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1.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-9, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242711

ABSTRACT

The inflicted chaos instigated by the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) globally continues with the emergence of novel variants. The current global outbreak is aggravated by the manifestation of novel variants, which affect the effectiveness of the vaccine, attachment with hACE2 (human Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) and immune evasion. Recently, a new variant named University Hospital Institute (IHU) (B.1.640.2) was reported in France in November 2021 and is spreading globally affecting public healthcare. The B.1.640.2 SARS-CoV-2 strain revealed 14 mutations and 9 deletions in spike protein. Thus, it is important to understand how these variations in the spike protein impact the communication with the host. A protein coupling approach along with molecular simulation protocols was used to interpret the variation in the binding of the wild type (WT) and B.1.640.2 variant with hACE2 and Glucose-regulating protein 78 (GRP78) receptors. The initial docking scores revealed a stronger binding of the B.1.640.2-RBD with both the hACE2 and GRP78. To further understand the crucial dynamic changes, we looked at the structural and dynamic characteristics and also explored the variations in the bonding networks between the WT and B.1.640.2-RBD (receptor-binding domain) in association with hACE2 and GRP78, respectively. Our findings revealed that the variant complex demonstrated distinct dynamic properties in contrast to the wild type due to the acquired mutations. Finally, to provide conclusive evidence on the higher binding by the B.1.640.2 variant the TBE was computed for each complex. For the WT with hACE2 the TBE was quantified to be-61.38 ± 0.96 kcal/mol and for B.1.640.2 variant the TBE was estimated to be -70.47 ± 1.00 kcal/mol. For the WT-RBD-GRP78 the TBE -was computed to be 32.32 ± 0.56 kcal/mol and for the B.1.640.2-RBD a TBE of -50.39 ± 0.88 kcal/mol was reported. This show that these mutations are the basis for higher binding and infectivity produced by B.1.640.2 variant and can be targeted for drug designing against it.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

2.
Heliyon ; 9(4): e15083, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304321

ABSTRACT

The SARS COV-2 and its variants are spreading around the world at an alarming speed, due to its higher transmissibility and the conformational changes caused by mutations. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has imposed severe health consequences on human health. Several countries of the world including Pakistan have studied its genome extensively and provided productive findings. In the current study, the mCSM, DynaMut2, and I-Mutant servers were used to analyze the effect of identified mutations on the structural stability of spike protein however, the molecular docking and simulations approaches were used to evaluate the dynamics of the bonding network between the wild-type and mutant spike proteins with furin. We addressed the mutational modifications that have occurred in the spike protein of SARS-COV-2 that were found in 215 Pakistani's isolates of COVID-19 patients to study the influence of mutations on the stability of the protein and its interaction with the host cell. We found 7 single amino acid substitute mutations in various domains that reside in spike protein. The H49Y, N74K, G181V, and G446V were found in the S1 domain while the D614A, V622F, and Q677H mutations were found in the central helices of the spike protein. Based on the observation, G181V, G446V, D614A, and V622F mutants were found highly destabilizing and responsible for structural perturbation. Protein-protein docking and molecular simulation analysis with that of furin have predicted that all the mutants enhanced the binding efficiency however, the V622F mutant has greatly altered the binding capacity which is further verified by the KD value (7.1 E-14) and therefore may enhance the spike protein cleavage by Furin and increase the rate of infectivity by SARS-CoV-2. On the other hand, the total binding energy for each complex was calculated which revealed -50.57 kcal/mol for the wild type, for G181V -52.69 kcal/mol, for G446V -56.44 kcal/mol, for D614A -59.78 kcal/mol while for V622F the TBE was calculated to be -85.84 kcal/mol. Overall, the current finding shows that these mutations have increased the binding of Furin for spike protein and shows that D614A and V622F have significant effects on the binding and infectivity.

