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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22280238

ABSTRACT

Using high-throughput sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, we have analyzed 2405 PCR-positive swab samples from 2339 individuals and identified the Omicron BA.2.3.7 variant as a major lineage of the recent community outbreak in Taiwan. Since April 2022, a series of new waves of Omicron cases have surfaced in Taiwan and spread throughout the island. We conducted genomic surveillance with a high success rate and have submitted 1966 full-length Omicron sequences to GISAID. This has permitted identification of signature amino acid changes (ORF1a:L631F, S:K97E, N:M322I) in 1584 (80.6%) of the translated SARS-CoV-2 sequences. The newly established BA.2.3.7 lineage, which is relatively common in Asian countries, is now persistently present in Taiwan. By June 2022 this dominant strain had established a substantial existence in the sequence pool, resulting in additional mutations. The rapid spread and expansion of the Omicron BA.2.3.7 lineage in Asia has had an important socioeconomic impact on health policy.

2.
Arthritis & Rheumatology ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gout patients often have multiple comorbidities, making them susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe outcomes;however, few studies have examined the association between gout and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe sequelae, especially after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: We conducted two cohort studies using The Health Improvement Network. Individuals with gout and those without gout from the general population were followed from December 8th , 2020, to October 31st , 2021. We estimated the rate difference (RD) and hazard ratio (HR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its severe outcomes (i.e., hospitalization and death over 30 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection) for individuals with gout versus those without gout using Cox proportional hazard model according to COVID-19 vaccination status. We adjusted potential confounders using overlap weighting of exposure score. RESULTS: Among the vaccinated cohort, 1,955 cases of breakthrough infection occurred in 54,576 individuals with gout (4.68/1000 person-months) and 52,468 cases in 1,336,377 individuals without gout (3.76/1000 person-months). The adjusted RD of breakthrough infection was 0.91 (95%CI: 0.62-1.20)/1000 person-months, and the adjusted HR was 1.24 (95%CI: 1.19-1.30). Gout was also associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (adjusted HR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.10-1.53) and death (adjusted HR=1.36, 95%CI: 0.87-2.13). Women with gout showed an increased risk of hospitalization (adjusted HR 1.55, 95%CI: 1.15-2.10) and death (adjusted HR=2.46, 95%CI: 1.12-5.41). Similar associations with gout were observed in the unvaccinated cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These general population data suggest that individuals with gout, especially women, have higher risks of both SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe sequelae, even with vaccinations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
JAMA Ophthalmology ; 08:08, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013257
5.
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 5(7):760, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003609

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Food and Drug Administration authorized baricitinib and tocilizumab for emergency use for the treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in high-risk hospitalized patients. To balance the scarcity of drug with broad emergency use authorization criteria, our facility imposed more stringent criteria. While both drugs have been shown to reduce 28-day mortality in COVID-19, it is unclear if one drug has a place in therapy different from the other. Research Question or Hypothesis: Is there a significant difference in 28-day mortality between patients treated with baricitinib compared to tocilizumab? Study Design: Single-center, retrospective cohort Methods: The electronic medical record was queried for all consecutive patients who received either baricitinib or tocilizumab in a 6-month period. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality in COVID-19 patients who received either drug. Patients had to receive concomitant corticosteroids and supplemental oxygenation not more than 24 hours before therapy initiation. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, incidence of secondary bacterial infections (SBI), and other relevant comparisons. Fisher's Exact Test was used to compare categorical data;independent samples t-test and Wilcoxon Rank Sum were used to compare normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Results: Fifty patients were included: 8 (16%) received baricitinib and 42 (84%) received tocilizumab. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups including APACHE-II score (21.02±16.54). 28-day mortality was higher for tocilizumab (50% vs. 12.5%, p=0.064) but did not reach significance. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher for tocilizumab (57.1% vs. 12.5%, p=0.049). There was no significant difference in the incidence of SBI or vasopressor requirements between the groups. Conclusion: Although tocilizumab resulted in significantly higher inhospital mortality, these patients could have been unable to take oral agents, like baricitinib, and have had further progression of COVID- 19. Until larger studies are conducted, the choice of one agent over another will likely be based on situation-specific factors.

