reduced and increased daily new cases and deaths, respectively.

5.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 6(3), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1497916

ABSTRACT

Chinese minority traditional medicine is a traditional medicine formed during the long-term medical practice of various ethnic groups and is the crystallization of the wisdom of the people in all ethnic groups in China. The unique meaning carried by Chinese minority traditional medicine makes it an inseparable and important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The rich clinical experience and theoretical studies with different Chinese minority traditional medicine provide new ideas and new methods for Chinese medicine development. The pieces of literature published in 2020 on the traditional application analyzed the phytochemical composition, pharmacological effects, and mechanisms of the different ethnic groups including Tibetan, Mongolian, Zhuang, Dai, and Uyghur medicines, among others. This study found that some projects were stalled or delayed due to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in 2020 compared with 2019, resulting in a decrease in the number of articles in certain fields. However, studied on Chinese minority traditional medicine have shown an overall upward trend this year with the Tibetan, Mongolian, and Dai medicines as the top three. In addition, the Chinese minority traditional medicine application under the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic situation background was also summarized. Consequently, this study found that among the Chinese minority traditional medicine-related publications in 2020, publications using Chinese minority traditional medicine to treat coronavirus disease 2019 account for a certain percentage. Thus, this article systematically reviews and summarizes the related research of Chinese minority traditional medicine published in 2020 and provides references for future Chinese minority traditional medicine development.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291613

ABSTRACT

Background: The Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic-related behavior changes could affect the perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study was designed to compare the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAEs) in children with and without upper respiratory infection (URI) undergoing the cardiac catheterization before and during COVID-19 pandemic.Methods:COVID-19 was outbreak in January 2020 in China. 260 pediatric patients scheduled for elective therapeutic cardiac catheterization were included from January 2019 to March 2021 and 154 were completed during the pandemic. Recent URI was diagnosed by the attending anesthesiologist owing to different PRAEs incidence in non-URI and URI children. The overall incidence of PRAEs (laryngospasm, bronchospasm, coughing, airway secretion, airway obstruction, and oxygen desaturation) in non-URI and URI children undergoing the elective cardiac catheterization were compared before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression model was fitted to identify the potential risk factors associated with PRAEs. Results: Of 564 children enrolled, 359 completed the study and was analyzed finally. URI incidence decreased substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic (14% vs. 41%, P <0.001). Meanwhile, the overall PRAEs also significantly declined no matter whether or not the child had recent URI (22.3% vs. 42.3%, P =0.001 for non-URI and 29.2% vs. 58.7%, P =0.012 for URI respectively). Post-operative agitation in non-URI children occurred less frequently during the pandemic than before (2.3% vs. 16.2%, P =0.001). Behaviors before the COVID-19 pandemic (odd ratio=2.84, 95%CI 1.76 to 4.58) and recent URI (odd ratio =1.79, 95%CI 1.09 to 2.92) were associated with the PRAEs. Conclusions: COVID-19 pandemic-related behavior changes were associated with the reduction of PRAEs in non-URI and URI children undergoing elective therapeutic cardiac catheterization.

7.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-465226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the continued spreading of the SARS-CoV-2 variants have brought a grave public health consequence and severely devastated the global economy with recessions. Vaccination is considered as one of the most promising and efficient methods to end the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigate the disease conditions if infected. Although a few vaccines have been developed with an unprecedented speed, scientists around the world are continuing pursuing the best possible vaccines with innovations. Comparing to the expensive mRNA vaccines and attenuated/inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines have certain advantages, including their safety (non-virus components), potential stronger immunogenicity, broader protection, ease of scaling-up production, reduced cost, etc. In this study, we reported a novel COVID-19 vaccine generated with RBD-HR1/HR2 hexamer that was creatively fused with the RBD domain and heptad repeat 1 (HR1) or heptad repeat 2 (HR2) to form a dumbbell-shaped hexamer to target the spike S1 subunit. The novel hexamer COVID-19 vaccine induced high titers of neutralizing antibody in mouse studies (>100,000), and further experiments also showed that the vaccine also induced an alternative antibody to the HR1 region, which probably alleviated the drop of immunogenicity from the frequent mutations of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics ; 25(5):574-580, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1417395