3.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280013

ABSTRACT

Because of the essential role of PLpro in the regulation of replication and dysregulation of the host immune sensing, it is considered a therapeutic target for novel drug development. To reduce the risk of immune evasion and vaccine effectiveness, small molecular therapeutics are the best complementary approach. Hence, we used a structure-based drug-designing approach to identify potential small molecular inhibitors for PLpro of SARS-CoV-2. Initial scoring and re-scoring of the best hits revealed that three compounds NPC320891 (2,2-Dihydroxyindene-1,3-Dione), NPC474594 (Isonarciclasine), and NPC474595 (7-Deoxyisonarciclasine) exhibit higher docking scores than the control GRL0617. Investigation of the binding modes revealed that alongside the essential contacts, i.e., Asp164, Glu167, Tyr264, and Gln269, these molecules also target Lys157 and Tyr268 residues in the active site. Moreover, molecular simulation demonstrated that the reported top hits also possess stable dynamics and structural packing. Furthermore, the residues' flexibility revealed that all the complexes demonstrated higher flexibility in the regions 120-140, 160-180, and 205-215. The 120-140 and 160-180 lie in the finger region of PLpro, which may open/close during the simulation to cover the active site and push the ligand inside. In addition, the total binding free energy was reported to be - 32.65 ± 0.17 kcal/mol for the GRL0617-PLpro, for the NPC320891-PLpro complex, the TBE was - 35.58 ± 0.14 kcal/mol, for the NPC474594-PLpro, the TBE was - 43.72 ± 0.22 kcal/mol, while for NPC474595-PLpro complex, the TBE was calculated to be - 41.61 ± 0.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Clustering of the protein's motion and FEL further revealed that in NPC474594 and NPC474595 complexes, the drug was seen to have moved inside the binding cavity along with the loop in the palm region harboring the catalytic triad, thus justifying the higher binding of these two molecules particularly. In conclusion, the overall results reflect favorable binding of the identified hits strongly than the control drug, thus demanding in vitro and in vivo validation for clinical purposes.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 14: 1090717, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264082

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has had a disastrous effect worldwide during the previous three years due to widespread infections with SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variations. More than 674 million confirmed cases and over 6.7 million deaths have been attributed to successive waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections as of 29th January 2023. Similar to other RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 is more susceptible to genetic evolution and spontaneous mutations over time, resulting in the continual emergence of variants with distinct characteristics. Spontaneous mutations of SARS-CoV-2 variants increase its transmissibility, virulence, and disease severity and diminish the efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines, resulting in vaccine-breakthrough infections and re-infection, leading to high mortality and morbidity rates. Materials and methods: In this study, we evaluated 10,531 whole genome sequences of all reported variants globally through a computational approach to assess the spread and emergence of the mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The available data sources of NextCladeCLI 2.3.0 (https://clades.nextstrain.org/) and NextStrain (https://nextstrain.org/) were searched for tracking SARS-CoV-2 mutations, analysed using the PROVEAN, Polyphen-2, and Predict SNP mutational analysis tools and validated by Machine Learning models. Result: Compared to the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference strain NC 045512.2, genome-wide annotations showed 16,954 mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We determined that the Omicron variant had 6,307 mutations (retrieved sequence:1947), including 67.8% unique mutations, more than any other variant evaluated in this study. The spike protein of the Omicron variant harboured 876 mutations, including 443 deleterious mutations. Among these deleterious mutations, 187 were common and 256 were unique non-synonymous mutations. In contrast, after analysing 1,884 sequences of the Delta variant, we discovered 4,468 mutations, of which 66% were unique, and not previously reported in other variants. Mutations affecting spike proteins are mostly found in RBD regions for Omicron, whereas most of the Delta variant mutations drawn to focus on amino acid regions ranging from 911 to 924 in the context of epitope prediction (B cell & T cell) and mutational stability impact analysis protruding that Omicron is more transmissible. Discussion: The pathogenesis of the Omicron variant could be prevented if the deleterious and persistent unique immunosuppressive mutations can be targeted for vaccination or small-molecule inhibitor designing. Thus, our findings will help researchers monitor and track the continuously evolving nature of SARS-CoV-2 strains, the associated genetic variants, and their implications for developing effective control and prophylaxis strategies.

5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 974343, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246819

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a major burden on healthcare and economic systems across the globe for over 3 years. Even though vaccines are available, the pathogenesis is still unclear. Multiple studies have indicated heterogeneity of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, and potentially distinct patient immune types that might be related to disease features. However, those conclusions are mainly inferred by comparing the differences of pathological features between moderate and severe patients, some immunological features may be subjectively overlooked. Methods: In this study, the relevance scores(RS), reflecting which features play a more critical role in the decision-making process, between immunological features and the COVID-19 severity are objectively calculated through neural network, where the input features include the immune cell counts and the activation marker concentrations of particular cell, and these quantified characteristic data are robustly generated by processing flow cytometry data sets containing the peripheral blood information of COVID-19 patients through PhenoGraph algorithm. Results: Specifically, the RS between immune cell counts and COVID-19 severity with time indicated that the innate immune responses in severe patients are delayed at the early stage, and the continuous decrease of classical monocytes in peripherial blood is significantly associated with the severity of disease. The RS between activation marker concentrations and COVID-19 severity suggested that the down-regulation of IFN-γ in classical monocytes, Treg, CD8 T cells, and the not down-regulation of IL_17a in classical monocytes, Tregs are highly correlated with the occurrence of severe disease. Finally, a concise dynamic model of immune responses in COVID-19 patients was generalized. Discussion: These results suggest that the delayed innate immune responses in the early stage, and the abnormal expression of IL-17a and IFN-γ in classical monocytes, Tregs, and CD8 T cells are primarily responsible for the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Flow Cytometry , Pandemics , Immunity, Innate , Machine Learning
6.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246483