7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8802, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864768

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic struck the world unguarded, some places outperformed others in COVID-19 containment. This longitudinal study considered a comparative evaluation of COVID-19 containment across 50 distinctly governed regions between March 2020 and November 2021. Our analysis distinguishes between a pre-vaccine phase (March-November 2020) and a vaccinating phase (December 2020-November 2021). In the first phase, we develop an indicator, termed lockdown efficiency (LE), to estimate the efficacy of measures against monthly case numbers. Nine other indicators were considered, including vaccine-related indicators in the second phase. Linear mixed models are used to explore the relationship between each government policy & hygiene education (GP&HE) indicator and each vital health & socioeconomic (VH&SE) measure. Our ranking shows that surveyed countries in Oceania and Asian outperformed countries in other regions for pandemic containment prior to vaccine development. Their success appears to be associated with non-pharmaceutical interventions, acting early, and adjusting policies as needed. After vaccines have been distributed, maintaining non-pharmacological intervention is the best way to achieve protection from variant viral strains, breakthrough infections, waning vaccine efficacy, and vaccine hesitancy limiting of herd immunity. The findings of the study provide insights into the effectiveness of emerging infectious disease containment policies worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy
8.
Epidemiology ; 70(SUPPL 1):S272, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1853995

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of COVID-19 has affected the physical and emotional health of individuals globally. While studies have focused on the virus and its effect on health, the emotional impact of COVID-19 on older adults has not been well studied. Methods: We administered an anonymous survey to discern the emotional impact of the current pandemic on community-dwelling adults living in central Arkansas. Participants were surveyed about stress levels and coping strategies as well as their perception of pandemic media coverage. Results: 124 adults (80% women, 20% men) over age 18 completed the survey. 72% were white and 23% were African American. 71% were aged ≥60 years, while 29% were under 60 years old. 30% of younger adults were unemployed or retired, vs. 76% of older adults. 72% of younger adults selected shortages at the store as the greatest stressor, whereas only 45% of older adults selected this option. Also, 78% of younger adults reported that family support helped them deal with stress while only 52% of older adults chose family support and relied equally on friends. Approximately half of older adults, 53% found TV and newspaper coverage on COVID- 19 useful. In contrast, only 31% of younger adults found the media coverage useful and 42% stated that it actually increased their anxiety. These age differences in perspectives and emotional impact were found to be significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: The spread of COVID-19 has brought about new stressors and definitions of social support that has impacted emotional health. Our findings showed some interesting age-associated differences in stress management. Commodity shortages created more stress for younger versus older adults. The majority of younger adults leaned on family support to help them deal with the pandemic stress, while approximately half the older adults coped by talking with their friends. For the most part, younger adults found media coverage of COVID-19 anxiety-provoking while older adults found it to be useful and informative. There might be many underlying reasons why older adults perceived less stress, but it is important to realize that a circle of friends and frequent communication can help older adults perceive less stress than younger adults even during a pandemic.

9.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334677

ABSTRACT

We conducted preclinical studies in mice using a yeast-produced SARS-CoV-2 RBD subunit vaccine candidate formulated with aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG deoxynucleotides. This formulation is equivalent to the CorbevaxTM vaccine that recently received emergency use authorization by the Drugs Controller General of India. We compared the immune response of mice vaccinated with RBD/alum to mice vaccinated with RBD/alum+CpG. We also evaluated mice immunized with RBD/alum+CpG and boosted with RBD/alum. Mice were immunized twice intramuscularly at a 21-day interval. Compared to two doses of the/alum formulation, the RBD/alum+CpG vaccine induced a stronger and more balanced Th1/Th2 cellular immune response, with high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the original Wuhan isolate of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 and (Delta) variants. Neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.1.529 (BA.1, Omicron) variant exceeded those in human convalescent plasma after Wuhan infection but were lower than against the other variants. Interestingly, the second dose did not benefit from the addition of CpG, possibly allowing dose-sparing of the adjuvant in the future. The data reported here reinforces that the RBD/alum+CpG vaccine formulation is suitable for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 including variants of concern.

