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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 200: 438-448, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633972

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) continues to inflict chaos globally, a new variant officially known as B.1.1.529 was reported in South Africa and was found to harbor 30 mutations in the spike protein. It is too early to speculate on transmission and hospitalizations. Hence, more analyses are required, particularly to connect the genomic patterns to the phenotypic attributes to reveal the binding differences and antibody response for this variant, which can then be used for therapeutic interventions. Given the urgency of the required analysis and data on the B.1.1.529 variant, we have performed a detailed investigation to provide an understanding of the impact of these novel mutations on the structure, function, and binding of RBD to hACE2 and mAb to the NTD of the spike protein. The differences in the binding pattern between the wild type and B.1.1.529 variant complexes revealed that the key substitutions Asn417, Ser446, Arg493, and Arg498 in the B.1.1.529 RBD caused additional interactions with hACE2 and the loss of key residues in the B.1.1.529 NTD resulted in decreased interactions with three CDR regions (1-3) in the mAb. Further investigation revealed that B.1.1.529 displayed a stable dynamic that follows a global stability trend. In addition, the dissociation constant (KD), hydrogen bonding analysis, and binding free energy calculations further validated the findings. Hydrogen bonding analysis demonstrated that significant hydrogen bonding reprogramming took place, which revealed key differences in the binding. The total binding free energy using MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA further validated the docking results and demonstrated significant variations in the binding. This study is the first to provide a basis for the higher infectivity of the new SARS-CoV-2 variants and provides a strong impetus for the development of novel drugs against them.

2.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622462
3.
Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105163, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588032

ABSTRACT

The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the host ACE2 receptor plays a vital role in the entry to the cell. Among which the hotspot residue 501 is continuously subjected to positive selection pressure and induces unusual virulence. Keeping in view the importance of the hot spot residue 501, we predicted the potentially emerging structural variants of 501 residue. We analyzed the binding pattern of wild type and mutants (Spike RBD) to the ACE2 receptor by deciphering variations in the amino acids' interaction networks by graph kernels along with evolutionary, network metrics, and energetic information. Our analysis revealed that N501I, N501T, and N501V increase the binding affinity and alter the intra and inter-residue bonding networks. The N501T has shown strong positive selection and fitness in other animals. Docking results and repeated simulations (three times) confirmed the structural stability and tighter binding of these three variants, correlated with the previous results following the global stability trend. Consequently, we reported three variants N501I, N501T, and N501V could worsen the situation further if they emerged. The relations between the viral fitness and binding affinity is a complicated game thus the emergence of high affinity mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD brings up the question of whether or not positive selection favours these mutations or not?

4.
Comput Biol Med ; 141: 105170, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588030

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, an RNA virus, has been prone to high mutations since its first emergence in Wuhan, China, and throughout its spread. Its genome has been sequenced continuously by many countries, including Pakistan, but the results vary. Understanding its genomic patterns and connecting them with phenotypic features will help in devising therapeutic strategies. Thus, in this study, we explored the mutation landscape of 250 Pakistani isolates of SARS-CoV-2 genomes to check the genome diversity and examine the impact of these mutations on protein stability and viral pathogenesis in comparison with a reference sequence (Wuhan NC 045512.2). Our results revealed that structural proteins mainly exhibit more mutations than others in the Pakistani isolates; in particular, the nucleocapsid protein is highly mutated. In comparison, the spike protein is the most mutated protein globally. Furthermore, nsp12 was found to be the most mutated NSP in the Pakistani isolates and worldwide. Regarding accessory proteins, ORF3A is the most mutated in the Pakistani isolates, whereas ORF8 is highly mutated in world isolates. These mutations decrease the structural stability of their proteins and alter different biological pathways. Molecular docking, the dissociation constant (KD), and MM/GBSA analysis showed that mutations in the S protein alter its binding with ACE2. The spike protein mutations D614G-S943T-V622F (-75.17 kcal/mol), D614G-Q677H (-75.78 kcal/mol), and N74K-D614G (-73.84 kcal/mol) exhibit stronger binding energy than the wild type (-66.34 kcal/mol), thus increasing infectivity. Furthermore, the simulation results strongly corroborated the predicted protein servers. Our analysis findings also showed that E, M, ORF6, ORF7A, ORF7B, and ORF10 are the most stable coding genes; they may be suitable targets for vaccine and drug development.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538576