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2 pose a considerable threat to public health. Constructing a reliable mathematical model helps us quantitatively explain the kinetic characteristics of antibody-virus interactions. A novel and robust model is developed to integrate antibody dynamics with virus dynamics based on a comprehensive understanding of immunology principles. This model explicitly formulizes the pernicious effect of the antibody, together with a positive feedback stimulation of the virus-antibody complex on the antibody regeneration. Besides providing quantitative insights into antibody and virus dynamics, it demonstrates good adaptivity in recapturing the virus-antibody interaction. It is proposed that the environmental antigenic substances help maintain the memory cell level and the corresponding neutralizing antibodies secreted by those memory cells. A broader application is also visualized in predicting the antibody protection time caused by a natural infection. Suitable binding antibodies and the presence of massive environmental antigenic substances would prolong the protection time against breakthrough infection. The model also displays excellent fitness and provides good explanations for antibody selection, antibody interference, and self-reinfection. It helps elucidate how our immune system efficiently develops neutralizing antibodies with good binding kinetics. It provides a reasonable explanation for the lower SARS-CoV-2 mortality in the population that was vaccinated with other vaccines. It is inferred that the best strategy for prolonging the vaccine protection time is not repeated inoculation but a directed induction of fast-binding antibodies. Eventually, this model will inform the future construction of an optimal mathematical model and help us fight against those infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
7.
Comput Biol Med ; 153: 106510, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237174

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused tremendous deaths globally. It is of great value to predict the evolutionary direction of SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, we proposed a novel mathematical model that could predict the evolutionary trend of SARS-CoV-2. We focus on the mutational effects on viral assembly capacity. A robust coarse-grained mathematical model is constructed to simulate the virus dynamics in the host body. Both virulence and transmissibility can be quantified in this model. A delicate equilibrium point that optimizes the transmissibility can be numerically obtained. Based on this model, the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 might further decrease, accompanied by an enhancement of transmissibility. However, this trend is not continuous; its virulence will not disappear but remains at a relatively stable range. A virus assembly model which simulates the virus packing process is also proposed. It can be explained why a few mutations would lead to a significant divergence in clinical performance, both in the overall particle formation quantity and virulence. This research provides a novel mathematical attempt to elucidate the evolutionary driving force in RNA virus evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Models, Theoretical
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231828

ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nigella sativa , Benzoquinones , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Nigella sativa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
9.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28542, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219764

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic with the emergence of immune evasion potential and, particularly, the current omicron subvariants intensified the situation further. Although vaccines are available, the immune evasion capabilities of the recent variants demand further efficient therapeutic choices to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Hence, considering the necessity of the small molecule inhibitor, we target the main protease (3CLpro), which is an appealing target for the development of antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. High-throughput molecular in silico screening of South African natural compounds database reported Isojacareubin and Glabranin as the potential inhibitors for the main protease. The calculated docking scores were reported to be -8.47 and -8.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, the structural dynamic assessment reported that Isojacareubin in complex with 3CLpro exhibit a more stable dynamic behavior than Glabranin. Inhibition assay indicated that Isojacareubin could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 16.00 ± 1.35 µM (60 min incubation). Next, the covalent binding sites of Isojacareubin on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro was identified by biomass spectrometry, which reported that Isojacareubin can covalently bind to thiols or Cysteine through Michael addition. To evaluate the inactivation potency of Isojacareubin, the inactivation kinetics was further investigated. The inactivation kinetic curves were plotted according to various concentrations with gradient-ascending incubation times. The KI value of Isojacareubin was determined as 30.71 µM, whereas the Kinact value was calculated as 0.054 min-1 . These results suggest that Isojacareubin is a covalent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
10.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197784
11.
Biomolecules ; 12(12)2022 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199739

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a key player in modern healthcare, especially in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of new drugs and vaccine candidates [...].