ABSTRACT

We conducted sentiment classification for news reports during the COVID-19 pandemic on Sino-Japanese relations from Chinese and Japanese media. Based on the Word2vec and Dynamic Topic Models, we analyzed the macroscopic dimension of theme distribution and the semantic change process of “Sino-Japanese” related words. The results indicate that Chinese media reports are mainly neutral, but Japanese ones are mainly negative. The meaning of the terms related to “Sino-Japanese” has not changed significantly, but there are minor differences in the content of reports on the same subject in different periods. During Suga’s administration, the overall stability of Sino-Japanese relations and the continued advancement of pragmatic cooperation are expected to continue.

9.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 30(24):3686-3691, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1318570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of novel coronavirus pneumonia pandemic on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii transmission in intensive care units(ICU) and to provide reference for the guidance of nosocomial infection prevention and control. METHODS: Data of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii in ICU1, ICU2 and neurosurgery ICU from Jan. 2019 to Aug. 2020 were collected. Contact times between healthcare workers and environmental surfaces, clearance rate of fluorescent marker in the culture of environment specimens before and after the novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak, number of free colonies and number of MDR-AB were detected, and the correlation between MDR-AB detection rate of the environment and MDR-AB the infection rate were analyzed by using Pearson correlation analysis. RESULTS: The high-frequency contact surfaces in ICU were bed bars(43.59 times), quilts(39.58 times), treatment vehicles(30.83 times), vein tubes(27.46 times), nursing station table tops(27.20 times) and hand sterilized buttons(26.40 times). The clearance rate of fluorescent marker after novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak was 81.35%, which was significantly higher than that before the new coronavirus-infected pneumonia epidemic outbreak(P<0.001), with the rate of 56.57%. The detection rate and infection rate of MDR-AB in the environment after new coronavirus-infected pneumonia epidemic were 5.40% and 1.80%, respectively, which were significantly lower than that before the epidemic(P<0.001). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the detection rate of MDR-AB in the ICU environment was positively correlated with the MDR-AB infection rate of patients(r=0.850, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: Methods of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic prevention promoted the implementation of environmental sanitation, disinfection and isolation measures, cut off the transmission route of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, and played a positive role in the prevention and control of infection.

10.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-451199

ABSTRACT

In order to understand autoimmune phenomena contributing to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 and post-COVID syndrome, we have been profiling autoantigens (autoAgs) from various cell types. Although cells share numerous autoAgs, each cell type gives rise to unique COVID-altered autoAg candidates, which may explain the wide range of symptoms experienced by patients with autoimmune sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the unifying property of affinity between autoantigens (autoAgs) and the glycosaminoglycan dermatan sulfate (DS), this paper reports 140 candidate autoAgs identified from proteome extracts of human Jurkat T-cells, of which at least 105 (75%) are known targets of autoantibodies. Comparison with currently available multi-omic COVID-19 data shows that 125 (89%) of DS-affinity proteins are altered at protein and/or RNA levels in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells or patients, with at least 94 being known autoAgs in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Protein alterations by ubiquitination and phosphorylation in the viral infection are major contributors of autoAgs. The autoAg protein network is significantly associated with cellular response to stress, apoptosis, RNA metabolism, mRNA processing and translation, protein folding and processing, chromosome organization, cell cycle, and muscle contraction. The autoAgs include clusters of histones, CCT/TriC chaperonin, DNA replication licensing factors, proteasome and ribosome proteins, heat shock proteins, serine/arginine-rich splicing factors, 14-3-3 proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins. AutoAgs such as LCP1 and NACA that are altered in the T cells of COVID patients may provide insight into T-cell responses in the viral infection and merit further study. The autoantigen-ome from this study contributes to a comprehensive molecular map for investigating acute, subacute, and chronic autoimmune disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Journal of Financial Economics ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1272533

ABSTRACT

We document issuance overpricing of corporate debt securities in China, which is robust across subsamples with different credit ratings, maturities, and issuers. This phenomenon contrasts with underpricing of equity and debt securities in Western countries and reflects China's distinct institutional environment. The average overpricing dropped from 7.44 basis points to 2.41 basis points after the government prohibited underwriters from using rebates in issuances in October 2017. By analyzing overpricing before and after the rebate ban and across different issuers and underwriters, we uncover two channels for underwriters, who compete for future underwriting business, to drive up overpricing: rebates and self-purchases.