10.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333572

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a pandemic with growing global mortality. There is an urgent need to understand the molecular pathways required for host infection and anti-viral immunity. Using comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS), we identified 309 host proteins that bind the SARS-CoV-2 RNA during active infection. Integration of this data with viral ChIRP-MS data from three other positive-sense RNA viruses defined pan-viral and SARS-CoV-2-specific host interactions. Functional interrogation of these factors with a genome-wide CRISPR screen revealed that the vast majority of viral RNA-binding proteins protect the host from virus-induced cell death, and we identified known and novel anti-viral proteins that regulate SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Finally, our RNA-centric approach demonstrated a physical connection between SARS-CoV-2 RNA and host mitochondria, which we validated with functional and electron microscopy data, providing new insights into a more general virus-specific protein logic for mitochondrial interactions. Altogether, these data provide a comprehensive catalogue of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-host protein interactions, which may inform future studies to understand the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, as well as nominate host pathways that could be targeted for therapeutic benefit. HIGHLIGHTS: . ChIRP-MS of SARS-CoV-2 RNA identifies a comprehensive viral RNA-host protein interaction network during infection across two species. Comparison to RNA-protein interaction networks with Zika virus, dengue virus, and rhinovirus identify SARS-CoV-2-specific and pan-viral RNA protein complexes and highlights distinct intracellular trafficking pathways. Intersection of ChIRP-MS and genome-wide CRISPR screens identify novel SARS-CoV-2-binding proteins with pro- and anti-viral function. Viral RNA-RNA and RNA-protein interactions reveal specific SARS-CoV-2-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction during infection.

11.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333567

ABSTRACT

Identifying drugs that regulate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its symptoms has been a pressing area of investigation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are frequently used for the relief of pain and inflammation, could modulate both SARS-CoV-2 infection and the host response to the virus. NSAIDs inhibit the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which mediate the production of prostaglandins (PGs). PGE 2 , one of the most abundant PGs, has diverse biological roles in homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Previous studies have shown that NSAID treatment or inhibition of PGE 2 receptor signaling leads to upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2, thus raising concerns that NSAIDs could increase susceptibility to infection. COX/PGE 2 signaling has also been shown to regulate the replication of many viruses, but it is not yet known whether it plays a role in SARS-CoV-2 replication. The purpose of this study was to dissect the effect of NSAIDs on COVID-19 in terms of SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection induced COX-2 upregulation in diverse human cell culture and mouse systems. However, suppression of COX-2/PGE 2 signaling by two commonly used NSAIDs, ibuprofen and meloxicam, had no effect on ACE2 expression, viral entry, or viral replication. Our findings suggest that COX-2 signaling driven by SARS-CoV-2 may instead play a role in regulating the lung inflammation and injury observed in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE: Public health officials have raised concerns about the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treating symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). NSAIDs function by inhibiting the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These enzymes are critical for the generation of prostaglandins, lipid molecules with diverse roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as regulating the inflammatory response. While COX-1/COX-2 signaling pathways have been shown to affect the replication of many viruses, their effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unknown. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection induced COX-2 expression in both human cell culture systems and mouse models. However, inhibition of COX-2 activity with NSAIDs did not affect SARS-CoV-2 entry or replication. Our findings suggest that COX-2 signaling may instead regulate the lung inflammation observed in COVID-19 patients, which is an important area for future studies.