ABSTRACT

Yersinia pestis is responsible for plague and major pandemics in Asia and Europe. This bacterium has shown resistance to an array of drugs commonly used for the treatment of plague. Therefore, effective therapeutics measurements, such as designing a vaccine that can effectively and safely prevent Y. pestis infection, are of high interest. To fast-track vaccine development against Yersinia pestis, herein, proteome-wide vaccine target annotation was performed, and structural vaccinology-assisted epitopes were predicted. Among the total 3909 proteins, only 5 (rstB, YPO2385, hmuR, flaA1a, and psaB) were shortlisted as essential vaccine targets. These targets were then subjected to multi-epitope vaccine design using different linkers. EAAK, AAY, and GPGPG as linkers were used to link CTL, HTL, and B-cell epitopes, and an adjuvant (beta defensin) was also added at the N-terminal of the MEVC. Physiochemical characterization, such as determination of the instability index, theoretical pI, half-life, aliphatic index, stability profiling, antigenicity, allergenicity, and hydropathy of the ensemble, showed that the vaccine is highly stable, antigenic, and non-allergenic and produces multiple interactions with immune receptors upon docking. In addition, molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the stable binding and good dynamic properties of the vaccine-TLR complex. Furthermore, in silico and immune simulation of the developed MEVC for Y. pestis showed that the vaccine triggered strong immune response after several doses at different intervals. Neutralization of the antigen was observed at the third day of injection. Conclusively, the vaccine designed here for Y. pestis produces an immune response; however, further immunological testing is needed to unveil its real efficacy.

6.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(13): 4659-4670, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521979

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) pandemic and phenomenal spread to every nook and cranny of the world has raised major apprehensions about the modern public health care system. So far as a result of this epidemic, 4,434,653 confirmed cases and 302,169 deaths are reported. The growing infection rate and death toll demand the use of all possible approaches to design novel drugs and vaccines to curb this disease. In this study, we combined drugs repurposing and virtual drug screening strategies to target 3CLpro, which has an essential role in viral maturation and replication. A total of 31 FDA approved anti-HIV drugs, and Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) database were screened to find potential inhibitors. As a result, Saquinavir, and five drugs (TCM5280805, TCM5280445, TCM5280343, TCM5280863, and TCM5458190) from the TCM database were found as promising hits. Furthermore, results from molecular dynamics simulation and total binding free energy revealed that Saquinavir and TCM5280805 target the catalytic dyad (His41 and Cys145) and possess stable dynamics behavior. Thus, we suggest that these compounds should be tested experimentally against the SARS-COV-2 as Saquinavir has been reported to inhibit HIV protease experimentally. Considering the intensity of coronavirus dissemination, the present research is in line with the idea of discovering the latest inhibitors against the coronavirus essential pathways to accelerate the drug development cycle.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pathogens ; 10(10)2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526854

ABSTRACT

The genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) encodes 16 non-structural (Nsp) and 4 structural proteins. Among the Nsps, Nsp1 inhibits host gene expression and also evades the immune system. This protein has been proposed as a target for vaccine development and also for drug design. Owing to its important role, the current study aimed to identify mutations in Nsp1 and their effect on protein stability and flexibility. This is the first comprehensive study in which 295,000 complete genomes have been screened for mutations after alignment with the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference genome (Accession NC_045512), using the CoVsurver app. The sequences harbored 933 mutations in the entire coding region of Nsp1. The most frequently occurring mutation in the 180-amino-acid Nsp1 protein was R24C (n = 1122), followed by D75E (n = 890), D48G (n = 881), H110Y (n = 860), and D144A (n = 648). Among the 933 non-synonymous mutations, 529 exhibited a destabilizing effect. Similarly, a gain in flexibility was observed in 542 mutations. The majority of the most frequent mutations were detected in the loop regions. These findings imply that Nsp1 mutations might be useful to exploit SARS-CoV-2's pathogenicity. Genomic sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 on a regular basis will further assist in analyzing variations among the drug targets and to test the diagnostic accuracy. This wide range of mutations and their effect on Nsp1's stability may have some consequences for the host's innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and also for the vaccines' efficacy. Based on this mutational information, geographically strain-specific drugs, vaccines, and antibody combinations could be a useful strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512502