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Drug Design , Humans , Delivery of Health Care
12.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2022 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170874

ABSTRACT

The current study investigated the binding variations among the wilt type, Omicron sub-variants BA.2.75 and BA.5, using protein-protein docking, protein structural graphs (P SG), and molecular simulation methods. HADDOCK predicted docking scores and dissociation constant (KD) revealed tighter binding of these sub-variants in contrast to the WT. Further investigation revealed variations in the hub residues, protein sub-networks, and GlobalMetapath in these variants as compared to the WT. A very unusual dynamic for BA.2.75 and BA.5 was observed, and secondary structure transition can also be witnessed in the loops (44-505). The results show that the flexibility of these three loops is increased by the mutations as an allosteric effect and thus enhances the chances of bonding with the nearby residues to connect and form a stable connection. Furthermore, the additional hydrogen bonding contacts steer the robust binding of these variants in contrast to the wild type. The total binding free energy for the wild type was calculated to be -61.38 kcal/mol, while for BA.2.75 and BA.5 variants the T BE was calculated to be -70.42 kcal/mol and 69.78 kcal/mol, respectively. We observed that the binding of BA.2.75 is steered by the electrostatic interactions while the BA.5 additional contacts are due to the vdW (Van der Waal) energy. From these findings, it can be observed the Spike (S) protein is undergoing structural adjustments to bind efficiently to the hACE2 (human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor and, in turn, increase entry to the host cells. The current study will aid the development of structure-based drugs against these variants.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

13.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187094

ABSTRACT

Critically infected patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) are prone to develop sepsis-related coagulopathy as a result of a robust immune response. The mechanism underlying the relationship between sepsis and COVID-19 is largely unknown. LMWH (low molecular weight heparin) exhibits both anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulating properties that result in a better prognosis of severely ill patients with COVID-19 co-associated with sepsis-induced coagulopathy or with a higher D-dimer value. Heparin-associated molecular targets and their mechanism of action in sepsis/COVID-19 are not well understood. In this work, we characterize the pharmacological targets, biological functions and therapeutic actions of heparin in sepsis/COVID-19 from the perspective of network pharmacology. A total of 38 potential targets for heparin action against sepsis/COVID-19 and 8 core pharmacological targets were identified, including IL6, KNG1, CXCL8, ALB, VEGFA, F2, IL10 and TNF. Moreover, enrichment analysis showed that heparin could help in treating sepsis/COVID-19 through immunomodulation, inhibition of the inflammatory response, regulation of angiogenesis and antiviral activity. The pharmacological effects of heparin against these targets were further confirmed by molecular docking and simulation analysis, suggesting that heparin exerts effective binding capacity by targeting the essential residues in sepsis/COVID-19. Prospective clinical practice evaluations may consider the use of these key prognostic indicators for the treatment of sepsis/COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

14.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090285

ABSTRACT

The emergence of immune-evading variants of SARS-CoV-2 further aggravated the ongoing pandemic. Despite the deployments of various vaccines, the acquired mutations are capable of escaping both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses. Therefore, further investigation is needed to design a decisive pharmacological treatment that could efficiently block the entry of this virus into cells. Hence, the current study used structure-based methods to target the RBD of the recombinant variant (Deltacron) of SARS-CoV-2, which was used as a model variant. From the virtual drug screenings of various databases, a total of four hits were identified as potential lead molecules. Key residues were blocked by these molecules with favorable structural dynamic features. The binding free energies further validated the potentials of these molecules. The TBE for MNP was calculated to be -32.86 ± 0.10 kcal/mol, for SANC00222 the TBE was -23.41 ± 0.15 kcal/mol, for Liriodenine the TBE was -34.29 ± 0.07 kcal/mol, while for Carviolin the TBE was calculated to be -27.67 ± 0.12 kcal/mol. Moreover, each complex demonstrated distinct internal motion and a free energy profile, indicating a different strategy for the interaction with and inhibition of the RBD. In conclusion, the current study demands further in vivo and in vitro validation for the possible usage of these compounds as potential drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Molecular Docking Simulation
15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037155

