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1.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(19):6023-6034, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2080850

ABSTRACT

Objective To screen the potential quality markers (Q-Marker) of anti-coronavirus of Huoxiang Zhengqi Shui (, HZS) based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) fingerprints and molecular docking. Methods UPLC-Q-TOF-MS fingerprints and chemometric methods were employed to establish fingerprints and find out the difference between the peaks for the 27 batches of HZS samples. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibition potential of the differential compounds among the 27 batches of HZS were further predicted by molecular docking with remdesivir as positive control. Results The UPLC-Q-TOF-MS fingerprints of 27 batches of HZS samples were set up with 27 common peaks. Combined with hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), 14 common peaks were determined as differential compounds, and nine of them were identified as hesperidin, oxypeucedanin, neobyakangelicol, sinensetin, glycyrrhizic acid, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, tangeretin, imperatorin and phellopterin. Molecular docking results showed that a total of six differential compounds were proven to have a certain inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, which can be used as potential Q-Marker of HZS, including hesperidin, oxypeucedanin, neobyakangelicol, glycyrrhizic acid, imperatorin and phellopterin. Conclusion The potential Q-Marker of HZS was determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS fingerprints, chemometric analysis and molecular docking. This method may provide a certain reference for the identification of various drug components, analysis of the differences of the same type drug components and pharmaceutical activity evaluation. Copyright © 2022 Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All rights reserved.

2.
23rd ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, MobiHoc 2022 ; : 141-150, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2079040

ABSTRACT

We consider the problem of controlling a mutated diffusion process with an unknown mutation time. The problem is formulated as the quickest intervention problem with the mutation modeled by a change-point, which is a generalization of the quickest change-point detection (QCD). Our goal is to intervene in the mutated process as soon as possible while maintaining a low intervention cost with optimally chosen intervention actions. This model and the proposed algorithms can be applied to pandemic prevention (such as Covid-19) or misinformation containment. We formulate the problem as a partially observed Markov decision process (POMDP) and convert it to an MDP through the belief state of the change-point. We first propose a grid-approximation approach to calculate the optimal intervention policy, whose computational complexity could be very high when the number of grids is large. In order to reduce the computational complexity, we further propose a low-complexity threshold-based policy through the analysis of the first-order approximation of the value functions in the "local intervention"regime. Simulation results show the low-complexity algorithm has a similar performance as the grid-approximation approach and both perform much better than the QCD-based algorithms. © 2022 ACM.

3.
ECONOMICS OF THE PANDEMIC: Weathering the Storm and Restoring Growth ; : 46-71, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068454
4.
Talanta ; 251:123813, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049950

ABSTRACT

Currently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ravaging the world, causing serious crisis in economy and human health. The top priority is the detection and drug development of the novel coronavirus. The gold standard for real-time diagnosis of coronavirus disease is the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which is usually operatively complex and time-consuming. Biosensors are known for their low cost and rapid detection, which are developing rapidly in detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The current study showed that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 will bind to angiotensin-converting hormone 2 (ACE2) to mediate the entry of the virus into cells. Interestingly, the affinity between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein increases with the mutation of the virus. Using ACE2 as a biosensor recognition receptor to detect SARS-CoV-2 will effectively avoid the decline of detection accuracy and false negative caused by variants. In fact, due to the variation of the virus, it may even lead to enhanced detection performance. In addition, ACE2-specific drugs to prevent SARS-CoV-2 from entering cells will be effectively evaluated using the biosensors even with virus mutations. Here, we reviewed the biosensors for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 by ACE2 and discussed the advantages of ACE2 as an antibody for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants. The review also discussed the value of ACE2-based biosensors for screening for drugs that modulate the interaction between ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2.

5.
2022 3rd International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications, CIBDA 2022 ; : 84-89, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012685

ABSTRACT

Considering the transmission mechanism of COVID-19 and the isolation measures adopted, a SIR model with isolation measures and nonlinear infection rate was established, and the transmission trend of COVID-19 was obtained by simulation. The comparison of simulation results with COVID-19 data suggests that isolation measures have played a key role in controlling the outbreak. Different execution times of isolation measures were set in the model and multiple sets of simulation experiments were performed. The results showed that isolation measures should be implemented as soon as possible in order to control the epidemic as soon as possible. At the same time, in order to better control the development of the epidemic, the control in the later stages of the epidemic should not be reduced in strength. The research results can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the scientific prevention and control of COVID-19 and other large-scale infectious diseases in the future. © VDE VERLAG GMBH - Berlin - Offenbach.

