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1.
International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020352

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, the coronavirus began to spread around the world and impact international politics and economies significantly. In the face of the pandemic, stock markets around the world fluctuated sharply. The study aims to investigate the impact of the pandemic on the predictive variables of a stock prediction model, formed using chip-based variables and sentiment variables derived from comments posted on a social media platform. This study first performs feature engineering analysis to identify the indicators suitable for constructing the prediction model. The analysis then establishes a set of phrase rules to assign sentiment scores to the opinions expressed in replies and evaluates the effect on the accuracy of predictions. The results show that the major chip-based indicators affecting changes in the stock market differ before and after the pandemic. Hence, prediction models should be established separately for analysis in either period. In addition, the results indicate that the model relying on reply-based sentiment scores as a predictive variable provides more accurate predictions of stock price change.

2.
Public Health ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1937097

ABSTRACT

Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought great uncertainty to our society and it may have disrupted people’s ontological security. Consequently, this hospital-based study concerns the impact of ontological insecurity on vaccination behavior against COVID-19. Study Design This cross-sectional study was conducted among hospital inpatients. Methods A questionnaire survey addressing inpatient ontological insecurity and vaccination behavior against COVID-19 was administered in Taizhou, China. A total of 1223 questionnaires were collected;specifically, 1185 of them were credible, for a validity rate of 96.9%. Results The score of ontological insecurity was 13.27±7.84, which was higher in participants who did not recommend vaccination for others than those who did (12.95±8.25 vs. 14.00±6.78, P = 0.022). There was no difference between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups (13.22±7.96 vs. 13.35±7.67, P = 0.779). Lower ontological insecurity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence incidence [CI]: 1.08–1.81) and being inoculated with COVID-19 vaccines (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.67–2.82) were significantly associated with recommendation of COVID-19 vaccines to others after adjusting for sex, age, education, and occupation. Associations between low ontological insecurity and recommendations for COVID-19 vaccines were observed in men, adults aged 18 to 59 years, non-farmers, and vaccine recipients. Conclusions This study suggests the ontological insecurity of participants affects their behavior of recommending the COVID-19 vaccination to others rather than getting vaccinated themselves. This promotion of vaccination can be considered from the perspective of improving ontological security in China.

3.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 78: 103144, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914465

ABSTRACT

The spread of fake news increased dramatically during the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. This study aims to synthesize the extant literature to understand the magnitude of this phenomenon in the wake of the pandemic in 2021, focusing on the motives and sociodemographic profiles, Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based tools developed, and the top trending topics related to fake news. A scoping review was adopted targeting articles published in five academic databases (January 2021-November 2021), resulting in 97 papers. Most of the studies were empirical in nature (N = 69) targeting the general population (N = 26) and social media users (N = 13), followed by AI-based detection tools (N = 27). Top motives for fake news sharing include low awareness, knowledge, and health/media literacy, Entertainment/Pass Time/Socialization, Altruism, and low trust in government/news media, whilst the phenomenon was more prominent among those with low education, males and younger. Machine and deep learning emerged to be the widely explored techniques in detecting fake news, whereas top topics were related to vaccine, virus, cures/remedies, treatment, and prevention. Immediate intervention and prevention efforts are needed to curb this anti-social behavior considering the world is still struggling to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus.

4.
Interactive Learning Environments ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1864842

ABSTRACT

The study purpose is to analyze changes in the mental health structure and its disorders among students who receive online education. The research involved 23 students (6 boys and 17 girls, average age 18 years). The study covers the period from October 2019 to September 2020. The participating students underwent the assessment using a Telegram before and after quarantine when they studied under the conventional full-time program. Additionally, they were tested during the lockdown due to the COVID-19 when they received online training. The results showed that study participants did not experience stress, depression, or anxiety before switching to online training. However, shifting to online learning mode, students under study experienced an increase in the stress level by 55.4%. Moreover, the study also showed that the stress level among students increased after returning from online to full-time training. However, the indicators had a lesser extent (by 40.2%, p = 0.0031). During online training, the number of students who did not experience stress and students with a mild stress level decreased. Meantime, students who faced stress reactions increased four times (p = 0.029). However, the study did not indicate any significant changes in anxiety levels among students. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Interactive Learning Environments is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Clin Kidney J ; 15(3): 569-570, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704405
7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 723818, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581279