12.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-446676

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy leads to an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although the placenta itself can be a target of virus infection, most neonates are virus free and are born healthy or recover quickly. Here, we investigated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the placenta from a cohort of women who were infected late during pregnancy and had tested nasal swab positive for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR at delivery. SARS-CoV-2 genomic and subgenomic RNA was detected in 23 out of 54 placentas. Two placentas with high virus content were obtained from mothers who presented with severe COVID-19 and whose pregnancies resulted in adverse outcomes for the fetuses, including intrauterine fetal demise and a preterm delivered baby still in newborn intensive care. Examination of the placental samples with high virus content showed efficient SARS-CoV-2 infection, using RNA in situ hybridization to detect genomic and replicating viral RNA, and immunohistochemistry to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. Infection was restricted to syncytiotrophoblast cells that envelope the fetal chorionic villi and are in direct contact with maternal blood. The infected placentas displayed massive infiltration of maternal immune cells including macrophages into intervillous spaces, potentially contributing to inflammation of the tissue. Ex vivo infection of placental cultures with SARS-CoV-2 or with SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein pseudotyped lentivirus targeted mostly syncytiotrophoblast and in rare events endothelial cells. Infection was reduced by using blocking antibodies against ACE2 and against Neuropilin 1, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may utilize alternative receptors for entry into placental cells.

13.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-445091

ABSTRACT

Severe respiratory disease coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the most devastating disease, COVID-19, of the recent century. One of the unsolved scientific questions around SARS-CoV-2 is the animal origin of this virus. Bats and pangolins are recognized as the most probable reservoir hosts that harbor the highly similar SARS-CoV-2 related viruses (SARSr-CoV-2). Here, we report the identification of a novel lineage of SARSr-CoVs, including RaTG15 and seven other viruses, from bats at the same location where we found RaTG13 in 2015. Although RaTG15 and the related viruses share 97.2% amino acid sequence identities to SARS-CoV-2 in the conserved ORF1b region, but only show less than 77.6% to all known SARSr-CoVs in genome level, thus forms a distinct lineage in the Sarbecovirus phylogenetic tree. We then found that RaTG15 receptor binding domain (RBD) can bind to and use Rhinolophus affinis bat ACE2 (RaACE2) but not human ACE2 as entry receptor, although which contains a short deletion and has different key residues responsible for ACE2 binding. In addition, we show that none of the known viruses in bat SARSr-CoV-2 lineage or the novel lineage discovered so far use human ACE2 efficiently compared to SARSr-CoV-2 from pangolin or some of the SARSr-CoV-1 lineage viruses. Collectively, we suggest more systematic and longitudinal work in bats to prevent future spillover events caused by SARSr-CoVs or to better understand the origin of SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21256655