12.
Journal of Virology ; 96(1):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1756184

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 emerged, causing severe human respiratory diseases throughout the globe. Developing broad-spectrum drugs would be invaluable in responding to new, emerging coronaviruses and to address unmet urgent clinical needs. Main protease (Mpro;also known as 3CL(pro)) has a major role in the coronavirus life cycle and is one of the most important targets for anti-coronavirus agents. We show that a natural product, noncovalent inhibitor, shikonin, is a pan-main protease inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E with micromolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Structures of the main protease of different coronavirus genus, SARS-CoV from the betacoronavirus genus and HCoV-NL63 from the alphacoronavirus genus, were determined by X-ray crystallography and revealed that the inhibitor interacts with key active site residues in a unique mode. The structure of the main protease inhibitor complex presents an opportunity to discover a novel series of broad-spectrum inhibitors. These data provide substantial evidence that shikonin and its derivatives may be effective against most coronaviruses as well as emerging coronaviruses of the future. Given the importance of the main protease for coronavirus therapeutic indication, insights from these studies should accelerate the development and design of safer and more effective antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic has created an urgent need for broad-spectrum inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. The main protease is relatively conservative compared to the spike protein and, thus, is one of the most promising targets in developing anticoronavirus agents. We solved the crystal structures of the main protease of SARSCoV and HCoV-NL63 that bound to shikonin. The structures provide important insights, have broad implications for understanding the structural basis underlying enzyme activity, and can facilitate rational design of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus ligands as new therapeutic agents.

13.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-331005

ABSTRACT

Synthetic glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone, have been used as treatment for many immune conditions, such as asthma and more recently severe COVID-19. Single cell data can capture more fine-grained details on transcriptional variability and dynamics to gain a better understanding of the molecular underpinnings of inter-individual variation in drug response. Here, we used single cell RNA-seq to study the dynamics of the transcriptional response to glucocorticoids in activated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from 96 African American children. We employed novel statistical approaches to calculate a mean-independent measure of gene expression variability and a measure of transcriptional response pseudotime. Using these approaches, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids reverse the effects of immune stimulation on both gene expression mean and variability. Our novel measure of gene expression response dynamics, based on the diagonal linear discriminant analysis, separated individual cells by response status on the basis of their transcriptional profiles and allowed us to identify different dynamic patterns of gene expression along the response pseudotime. We identified genetic variants regulating gene expression mean and variability, including treatment-specific effects, and demonstrated widespread genetic regulation of the transcriptional dynamics of the gene expression response.

14.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330530

ABSTRACT

We investigated anti-spike IgG antibody responses and correlates of protection following second doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the UK general population. In 222,493 individuals, we found significant boosting of anti-spike IgG by second doses of both vaccines in all ages and using different dosing intervals, including the 3-week interval for BNT162b2. After second vaccination, BNT162b2 generated higher peak levels than ChAdOX1. Older individuals and males had lower peak levels with BNT162b2 but not ChAdOx1, while declines were similar across ages and sexes with ChAdOX1 or BNT162b2. Prior infection significantly increased antibody peak level and half-life with both vaccines. Anti-spike IgG levels were associated with protection from infection after vaccination and, to an even greater degree, after prior infection. At least 67% protection against infection was estimated to last for 2-3 months after two ChAdOx1 doses and 5-8 months after two BNT162b2 doses in those without prior infection, and 1-2 years for those unvaccinated after natural infection. A third booster dose may be needed, prioritised to ChAdOx1 recipients and those more clinically vulnerable.