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe disease in humans, as highlighted by the current global pandemic. Several studies about the metabolome of COVID-19 patients have revealed metabolic disorders and some potential diagnostic markers during disease progression. However, the longitudinal changes of metabolomics in COVID-19 patients, especially their association with disease progression, are still unclear. Here, we systematically analyzed the dynamic changes of the serum metabolome of COVID-19 patients, demonstrating that most of the metabolites did not recover by 1-3 days before discharge. A prominent signature in COVID-19 patients comprised metabolites of amino acids, peptides, and analogs, involving nine essential amino acids, 10 dipeptides, and four N-acetylated amino acids. The levels of 12 metabolites in amino acid metabolism, especially three metabolites of the ornithine cycle, were significantly higher in severe patients than in mild ones, mainly on days 1-3 or 4-6 since onset. Integrating blood metabolomic, biochemical, and cytokine data, we uncovered a highly correlated network, including 6 cytokines, 13 biochemical parameters, and 49 metabolites. Significantly, five ornithine cycle-related metabolites (ornithine, N-acetylornithine, 3-amino-2-piperidone, aspartic acid, and asparagine) highly correlated with "cytokine storms" and coagulation index. We discovered that the ornithine cycle dysregulation significantly correlated with inflammation and coagulation in severe patients, which may be a potential mechanism of COVID-19 pathogenicity. Our study provided a valuable resource for detailed exploration of metabolic factors in COVID-19 patients, guiding metabolic recovery, understanding the pathogenic mechanisms, and creating drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Environ Chem Lett ; 20(1): 71-80, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432563

ABSTRACT

Airborne black carbon is a strong warming component of the atmosphere. Therefore, curbing black carbon emissions should slow down global warming. The 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is a unique opportunity for studying the response of black carbon to the varied human activities, in particular due to lockdown policies. Actually, there is few knowledge on the variations of black carbon in China during lockdowns. Here, we studied the concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon before, during, and after the lockdown in nine sites of the Yangtze River Delta in Eastern China. Results show 40-60% reduction of PM2.5 and 40-50% reduction of black carbon during the lockdown. The classical bimodal peaks of black carbon in the morning and evening rush hours were highly weakened, indicating the substantial decrease of traffic activities. Contributions from fossil fuels combustion to black carbon decreased about 5-10% during the lockdown. Spatial correlation analysis indicated the clustering of the multi-site black carbon concentrations in the Yangtze River Delta during the lockdown. Overall, control of emissions from traffic and industrial activities should be efficient to curb black carbon levels in the frame of a 'green public transit system' for mega-city clusters such as the Yangtze River Delta. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10311-021-01327-3.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255936, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand racial bias in clinical settings from the perspectives of minority patients and healthcare providers to inspire changes in the way healthcare providers interact with their patients. METHODS: Articles on racial bias were searched on Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science. Full text review and quality appraisal was conducted, before data was synthesized and analytically themed using the Thomas and Harden methodology. RESULTS: 23 articles were included, involving 1,006 participants. From minority patients' perspectives, two themes were generated: 1) alienation of minorities due to racial supremacism and lack of empathy, resulting in inadequate medical treatment; 2) labelling of minority patients who were stereotyped as belonging to a lower socio-economic class and having negative behaviors. From providers' perspectives, one theme recurred: the perpetuation of racial fault lines by providers. However, some patients and providers denied racism in the healthcare setting. CONCLUSION: Implicit racial bias is pervasive and manifests in patient-provider interactions, exacerbating health disparities in minorities. Beyond targeted anti-racism measures in healthcare settings, wider national measures to reduce housing, education and income inequality may mitigate racism in healthcare and improve minority patient care.


Subject(s)
Racism , Health Personnel , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Minority Groups
10.
11.
IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering ; 8(2):1502-1516, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1301433

ABSTRACT

Electronic healthcare (e-health) networks are increasingly popular, particular during pandemics such as COVID-19. This reinforces the importance of ensuring security and privacy for data-in-transit. One such solution is steganography-based schemes that utilize biological signals (e.g., ECG) as cover signals to preserve the privacy of patient personal information without affecting the diagnostic features. There are various limitations in existing steganography-based schemes, and in this study we present an effective privacy protection scheme leveraging both multidimensional steganography and shared keys. To enhance security and accelerate signal processing in our design, the Fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT) is employed to decompose ECG signals into a set of coefficients, of which the less-significant coefficients are used to construct the multidimensional space. The negotiated shared keys facilitate the embedding of encrypted data in the constructed space. We then evaluate the proposed scheme using different categories of ECG signals in the MIT-BIH database. It is observed that the signal distortion is minimal (i.e., less than 1%), even if the embedded data reaches the maximum embedding capacity. The security analysis also demonstrates that unauthorized retrieval of hidden information is not practical, within a short period of time.