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant which was first identified in the United Kingdom (U.K.) has increased sharply in numbers worldwide and was reported to be more contagious. On January 17, 2021, a COVID-19 clustered outbreak caused by B.1.1.7 variant occurred in a community in Daxing District, Beijing, China. Three weeks prior, another non-variant (lineage B.1.470) COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Shunyi District, Beijing. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of B.1.1.7 variant infection. MethodsA prospective cohort study was conducted on COVID-19 cases admitted to Ditan hospital since January 2020. Data of 74 COVID-19 cases from two independent COVID-19 outbreaks in Beijing were extracted as study subjects from a Cloud Database established in Ditan hospital, which included 41 Shunyi cases (Shunyi B.1.470 group) and 33 Daxing cases (Daxing B.1.1.7 group) that have been hospitalized since December 25, 2020 and January 17, 2021, respectively. We conducted a comparison of the clinical characteristics, RT-qPCR results and genomic features between the two groups. FindingsCases from Daxing B.1.1.7 group (15 [45.5%] male; median age, 39 years [range, 30.5, 62.5]) and cases from Shunyi B.1.470 group (25 [61.0%] male; median age, 31 years [range, 27.5, 41.0]) had a statistically significant difference in median age (P =0.014). Seven clinical indicators of Daxing B.1.1.7 group were significantly higher than Shunyi B.1.470 group including patients having fever over 38{degrees}C (14/33 [46.43%] in Daxing B.1.1.7 group vs. 9/41 (21.95%) in Shunyi B.1.470 group [P = 0 .015]), C-reactive protein ([CRP, mg/L], 4.30 [2.45, 12.1] vs. 1.80, [0.85, 4.95], [P = 0.005]), Serum amyloid A ([SAA, mg/L], 21.50 [12.50, 50.70] vs. 12.00 [5.20, 26.95], [P = 0.003]), Creatine Kinase ([CK, U/L]), 110.50 [53.15,152.40] vs. 70.40 [54.35,103.05], [P = 0.040]), D-dimer ([DD, mg/L], 0.31 [0.20, 0.48] vs. 0.24 [0.17,0.31], [P = 0.038]), CD4+ T lymphocyte ([CD4+ T, mg/L], [P = 0.003]), and Ground-glass opacity (GGO) in lung (15/33 [45.45%] vs. 5/41 [12.20%], [P =0.001]). After adjusting for the age factor, B.1.1.7 variant infection was the risk factor for CRP (P = 0.045, Odds ratio [OR] 2.791, CI [1.025, 0.8610]), SAA (0.011, 5.031, [1.459, 17.354]), CK (0.034, 4.34, [0.05, 0.91]), CD4+ T (0.029, 3.31, [1.13, 9.71]), and GGO (0.005, 5.418, [1.656, 17.729]) of patients. The median Ct value of RT-qPCR tests of the N-gene target in the Daxing B.1.1.7 group was significantly lower than the Shunyi B.1.470 group (P=0.036). The phylogenetic analysis showed that only 2 amino acid mutations in spike protein were detected in B.1.470 strains while B.1.1.7 strains had 3 deletions and 7 mutations. InterpretationClinical features including a more serious inflammatory response, pneumonia and a possible higher viral load were detected in the cases infected with B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. It could therefore be inferred that the B.1.1.7 variant may have increased pathogenicity. FundingThe study was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program (grant nos.2020YFC0846200 and 2020YFC0848300) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 82072295).

15.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-438500

ABSTRACT

To understand how COVID-19 may induce autoimmune diseases, we have been compiling an atlas of COVID-autoantigens (autoAgs). Using dermatan sulfate (DS) affinity enrichment of autoantigenic proteins extracted from HS-Sultan lymphoblasts, we identified 362 DS-affinity proteins, of which at least 201 (56%) are confirmed autoAgs. Comparison with available multi-omic COVID data shows that 315 (87%) of the 362 proteins are affected in SARS-CoV-2 infection via altered expression, interaction with viral components, or modification by phosphorylation or ubiquitination, at least 186 (59%) of which are known autoAgs. These proteins are associated with gene expression, mRNA processing, mRNA splicing, translation, protein folding, vesicles, and chromosome organization. Numerous nuclear autoAgs were identified, including both classical ANAs and ENAs of systemic autoimmune diseases and unique autoAgs involved in the DNA replication fork, mitotic cell cycle, or telomerase maintenance. We also identified many uncommon autoAgs involved in nucleic acid and peptide biosynthesis and nucleocytoplasmic transport, such as aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. In addition, this study found autoAgs that potentially interact with multiple SARS-CoV-2 Nsp and Orf components, including CCT/TriC chaperonin, insulin degrading enzyme, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and the ezrin-moesin-radixin family. Furthermore, B-cell-specific IgM-associated ER complex (including MBZ1, BiP, heat shock proteins, and protein disulfide-isomerases) is enriched by DS-affinity and up-regulated in B-cells of COVID-19 patients, and a similar IgH-associated ER complex was also identified in autoreactive pre-B1 cells in our previous study, which suggests a role of autoreactive B1 cells in COVID-19 that merits further investigation. In summary, this study demonstrates that virally infected cells are characterized by alterations of proteins with propensity to become autoAgs, thereby providing a possible explanation for infection-induced autoimmunity. The COVID autoantigen-ome provides a valuable molecular resource and map for investigation of COVID-related autoimmune sequelae and considerations for vaccine design.