ABSTRACT

The BA.1 × AY.4 recombinant variant (Deltacron) continues to inflict chaos globally due to its rapid transmission and infectivity. To decipher the mechanism of pathogenesis by the BA.1 × AY.4 recombinant variant (Deltacron), a protein coupling, protein structural graphs (PSG), residue communication and all atoms simulation protocols were used. We observed that the bonding network is altered by this variant; engaging new residues that helps to robustly bind. HADDOCK docking score for the wild type has been previously reported to be -111.8 ± 1.5 kcal/mol while the docking score for the Deltacron variant was calculated to be -128.3 ± 2.5 kcal/mol. The protein structural graphs revealed variations in the hub residues, number of nodes, inter and intra residues communities, and path communication perturbation caused by the acquired mutations in the Deltacron-RBD thus alter the binding approach and infectivity. Moreover, the dynamic behaviour reported a highly flexible structure with enhanced residues flexibility particularly by the loops required for interaction with ACE2. It was observed that these mutations have altered the secondary structure of the RBD mostly transited to the loops thus acquired higher flexible dynamics than the native structure during the simulation. The total binding free energy for each of these complexes, that is, WT-RBD and Deltacron-RBD were reported to be -61.38 kcal/mol and -70.47 kcal/mol. Protein's motion revealed a high trace value in the Deltacron variant that clearly depict more structural flexibility. The broad range of phase space covered by the Deltacron variant along PC1 and PC2 suggests that these mutations are important in contributing conformational heterogeneity or flexibility that consequently help the variant to bind more efficiently than the wild type. The current study provides a basis for structure-based drug designing against SARS-CoV-2.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

16.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105537, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899652

ABSTRACT

Recently a novel coactivator, Leupaxin (LPXN), has been reported to interact with Androgen receptor (AR) and play a significant role in the invasion and progression of prostate cancer. The interaction between AR and LPXN occurs in a ligand-dependent manner and has been reported that the LIM domain in the Leupaxin interacts with the LDB (ligand-binding domain) domain AR. However, no detailed study is available on how the LPXN interacts with AR and increases the (prostate cancer) PCa progression. Considering the importance of the novel co-activator, LPXN, the current study also uses state-of-the-art methods to provide atomic-level insights into the binding of AR and LPXN and the impact of the most frequent clinical mutations H874Y, T877A, and T877S on the binding and function of LPXN. Protein coupling analysis revealed that the three mutants favour the robust binding of LPXN than the wild type by altering the hydrogen bonding network. Further understanding of the binding variations was explored through dissociation constant prediction which demonstrated similar reports as the docking results. A molecular simulation approaches further revealed the dynamic features which reported variations in the dynamics stability, protein packing, hydrogen bonding network, and residues flexibility index. Furthermore, we also assessed the protein motion and free energy landscape which also demonstrated variations in the internal dynamics. The binding free energy calculation revealed -32.95 ± 0.17 kcal/mol for the wild type, for H874Y the total binding energy (BFE) was -36.69 ± 0.11 kcal/mol, for T877A the BFE was calculated to be -38.78 ± 0.17 kcal/mol while for T877S the BFE -41.16 ± 0.12 kcal/mol. This shows that the binding of LPXN is increased by these mutations which consequently increase the PCa invasion and motility. In conclusion, the current study helps in understanding the protein networks and particular the coupling of AR-LPXN in prostate cancer and is of great interest in deciphering the molecular mechanism of disease and therapeutics developments.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Receptors, Androgen , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Male , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism
17.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105574, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814282

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of Delta and Omicron variants, many other important variants of SARS-CoV-2, which cause Coronavirus disease-2019, including A.30, are reported to increase the concern created by the global pandemic. The A.30 variant, reported in Tanzania and other countries, harbors spike gene mutations that help this strain to bind more robustly and to escape neutralizing antibodies. The present study uses molecular modelling and simulation-based approaches to investigate the key features of this strain that result in greater infectivity. The protein-protein docking results for the spike protein demonstrated that additional interactions, particularly two salt-bridges formed by the mutated residue Lys484, increase binding affinity, while the loss of key residues at the N terminal domain (NTD) result in a change to binding conformation with monoclonal antibodies, thus escaping their neutralizing effects. Moreover, we deeply studied the atomic features of these binding complexes through molecular simulation, which revealed differential dynamics when compared to wild type. Analysis of the binding free energy using MM/GBSA revealed that the total binding free energy (TBE) for the wild type receptor-binding domain (RBD) complex was -58.25 kcal/mol in contrast to the A.30 RBD complex, which reported -65.59 kcal/mol. The higher TBE for the A.30 RBD complex signifies a more robust interaction between A.30 variant RBD with ACE2 than the wild type, allowing the variant to bind and spread more promptly. The BFE for the wild type NTD complex was calculated to be -65.76 kcal/mol, while the A.30 NTD complex was estimated to be -49.35 kcal/mol. This shows the impact of the reported substitutions and deletions in the NTD of A.30 variant, which consequently reduce the binding of mAb, allowing it to evade the immune response of the host. The reported results will aid the development of cross-protective drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
RSC advances ; 11(48):30132-30147, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812811