6.
Yaoxue Xuebao ; 57(6):1808-1815, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1998089

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Fufang yinhua jiedu (FFYH) granules against coronavirus and its potential mechanism, we used Huh7, Huh7.5, H460, and C3A cell lines as in vitro models to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of FFYH by observation of cell pathogenic effect (CPE);and then the inhibitory effect of FFYH on the transcription expression of coronavirus RNA and inflammatory factor mRNA were evaluated by quantitive reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR);finally, the inhibitory effect of FFYH on the expression of coronavirus protein and its underlying mechanism against coronavirus were investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Our results indicated that 50% toxic concentration (TC50) FFYH on Huh7, Huh7.5, H460, and C3A cells were 2 035.21, 5 245.69, 2 935.28 and 520 µg·mL-1, respectively;50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of FFYH on HCoV-229E in Huh7 and Huh7.5 cells were 438.16 and 238.54 µg·mL-1 with safety index (SI) of 4.64 and 21.99, respectively;IC50 of FFYH on HCoV-OC43 in H460 cells was 165.13 µg·mL-1 with SI of 17.78. Moreover, FFYH not only could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E) through inhibiting the transcription of viral RNA and the expression of viral protein, but also effectively suppress the expression of inflammatory factors interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) at mRNA level caused by coronaviruses, which might be associated with the inhibitory effect of FFYH on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and the nuclear translocation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, our results demonstrated that FFYH exhibited a good in vitro anti-coronavirus effect, which provides a theoretical basis for its clinical use in the treatment of anti-coronavirus pneumonia.

7.
Journal of Media Ethics: Exploring Questions of Media Morality ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984975

ABSTRACT

Large-scale social media services have been challenged due to their lack of ethical principles, which has resulted in allegations of user manipulation such as propagation of fake news related to COVID-19 vaccination and biased algorithmic curations that lead to social polarization. We studied current social media community guidelines and conducted a systematic literature review to identify the core values needed for the establishment of guidelines for responsible social media services. Through expert interviews, a framework and guidelines are proposed for each of three areas: protecting privacy, raising awareness, and controlling abuse. We present each set of guidelines with executable principles and relevant design interventions that practitioners can use to offer responsible social media services. Our expert interviews surfaced tensions between the three areas that need to be addressed in developing responsible social media, such as privacy vs. sharing information, pseudonymity vs. safety, and spreading information vs. safety. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

8.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(4):245-250, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928717

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genome characteristics and variations in nucleotides and amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 causing an outbreak in Henan Province in November 2021 and perform the traceability analysis.Methods In this study, throat swab specimens from cases in the acute phase were collected and tested for the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR.SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive samples were subjected to high-throughput genome sequencing and whole-genome alignment analysis.Results The median Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene in 70 positive specimens was 26.41 (15.58 to 39.27) and 24.43 (12.04 to 39.74), respectively.Compared with the sequence of Wuhan-Hu(NC_045512) reference strain, 47 to 49 nucleotide mutations sharing 47 nucleotide mutation and 41 amino acid mutations were found in 63 strains of successfully sequenced SARS-CoV-2.Nine nucleotide mutations and 12 amino acid mutations were found in the spike protein.The index case shared 47 mutations with the Russian imported cases in Henan Province on October 14 and the local cases in Jiangxi Province in October.Moreover, their genomes were highly homologous and they all belonged to the Delta variant (AY.122 evolutionary branch).Conclusions Continuous monitoring of imported COVID-19 cases and prolonging the period of quarantine were needed to reduce the risk of local outbreak and epidemic caused by imported COVID-19 cases.Analysis of the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the variations in nucleotides and amino acids was conducive to trace the origin of COVID-19 outbreak quickly and provide reference for precise control.