ABSTRACT

Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) might be a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 to bind and enter the host cell. Recently reported mutations in the spike glycoprotein unique to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of different variants might increase the binding and pathogenesis. However, it is still not known how these mutations affect the binding of RBD to GRP78. The current study provides a structural basis for the binding of GRP78 to the different variants, i.e., B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617, and P.1 (spike RBD), of SARS-CoV-2 using a biomolecular simulation approach. Docking results showed that the new variants bound stronger than the wild-type, which was further confirmed through the free energy calculation results. All-atom simulation confirmed structural stability, which was consistent with previous results by following the global stability trend. We concluded that the increased binding affinity of the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 variants was due to a variation in the bonding network that helped the virus induce a higher infectivity and disease severity. Consequently, we reported that the aforementioned new variants use GRP78 as an alternate receptor to enhance their seriousness.

9.
Comput Biol Med ; 138: 104936, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458824

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Reports of new variants that potentially increase virulence and viral transmission, as well as reduce the efficacy of available vaccines, have recently emerged. In this study, we computationally analyzed the N439K, S477 N, and T478K variants for their ability to bind Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). We used the protein-protein docking approach to explore whether the three variants displayed a higher binding affinity to the ACE2 receptor than the wild type. We found that these variants alter the hydrogen bonding network and the cluster of interactions. Additional salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and a high number of non-bonded contacts (i.e., non-bonded interactions between atoms in the same molecule and those in other molecules) were observed only in the mutant complexes, allowing efficient binding to the ACE2 receptor. Furthermore, we used a 2.0-µs all-atoms simulation approach to detect differences in the structural dynamic features of the resulting protein complexes. Our findings revealed that the mutant complexes possessed stable dynamics, consistent with the global trend of mutations yielding variants with improved stability and enhanced affinity. Binding energy calculations based on molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) further revealed that electrostatic interactions principally increased net binding energies. The stability and binding energies of N439K, S477 N, and T478K variants were enhanced compared to the wild-type-ACE2 complex. The net binding energy of the systems was -31.86 kcal/mol for the wild-type-ACE2 complex, -67.85 kcal/mol for N439K, -69.82 kcal/mol for S477 N, and -69.64 kcal/mol for T478K. The current study provides a basis for exploring the enhanced binding abilities and structural features of SARS-CoV-2 variants to design novel therapeutics against the virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Computational Biology , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112176, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412768

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its new variants reported in different countries have posed a serious threat to human health and social fabrics worldwide. In addition, these new variants hindered the efforts of vaccines and other therapeutic developments. In this review article, we explained the emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2, their transmission risk, mortality rate, and, more importantly, the impact of each new variant on the efficacy of the developed vaccines reported in different literature and findings. The literature reported that with the emergence of new variants, the efficacy of different vaccines is declined, hospitalization and the risk of reinfection is increased. The reports concluded that the emergence of a variant that entirely evades the immune response triggered by the vaccine is improbable. The emergence of new variants and reports of re-infections are creating a more distressing situation and therefore demands further investigation to formulate an effective therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
11.
Comput Biol Med ; 133: 104420, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385348