ABSTRACT

Continuing reports of new SARS-CoV-2 variants have caused worldwide concern and created a challenging situation for clinicians. The recently reported variant B.1.618, which possesses the E484K mutation specific to the receptor-binding domain (RBD), as well as two deletions of Tyr145 and His146 at the N-terminal binding domain (NTD) of the spike protein, must be studied in depth to devise new therapeutic options. Structural variants reported in the RBD and NTD may play essential roles in the increased pathogenicity of this SARS-CoV-2 new variant. We explored the binding differences and structural-dynamic features of the B.1.618 variant using structural and biomolecular simulation approaches. Our results revealed that the E484K mutation in the RBD slightly altered the binding affinity through affecting the hydrogen bonding network. We also observed that the flexibility of three important loops in the RBD required for binding was increased, which may improve the conformational optimization and consequently binding of the new variant. Furthermore, we found that deletions of Tyr145 and His146 at the NTD reduced the binding affinity of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4A8, and that the hydrogen bonding network was significantly affected consequently. This data show that the new B.1.618 variant is an antibody-escaping variant with slightly altered ACE2–RBD affinity. Moreover, we provide insights into the binding and structural-dynamics changes resulting from novel mutations in the RBD and NTD. Our results suggest the need for further in vitro and in vivo studies that will facilitate the development of possible therapies for new variants such as B.1.618. This study explored the binding patterns of the wild type and B.1.618 variant using which revealed that the B.1.618 variant possess a stronger binding affinity for the host ACE2 and escape the neutralizing antibodies.

19.
RSC advances ; 12(12):7318-7327, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787253

ABSTRACT

A new variant of SARS-CoV-2 known as the omicron variant (B.1.1.529) reported in South Africa with 30 mutations in the whole spike protein, among which 15 mutations are in the receptor-binding domain, is continuously spreading exponentially around the world. The omicron variant is reported to be highly contagious with antibody-escaping activity. The emergence of antibody-escaping variants is alarming, and thus the quick discovery of small molecule inhibitors is needed. Hence, the current study uses computational drug screening and molecular dynamics simulation approaches (replicated) to identify novel drugs that can inhibit the binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) with hACE2. Screening of the North African, East African and North-East African medicinal compound databases by employing a multi-step screening approach revealed four compounds, namely (−)-pipoxide (C1), 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl) benzofuran-6-ol (C2), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy}-1,3-propanediol (C3), and Rhein (C4), with excellent anti-viral properties against the RBD of the omicron variant. Investigation of the dynamics demonstrates stable behavior, good residue flexibility profiles, and structural compactness. Validation of the top hits using computational bioactivity analysis, binding free energy calculations and dissociation constant (KD) analysis also indicated the anti-viral properties of these compounds. In conclusion, this study will help in the design and discovery of novel drug therapeutics, which may be used against the emerging omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. A new variant of SARS-CoV-2 known as the omicron variant (B.1.1.529) reported in South Africa with 30 mutations in the whole spike protein, among which 15 mutations are in the receptor-binding domain, is continuously spreading exponentially around the world.

20.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776294

ABSTRACT

The continued emergence of human coronaviruses (hCoVs) in the last few decades has posed an alarming situation and requires advanced cross-protective strategies against these pandemic viruses. Among these, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been highly associated with lethality in humans. Despite the challenges posed by these viruses, it is imperative to develop effective antiviral therapeutics and vaccines for these human-infecting viruses. The proteomic similarity between the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) among the three viral species offers a potential target for advanced cross-protective vaccine designs. In this study, putative immunogenic epitopes including Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), Helper T Lymphocytes (HTLs), and Beta-cells (B-cells) were predicted for each RBD-containing region of the three highly pathogenic hCoVs. This was followed by the structural organization of peptide- and mRNA-based prophylactic vaccine designs. The validated 3D structures of these epitope-based vaccine designs were subjected to molecular docking with human TLR4. Furthermore, the CTL and HTL epitopes were processed for binding with respective human Lymphocytes Antigens (HLAs). In silico cloning designs were obtained for the prophylactic vaccine designs and may be useful in further experimental designs. Additionally, the epitope-based vaccine designs were evaluated for immunogenic activity through immune simulation. Further studies may clarify the safety and efficacy of these prophylactic vaccine designs through experimental testing against these human-pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proteomics , RNA, Messenger , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccinology
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