9.
Journal of Geo-Information Science ; 24(6):1019-1033, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903896

ABSTRACT

The "Belt and Road" is a major international cooperation initiative proposed by China to adapt to current development needs. It has six economic corridors as its core pillars. The region of interest spans the three continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa, involving a large number of countries with varied regional geographical conditions and complex resources and environment backgrounds. Determination of resources and environmental information along the routes in a systematic and comprehensive manner will play a crucial role in decision-making support for promoting the scientific implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative. Considering the complex background of geographical resources, the environment, and the diverse international cooperation needs, the exploitation and utilization of resources and environmental information along the "Belt and Road" face several opportunities and challenges. This paper proposes a Spatial Information Service System for the Belt and Road Initiative, which is oriented toward collaborative innovation. Two technical routes, top to bottom and bottom to top, are used to demonstrate the overall framework of information acquisition and utilization, and generation of information services for decision support. The progress on resources and environmental information development and services in the six economic corridors is reviewed, including resources and environment patterns and their spatiotemporal evolution, monitoring and evaluation of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), key technology application in disaster risk reduction knowledge service, resources and environmental information integration and sharing, and the effect of COVID-19 on economic and social development, which can provide a reasonable foundation and reference for the establishment of a comprehensive system for "Belt and Road" resource, environment, and spatial information service. Finally, the development trends and the main directions for potential research and cooperation are highlighted, including strengthening the comprehensive collection and service capabilities of basic resource and environmental data, providing further contributions to data and methods on SDGs target monitoring and evaluation in China, integrating the entire chain of data, information, and knowledge of disaster risk reduction applications, promoting the integration and sharing of resource and environmental data with harmonized standards, and promoting the construction and application of collaborative innovation platforms involving multiple parties. The research would provide a reference for promoting the development and utilization of synchronous data resources, information integration and sharing, and the construction of collaborative innovation application environment of the "Belt and Road" economic corridor, thus, promoting decision-making support for the sustainable development of the "Belt and Road" Initiative. © 2022, Science Press. All right reserved.

10.
European Journal of Human Genetics ; 30(SUPPL 1):466-466, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1819264
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(6): 2201-2214, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776800

ABSTRACT

Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis plays an important role as an upstream pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and correction of Ca2+ dysregulation has been increasingly proposed as a target of future effective disease-modified drugs for treating AD. Calcium dysregulation is also an upstream pathology for the COVID-19 virus SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, leading to host cell damage. Clinically available drugs that can inhibit the disturbed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis have been repurposed to treat COVID-19 patients. This narrative review aims at exploring the underlying mechanism by which lithium, a first line drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder, inhibits Ca2+ dysregulation and associated downstream pathology in both AD and COVID-19. It is suggested that lithium can be repurposed to treat AD patients, especially those afflicted with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lithium/therapeutic use , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1759469

ABSTRACT

Online exams have become widely used to evaluate students' performance in mastering knowledge in recent years, especially during the pandemic of COVID-19. However, it is challenging to conduct proctoring for online exams due to the lack of face-to-face interaction. Also, prior research has shown that online exams are more vulnerable to various cheating behaviors, which can damage their credibility. This paper presents a novel visual analytics approach to facilitate the proctoring of online exams by analyzing the exam video records and mouse movement data of each student. Specifically, we detect and visualize suspected head and mouse movements of students in three levels of detail, which provides course instructors and teachers with convenient, efficient and reliable proctoring for online exams. Our extensive evaluations, including usage scenarios, a carefully-designed user study and expert interviews, demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of our approach.

13.
14.
4th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Aided Education, ICISCAE 2021 ; : 2694-2698, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1566402

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 that has continued since the end of 2019 has made the use of online teaching an important and feasible way to relieve the pressure of offline school hours during the epidemic, avoid the large-scale spread of the epidemic, and ensure that the annual teaching plan is completed on time. The online teaching caused by the epidemic is different from the normal online teaching application in terms of reasons, expected purpose, and organization methods. Based on the comparative analysis of the existing main online teaching organization forms, the online teaching organization forms in special periods are discussed from the aspects of curriculum content design and teaching methods. We have proposed an all-on-line hybrid teaching model of online self-study and online live broadcast interaction. Teaching practice shows that it has promotion value for teaching organization and implementation under special circumstances of teacher-student space isolation, and has reference significance for the application of online teaching in daily teaching reform. © 2021 ACM.

15.
Chinese Journal of Psychiatry ; 54(2):81-86, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1403897

ABSTRACT

【Abstract】 After the epidemic of COVID‑19 has been basically under control interiorly, China is under the situation of regular epidemic prevention and control. Hence a reflection on the problems about the risk of gaming disorder in the epidemic period can be helpful to mental health professionals who prevent and control gaming disorder. The authors clarified the improper publicity of the gaming industry and false media report, and also reviewed the trend of game using was rapidly rising and game market was rapidly expanding. Consequently, as the author addressed, the health risks due to excessive gaming patterns were increasing. This review also pointed out and analyzed some new trend of the expansion of female game users during the epidemic, and the further in-depth integration of games and gambling. Finally, some advice was provided to the mental health workers to cope with the increasing risk of gaming disorder during a post-epidemic era. © Chinese Journal of Psychiatry 2021.