16.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-432171

ABSTRACT

We aim to establish a comprehensive COVID-19 autoantigen atlas in order to understand autoimmune diseases caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the unique affinity between dermatan sulfate and autoantigens, we identified 348 proteins from human lung A549 cells, of which 198 are known targets of autoantibodies. Comparison with current COVID data identified 291 proteins that are altered at protein or transcript level in SARS-CoV-2 infection, with 191 being known autoantigens. These known and putative autoantigens are significantly associated with viral replication and trafficking processes, including gene expression, ribonucleoprotein biogenesis, mRNA metabolism, translation, vesicle and vesicle-mediated transport, and apoptosis. They are also associated with cytoskeleton, platelet degranulation, IL-12 signaling, and smooth muscle contraction. Host proteins that interact with and that are perturbed by viral proteins are a major source of autoantigens. Orf3 induces the largest number of protein alterations, Orf9 affects the mitochondrial ribosome, and they and E, M, N, and Nsp proteins affect protein localization to membrane, immune responses, and apoptosis. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination alterations by viral infection define major molecular changes in autoantigen origination. This study provides a large list of autoantigens as well as new targets for future investigation, e.g., UBA1, UCHL1, USP7, CDK11A, PRKDC, PLD3, PSAT1, RAB1A, SLC2A1, platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase, and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. This study illustrates how viral infection can modify host cellular proteins extensively, yield diverse autoantigens, and trigger a myriad of autoimmune sequelae.

18.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-427965

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is accompanied by a myriad of both transient and long-lasting autoimmune responses. Dermatan sulfate (DS), a glycosaminoglycan crucial for wound healing, has unique affinity for autoantigens (autoAgs) from apoptotic cells. DS-autoAg complexes are capable of stimulating autoreactive B cells and autoantibody production. Using DS affinity, we identified an autoantigenome of 408 proteins from human fetal lung fibroblast HFL11 cells, at least 231 of which are known autoAgs. Comparing with available COVID data, 352 proteins of the autoantigenome have thus far been found to be altered at protein or RNA levels in SARS-Cov-2 infection, 210 of which are known autoAgs. The COVID-altered proteins are significantly associated with RNA metabolism, translation, vesicles and vesicle transport, cell death, supramolecular fibrils, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, and interleukin signaling. They offer clues to neurological problems, fibrosis, smooth muscle dysfunction, and thrombosis. In particular, 150 altered proteins are related to the nervous system, including axon, myelin sheath, neuron projection, neuronal cell body, and olfactory bulb. An association with the melanosome is also identified. The findings from our study illustrate a strong connection between viral infection and autoimmunity. The vast number of COVID-altered proteins with propensity to become autoAgs offers an explanation for the diverse autoimmune complications in COVID patients. The variety of autoAgs related to mRNA metabolism, translation, and vesicles raises concerns about potential adverse effects of mRNA vaccines. The COVID autoantigen atlas we are establishing provides a detailed molecular map for further investigation of autoimmune sequelae of the pandemic. Summary sentenceAn autoantigenome by dermatan sulfate affinity from human lung HFL1 cells may explain neurological and autoimmune manifestations of COVID-19

19.
Preprint | CAplus | ID: ppcovidwho-4917

ABSTRACT

A review on digital publishing platform for science-tech periodicals under major public emergency in relation to social responsibility and mission.

20.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4484

ABSTRACT

A review. Objective: To summarize the recent National Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and analyze the characteristics of the medication. Methods: The search was made by the provincial health committees, the Traditional Chinese Medicine Administration, and the Traditional Chinese Medicine prevention and treatment programs. Frequency anal. was performed on the included literature Chinese medicines by excel, and further principal component factor anal. of high-frequency Chinese medicines was performed by SPSS23.0 software. Results A total of 41 TCM prevention and treatment programs, 215 prescriptions, and 66 high-frequency words were collected. Most of them were mainly heat-clearing drugs, tonic medicines, antihypertensive drugs, expectorant, antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs, and 7 new prevention and treatment programs. Conclusion: The pathogenicity of the new coronavirus pneumonia is a mixture of deficiency and reality. The principle of treatment is to remedy the evil, and the main principle is to remedy the heat, detoxify, expel dampness, and reduce phlegm.

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