ABSTRACT

Reports of the novel and more contagious strains of SARS-CoV-2 originating in different countries have further aggravated the pandemic situation. The recent substitutions in spike protein may be critical for the virus to evade the host's immune system and therapeutics that have already been developed. Thus, this study has employed an immunoinformatics pipeline to target the spike protein of this novel strain to construct an immunogenic epitope (CTL, HTL, and B cell) vaccine against the new variant. Our investigation revealed that 12 different epitopes imparted a critical role in immune response induction. This was validated by an exploration of physiochemical properties and experimental feasibility. In silico and host immune simulation confirmed the expression and induction of both primary and secondary immune factors such as IL, cytokines, and antibodies. The current study warrants further lab experiments to demonstrate its efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Cloning, Molecular , Computer Simulation , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunity , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
12.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(4): 1290-1298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349906

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of COVID-19 that began in late 2019 was caused by a novel coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2). It has become a global pandemic. As of June 9, 2020, it has infected nearly 7 million people and killed more than 400,000, but there is no specific drug. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find or develop more drugs to suppress the virus. Here, we propose a new nonlinear end-to-end model called LUNAR. It uses graph convolutional neural networks to automatically learn the neighborhood information of complex heterogeneous relational networks and combines the attention mechanism to reflect the importance of the sum of different types of neighborhood information to obtain the representation characteristics of each node. Finally, through the topology reconstruction process, the feature representations of drugs and targets are forcibly extracted to match the observed network as much as possible. Through this reconstruction process, we obtain the strength of the relationship between different nodes and predict drug candidates that may affect the treatment of COVID-19 based on the known targets of COVID-19. These selected candidate drugs can be used as a reference for experimental scientists and accelerate the speed of drug development. LUNAR can well integrate various topological structure information in heterogeneous networks, and skillfully combine attention mechanisms to reflect the importance of neighborhood information of different types of nodes, improving the interpretability of the model. The area under the curve(AUC) of the model is 0.949 and the accurate recall curve (AUPR) is 0.866 using 10-fold cross-validation. These two performance indexes show that the model has superior predictive performance. Besides, some of the drugs screened out by our model have appeared in some clinical studies to further illustrate the effectiveness of the model.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Databases, Pharmaceutical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/statistics & numerical data , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/statistics & numerical data , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/statistics & numerical data , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pandemics
13.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(10): 7045-7057, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342890

ABSTRACT

The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 new variants reported to be 70% more contagious than the earlier one is now spreading fast worldwide. There is an instant need to discover how the new variants interact with the host receptor (ACE2). Among the reported mutations in the Spike glycoprotein of the new variants, three are specific to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and required insightful scrutiny for new therapeutic options. These structural evolutions in the RBD domain may impart a critical role to the unique pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 new variants. Herein, using structural and biophysical approaches, we explored that the specific mutations in the UK (N501Y), South African (K417N-E484K-N501Y), Brazilian (K417T-E484K-N501Y), and hypothetical (N501Y-E484K) variants alter the binding affinity, create new inter-protein contacts and changes the internal structural dynamics thereby increases the binding and eventually the infectivity. Our investigation highlighted that the South African (K417N-E484K-N501Y), Brazilian (K417T-E484K-N501Y) variants are more lethal than the UK variant (N501Y). The behavior of the wild type and N501Y is comparable. Free energy calculations further confirmed that increased binding of the spike RBD to the ACE2 is mainly due to the electrostatic contribution. Further, we find that the unusual virulence of this virus is potentially the consequence of Darwinian selection-driven epistasis in protein evolution. The triple mutants (South African and Brazilian) may pose a serious threat to the efficacy of the already developed vaccine. Our analysis would help to understand the binding and structural dynamics of the new mutations in the RBD domain of the Spike protein and demand further investigation in in vitro and in vivo models to design potential therapeutics against the new variants.