12.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-448958

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive target for COVID-19 vaccine developments, which naturally exists in a trimeric form. Here, guided by structural and computational analyses, we present a mutation-integrated trimeric form of RBD (mutI tri-RBD) as a broadly protective vaccine candidate, in which three RBDs were individually grafted from three different circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains including the prototype, Beta (B.1.351) and Kappa (B.1.617). The three RBDs were then connected end-to-end and co-assembled to possibly mimic the native trimeric arrangements in the natural S protein trimer. The recombinant expression of the mutI tri-RBD, as well as the homo-tri-RBD where the three RBDs were all truncated from the prototype strain, by mammalian cell exhibited correct folding, strong bio-activities, and high stability. The immunization of both the mutI tri-RBD and homo-tri-RBD plus aluminum adjuvant induced high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain in mice. Notably, regarding to the "immune-escape" Beta (B.1.351) variant, mutI tri-RBD elicited significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers than homo-tri-RBD. Furthermore, due to harboring the immune-resistant mutations as well as the evolutionarily convergent hotspots, the designed mutI tri-RBD also induced strong broadly neutralizing activities against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the variants partially resistant to homo-tri-RBD. Homo-tri-RBD has been approved by the China National Medical Products Administration to enter clinical trial (No. NCT04869592), and the superior broad neutralization performances against SARS-CoV-2 support the mutI tri-RBD as a more promising vaccine candidate for further clinical developments.

14.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102338, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The global COVID-19 pandemic creates an obvious acute health care resourcing and response problem. The different timing of pandemic peak in geographically distinct locations creates a short window of response opportunity. Rapid dissemination of medical information from early affected areas to later ones is therefore crucial to optimise planning. Formulating the best system response for at-risk patient populations is especially complex. People with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) are exposed to long-term immunosuppressive disease modifying treatments (DMTs) and, in theory, could be at increased risk of contracting the virus and developing complications. Social media, such as Twitter, can provide a global platform to rapidly share information and individual experiences. METHODS AND RESULTS: This report summarizes the case experience of pwMS with COVID-19 infection in the first month of the pandemic as reported on Twitter using the #MSCOVID19 hashtag. 26 individual cases of COVID-19 in pwMS were reported from Europe and the United States of America. The cases involved a combination of relapsing and progressive MS phenotypes treated with a range of DMT (5 anti CD20 therapy, 4 cladribine, 4 fingolimod, 4 injectables, 3 alemtuzumab, 2 dimethyl fumarate, 2 untreated, 1 teriflunomide, 1 natalizumab). The cases shared present the earliest reported data on outcomes of COVID-19 infection in pwMS. Whilst limited, the cautiously reassuring nature of these early cases assisted in clinical management by allowing neurologists to continuously reassess their approach to DMT management.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Social Media , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3): 392-400, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526769

ABSTRACT

With the exponential surge in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, the resources needed to provide continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) for patients with acute kidney injury or kidney failure may be threatened. This article summarizes subsisting strategies that can be implemented immediately. Pre-emptive weekly multicenter projections of CKRT demand based on evolving COVID-19 epidemiology and routine workload should be made. Corresponding consumables should be quantified and acquired, with diversification of sources from multiple vendors. Supply procurement should be stepped up accordingly so that a several-week stock is amassed, with administrative oversight to prevent disproportionate hoarding by institutions. Consumption of CKRT resources can be made more efficient by optimizing circuit anticoagulation to preserve filters, extending use of each vascular access, lowering blood flows to reduce citrate consumption, moderating the CKRT intensity to conserve fluids, or running accelerated KRT at higher clearance to treat more patients per machine. If logistically feasible, earlier transition to intermittent hemodialysis with online-generated dialysate, or urgent peritoneal dialysis in selected patients, may help reduce CKRT dependency. These measures, coupled to multicenter collaboration and a corresponding increase in trained medical and nursing staffing levels, may avoid downstream rationing of care and save lives during the peak of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/trends , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/supply & distribution , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dialysis Solutions/administration & dosage , Dialysis Solutions/supply & distribution , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-135608