16.
Ieee Access ; 8:164705-164716, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1396622

ABSTRACT

In this paper, considering the difference in social distancing among individuals, according to the extent of social distancing, a group composed of N mobile agents is divided into multiple different subgroups. Especially, from the perspective of differential game theory, the flocking problem of different subgroups can be regarded as collision avoidance between neighboring agents, or obstacle avoidance between agents and virtual static/dynamic obstacles. To explore the internal mechanism of this interesting problem, a novel flocking algorithm with multiple virtual leaders is designed. The proposed algorithm is a modified version of the traditional flocking and semi-flocking algorithms. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem and LaSalle's invariance principle, the stability analysis of the proposed algorithm is then proven. Furthermore, considering the complex environment that swarm robots or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may face when performing military missions such as surveillance, reconnaissance, and rescue, etc., we also investigate the flocking problem of multi-agents in both virtual static and dynamic obstacles environment. Finally, three kinds of simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.

17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3136-3144, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194855

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis via excessive and pathological Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through ryanodine receptor (RyRs) Ca2+ channels play a critical role in the pathology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and associated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in sepsis or septic shock. Dantrolene, a potent inhibitor of RyRs, is expected to ameliorate SIRS and MODS and decrease mortality in sepsis or septic shock patients. This review summarized the potential mechanisms of therapeutic effects of dantrolene in sepsis or septic shock at molecular, cell, and organ levels and provided suggestions and strategies for future clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Dantrolene/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Humans , Mortality , Multiple Organ Failure , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Shock, Septic/metabolism
18.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 42(2):197-200, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1190620

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 induced deaths and analyze the causes of death. Methods: This was a hospital-based, retrospective, observational cohort study involving hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in People's Hospital of Wuhan University during January 27 and February 25, 2020. The clinical data of identified patients who had died of COVID-19 were retrieved and reviewed. We analyzed the death causes and compared the changes in laboratory findings between patients before death and early onset to summarize the inherent clinical characteristics. Results: We recorded a total of 21 deaths, 61.9% of which had occurred due to simple respiratory failure, followed by respiratory failure with myocardial injury (19%), respiratory failure with renal failure (9.5%), and respiratory failure with shock (9.5%). At the late time, lab test data indicated that white blood cells, D-dimer, amino-terminal brain natriuretic peptide precursors, and hypersensitive C-reactive protein significantly increased while counts of lymphosyte significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Continuous monitoring of cardiac function, renal function, and infection severity can assess the disease progression accurately. Moreover, timely intervention has a positive effect in reducing COVID-19 mortality. © 2021, Editorial Board of Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences). All right reserved.

19.
The Medical journal / US Army Medical Center of Excellence ; - (PB 8-21-01/02/03):83-89, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117857

ABSTRACT

With limited clinical resources, burgeoning testing requests from Army and other Service units to clinical laboratories, and the continued spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the military population, the Army Public Health Laboratory (APHL) Enterprise was tasked to establish surveillance testing capabilities for active duty military populations in an expedient manner. Following a proof-of-concept study conducted by Public Health Command-Pacific, Public Health Command-Europe was the first public health laboratory to offer the capability to assess for SARS-CoV-2 in pooled samples, followed closely by the Army Public Health Center (APHC) at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD, paralleling the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from China to Europe to the continental US. The APHLs have selected pool sizes of up to 10 samples per pool based on the best evidence available at the time of method development and validation. Real-Time quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) assays using RNA extracts from pooled nasopharyngeal swabs preserved in viral transport media were selected to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2. The rapid development of initial surveillance testing capabilities depended on existing equipment in each laboratory, with a plan to implement full operational capability using additional staff and common high-throughput platforms. APHL Enterprise has successfully used existing resources to begin to address the changing and complex needs for COVID-19 testing within the Army population. Successful implementation of pooled surveillance testing at the APHC Laboratory has enabled more than 8,600 Soldiers to avoid clinical testing to date. The APHC Laboratory alone has tested over 10,000 samples and prevented approximately 8,600 soldiers from seeking testing with clinical diagnostic assays.

20.
J. Phys. Conf. Ser. ; 1693, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1026902

ABSTRACT

Under the background of the global COVID-19 pandemic, the global COVID-19 epidemic spread was modeled and analyzed, and its future trend was predicted. The dataset covers 163 countries and almost 2 full months from 2020, which is enough data to get some clues about the pandemic. The epidemic situation was predicted by the fusion of SIR model and ML regression, and the results showed that the model analysis was basically consistent with the real performance of the epidemic development. Finally, the development stage and trend of the epidemic situation are evaluated to provide a basis for the government to formulate relevant epidemic prevention policies. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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