Subject(s)
Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Brazil , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Protein Binding/genetics , South Africa , United Kingdom , Virulence/genetics
14.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 25: 100675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330892

ABSTRACT

Structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are potential drug targets due to their role in the virus life cycle. The envelope (E) protein is one of the structural proteins; plays a critical role in virulency. However, the emergence of mutations oftenly leads to drug resistance and may also play a vital role in virus stabilization and evolution. In this study, we aimed to identify mutations in E proteins that affect the protein stability. About 0.3 million complete whole genome sequences were analyzed to screen mutations in E protein. All these mutations were subjected to stability prediction using the DynaMut server. The most common mutations that were detected at the C-terminal domain, Ser68Phe, Pro71Ser, and Leu73Phe, were examined through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a 100ns period. The sequence analysis shows the existence of 259 mutations in E protein. Interestingly, 16 of them were detected in the DFLV amino acid (aa) motif (aa72-aa75) that binds the host PALS1 protein. The results of root mean square deviation, fluctuations, radius of gyration, and free energy landscape show that Ser68Phe, Pro71Ser, and Leu73Phe are exhibiting a more stabilizing effect. However, a more comprehensive experimental study may be required to see the effect on virus pathogenicity. Potential antiviral drugs, and vaccines may be developed used after screening the genomic variations for better management of SARS-CoV-2 infections.

15.
Comput Biol Med ; : 104714, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330721

ABSTRACT

The evolution of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants around the globe has made the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic more worrisome, pressuring the health care system and resulting in an increased mortality rate. Recent studies recognized neuropilin-1 (NRP1) as a key facilitator in the invasion of the new SARS-CoV-2 into the host cell. Therefore, it is considered an imperative drug target for the treatment of COVID-19. Hence, a thorough analysis was needed to understand the impact and to guide new therapeutics development. In this study, we used structural and biomolecular simulation techniques to identify novel marine natural products which could block this receptor and stop the virus entry. We discovered that the binding affinity of CMNPD10175, CMNPD10017, CMNPD10114, CMNPD10115, CMNPD10020. CMNPD10018, CMNPD10153, CMNPD10149 CMNPD10464 and CMNPD10019 were substantial during the virtual screening (VS). We further explored these compounds by analyzing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties and structural-dynamics features. Free energy calculations further established that all the compounds exhibit stronger binding energy for NRP1. Consequently, we hypothesized that these compounds might be the best lead candidates for therapeutic interventions hindering virus binding to the host cell. This study provides a strong impetus to develop novel drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 by targeting NRP1.

16.
Interdiscip Sci ; 13(3): 521-534, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330422

ABSTRACT

The prolific spread of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from its epicenter in Wuhan, China, to every nook and cranny of the world after December 2019, jeopardize the prevailing health system in the world and has raised serious concerns about human safety. Multi-directional efforts are made to design small molecule inhibitors, and vaccines and many other therapeutic options are practiced, but their final therapeutic potential is still to be tested. Using the old drug or vaccine or peptides could aid this process to avoid such long experimental procedures. Hence, here, we have repurposed a small peptide (ATLQAIAS) from the previous study, which reported the inhibitory effects of this peptide. We used in silico mutagenesis approach to design more peptides from the native wild peptide, which revealed that substitutions (T2W, T2Y, L3R, and A5W) could increase the binding affinity of the peptide towards the 3CLpro. Furthermore, using MD simulation and free energy calculation confirmed its dynamics stability and stronger binding affinities. Per-residue energy decomposition analysis revealed that the specified substitution significantly increased the binding affinity at the residue level. Our wide-ranging analyses of binding affinities disclosed that our designed peptide owns the potential to hinder the SARS-CoV-2 and will reduce the progression of SARS-CoV-2-borne pneumonia. Our research strongly suggests the experimental and clinical validation of these peptides to curtail the recent corona outbreak.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptides/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thermodynamics
17.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(12): 4316-4333, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317837