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in more than 386,000 deaths globally as of June 4, 2020. In this study, we developed a novel multiplex real time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR test for detection of SARS-CoV-2, with primers designed to amplify a 108 bp target on the spike surface glycoprotein (S gene) of SARS-CoV-2 and a hydrolysis Taqman probe designed to specifically detect SARS-CoV-2. Following our design, we evaluated the Limit of detection (LOD) and clinical performance of this laboratory-developed test (LDT). A LOD study with inactivated whole virus exhibited equal performance to that seen in the modified CDC assay with a final LOD of 1,301 ± 13 genome equivalents/ml for our assay vs 1,249 ± 14 genome equivalents/ml for the modified CDC assay. In addition, a clinical evaluation with 270 nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens exhibited 98.5% positive percent agreement and 99.3% negative percent agreement with the modified CDC assay. The multiplex design of this assay allows the testing of 91 patients per plate, versus a maximum of 29 patients per plate on the modified CDC assay, providing the benefit of testing significantly more patients per run and saving reagents during a time when both of these parameters have been critical. Our results demonstrate that our multiplex assay performs as well as the modified CDC assay, but is more efficient and cost effective and is therefore adequate for use as a diagnostic assay and for epidemiological surveillance and clinical management of SARS-CoV-2.View Full Text

18.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-097311

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in December 2019 and has quickly become a worldwide pandemic. In response, many diagnostic manufacturers have developed molecular assays for SARS-CoV-2 under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) pathway. This study compared three of these assays: the Hologic Panther Fusion SARS-CoV-2 assay (Fusion), the Hologic Aptima SARS-CoV-2 assay (Aptima) and the BioFire Diagnostics COVID-19 test (BioFire), to determine analytical and clinical performance, as well as workflow. All three assays showed a similar limit of detection (LOD) using inactivated virus, with 100% detection ranging from 500-1,000 genome equivalents/ml, whereas use of a quantified RNA transcript standard showed the same trend, but had values ranging from 62.5 to 125 copies/ml, confirming variability in absolute quantification of reference standards. The clinical correlation found that the Fusion and BioFire assays had a positive percent agreement (PPA) of 98.7%, followed by the Aptima assay at 94.7% when compared to the consensus result. All three assays exhibited 100% negative percent agreement (NPA). Analysis of discordant results revealed that all four samples missed by the Aptima assay had Ct values >37 on the Fusion assay. In conclusion, while all three assays showed similar relative LODs, we showed differences in absolute LODs depending on which standard was employed. In addition, the Fusion and BioFire assays showed better clinical performance, while the Aptima assay showed a modest decrease in overall PPA. These findings should be kept in mind when making platform testing decisions.

19.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20069864

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first discovered in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province, China, causing an outbreak of pneumonia in January 2020. As of April 10, 2020, the virus has rapidly disseminated to over 200 countries and territories, causing more than 1.6 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 97,000 deaths worldwide. The clinical presentation of COVID-19 is fairly non-specific, and symptoms overlap with other seasonal respiratory infections concurrently circulating in the population. Further, it is estimated that up to 80% of infected individuals experience mild symptoms or are asymptomatic, confounding efforts to reliably diagnose COVID-19 empirically. To support infection control measures, there is an urgent need for rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics to identify COVID-19 positive patients. In the present study, we have evaluated the analytical sensitivity and clinical performance of four SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostic assays granted Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA using nasopharyngeal swabs from symptomatic patients. This information is crucial for both laboratories and clinical teams, as decisions on which testing platform to implement are made.

20.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-939389

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in China has become a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Based on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as cell entry receptor of SARS-CoV, we used the hACE2 transgenic mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 to study the pathogenicity of the virus. Weight loss and virus replication in lung were observed in hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of significant lymphocytes and monocytes in alveolar interstitium, and accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. Viral antigens were observed in the bronchial epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages and alveolar epithelia. The phenomenon was not found in wild type mice with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice was clarified and the Kochs postulates were fulfilled as well, and the mouse model may facilitate the development of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

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