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2, the causative agent of the pandemic disease COVID-19, emerged in December 2019 forcing lockdown of communities in many countries. The absence of specific drugs and vaccines, the rapid transmission of the virus, and the increasing number of deaths worldwide necessitated the discovery of new substances for anti-COVID-19 drug development. With the aid of bioinformatics and computational modelling, ninety seven antiviral secondary metabolites from fungi were docked onto five SARS-CoV2 enzymes involved in viral attachment, replication, post-translational modification, and host immunity evasion infection mechanisms followed by molecular dynamics simulation and in silico ADMET prediction (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) of the hit compounds. Thus, three fumiquinazoline alkaloids scedapin C (15), quinadoline B (19) and norquinadoline A (20), the polyketide isochaetochromin D1 (8), and the terpenoid 11a-dehydroxyisoterreulactone A (11) exhibited high binding affinities on the target proteins, papain-like protease (PLpro), chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp), non-structural protein 15 (nsp15), and the spike binding domain to GRP78. Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to optimize the interaction and investigate the stability of the top-scoring ligands in complex with the five target proteins. All tested complexes were found to have dynamic stability. Of the five top-scoring metabolites, quinadoline B (19) was predicted to confer favorable ADMET values, high gastrointestinal absorptive probability and poor blood-brain barrier crossing capacities.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Communicable Disease Control , Drug Discovery , Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Attachment
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is the leading global health threat to date caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Recent clinical trials reported that the use of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors to treat COVID-19 patients could reduce dyspnea and hypoxia, thromboinflammation, hypercoagulability and improve oxygenation. However, the mechanism of action remains unclear. Thus, this study employs structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) to repurpose BTK inhibitors acalabrutinib, dasatinib, evobrutinib, fostamatinib, ibrutinib, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, spebrutinib, XL418 and zanubrutinib against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking is conducted with BTK inhibitors against structural and nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and host targets (ACE2, TMPRSS2 and BTK). Molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are then carried out on the selected complexes with high binding energy. Ibrutinib and zanubrutinib are found to be the most potent of the drugs screened based on the results of computational studies. Results further show that ibrutinib and zanubrutinib could exploit different mechanisms at the viral entry and replication stage and could be repurposed as potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Piperidines/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Adenine/chemistry , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/therapeutic use , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piperidines/metabolism , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/metabolism , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/metabolism , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
19.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282440

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein is the target for the antiviral drug Remdesivir (RDV). With RDV clinical trials on COVID-19 patients showing a reduced hospitalisation time. During the spread of the virus, the RdRp has developed several mutations, with the most frequent being A97V and P323L. The current study sought to investigate whether A97V and P323L mutations influence the binding of RDV to the RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 compared to wild-type (WT). The interaction of RDV with WT-, A97V-, and P323L-RdRp were measured using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and the free binding energies were extracted. Results showed that RDV that bound to WT- and A97V-RdRp had a similar dynamic motion and internal residue fluctuations, whereas RDV interaction with P323L-RdRp exhibited a tighter molecular conformation, with a high internal motion near the active site. This was further corroborated with RDV showing a higher binding affinity to P323L-RdRp (-24.1 kcal/mol) in comparison to WT-RdRp (-17.3 kcal/mol). This study provides insight into the potential significance of administering RDV to patients carrying the SARS-CoV-2 P323L-RdRp mutation, which may have a more favourable chance of alleviating the SARS-CoV-2 illness in comparison to WT-RdRp carriers, thereby suggesting further scientific consensus for the usage of Remdesivir as clinical candidate against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Point Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Point Mutation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
20.
Chembiochem ; 22(16): 2641-2649, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279349

ABSTRACT

The evolution of new SARS-CoV-2 variants around the globe has made the COVID-19 pandemic more worrisome, further pressuring the health care system and immunity. Novel variations that are unique to the receptor-binding motif (RBM) of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) spike glycoprotein, i. e. L452R-E484Q, may play a different role in the B.1.617 (also known as G/452R.V3) variant's pathogenicity and better survival compared to the wild type. Therefore, a thorough analysis is needed to understand the impact of these mutations on binding with host receptor (RBD) and to guide new therapeutics development. In this study, we used structural and biomolecular simulation techniques to explore the impact of specific mutations (L452R-E484Q) in the B.1.617 variant on the binding of RBD to the host receptor ACE2. Our analysis revealed that the B.1.617 variant possesses different dynamic behaviours by altering dynamic-stability, residual flexibility and structural compactness. Moreover, the new variant had altered the bonding network and structural-dynamics properties significantly. MM/GBSA technique was used, which further established the binding differences between the wild type and B.1.617 variant. In conclusion, this study provides a strong impetus to develop novel drugs against the new SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Virulence
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