15.
Breast ; 56:S61-S62, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735078

ABSTRACT

Goals: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to strain healthcare systems globally. The ESMO COVID-19 adapted recommendations1 advocate for the use of pre-operative/neoadjuvant endocrine therapy as a strategy to defer surgery by 6–12 months in clinical stage I-II breast cancers to prioritize resources for patients that require urgent care. Accurate risk assessment is an integral component of this prioritization process. Adjuvant studies such as MINDACT showed that up to 46% of clinically high risk tumors were classified as genomic Low Risk with MammaPrint, and still have excellent outcomes at 8-yrs with endocrine therapy alone, highlighting the potential for overtreatment if using clinical-risk alone. Here, gene expression results with MammaPrint (MP) and BluePrint (BP) were compared between pre-operative core needle biopsy (CNB) and postoperative surgical resection (SR) specimens to evaluate test performance across specimen type. Methods: 10,574 routine diagnostic samples from outside the US submitted to Agendia between Jan 2017 and Oct 2020 were included in this study.MP and BP testingwere processed according to standard FFPE microarray procedures. MP was used to stratify samples into Ultra LowRisk (UL), LowRisk (LR), and High Risk (HR). BPwas used to classify samples into Basal, Luminal or HER2-type. MP Index (MPI) distribution on BP defined Luminal-type tumors were compared between CNB and SR samples. Comparative “logistics metrics” (avg. turnaround time [TAT] and success rate) were also assessed between these specimen types. Results: 10% of samples were CNB and 90% were SR (Table 1). BP Basal, Luminal and HER2-type distributions were 2%, 97%, and 1% respectively for CNB samples and 1%, 98.6%, and 0.4% respectively for SR samples. Within Luminal-type tumors (majority of the samples), the frequency of UL, LR, and HR results were 14%, 61%, and 39% for CNB, and 13%, 58%, and 42% for SR, respectively. Overall, MP Index distributions were similar between samples tested from CNB vs. SR. Average TAT and success rate % between CNB and SR were similar (Table 2).(Table Presented)Definitions: Turnaround Time (TAT) is calculated from the time a specimen is received at the laboratory to the time a result is available. Success % excludes test failures due to insufficient RNA yield % and sub-optimal RNA quality, and evaluates the total number of specimens that have met the pre-requisite 30% minimum invasive tumor requirement that have a valid result. Conclusion(s): The frequency of each MP risk group as well as the distribution pattern of MP Index were essentially identical between CNB and SR samples, indicating comparable performance regardless of specimen type. With timely TAT and no meaningful difference in MPI distribution between CNB and SR specimens, pre-operative use of MP+BP genomic testing on CNB can be incorporated into the preoperative treatment decision making process. Conflict of Interest: Employee of Agendia, equity/stock ownership interest.

16.
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1731041

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has been gradually valued due to its high prevalence, high risk, and high mortality. This article is to find an alternative to the polysomnography (PSG) OSAHS diagnosis method and assesses the subject's degree of illness considering the supply chain and Industry 5.0 requirement, efficiently, accurately and easily. The blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) signal is used to count the number of apnea or hypoventilation events. It extracts 35-dimensional features based on the time domain to enhance the process resilience, including approximate entropy, Centralized Trend Measurement (CTM), and LZ complexity for the diagnosis process in supply chains. This article summarizes the Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI) characteristics. The feature selection process is reduced from 35 to 7 dimensions and benefits the implementation in the practical supply chains in industry 5.0. A 92% accuracy rate is reached in assessing the prevalence of OSAHS, satisfying the industrial deployment. IEEE

17.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326943

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathogen SARS-CoV-2 has infected hundreds of millions and caused over 5 million deaths to date. Although multiple vaccines are available, breakthrough infections occur especially by emerging variants. Effective therapeutic options such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are still critical. Here, we report the development, cryo-EM structures, and functional analyses of mAbs that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. By high-throughput single cell sequencing of B cells from spike receptor binding domain (RBD) immunized animals, we identified two highly potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAb clones that have single-digit nanomolar affinity and low-picomolar avidity, and generated a bispecific antibody. Lead antibodies showed strong inhibitory activity against historical SARS-CoV-2 and several emerging variants of concern. We solved several cryo-EM structures at ~3 Å resolution of these neutralizing antibodies in complex with prefusion spike trimer ectodomain, and revealed distinct epitopes, binding patterns, and conformations. The lead clones also showed potent efficacy in vivo against authentic SARS-CoV-2 in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. We also generated and characterized a humanized antibody to facilitate translation and drug development. The humanized clone also has strong potency against both the original virus and the B.1.617.2 Delta variant. These mAbs expand the repertoire of therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307712

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness, novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia, occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Health care workers exposure to a high density of patients are at extremely high risk of becoming infected at the early outbreak of this disease for not realizing the fact of human-to-human transmission among close contacts at that time. The false-negative nasopharyngeal swabs of SARS-CoV-2 caused the delayed diagnosis of COVID-19. The nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in negative nasopharyngeal swabs cases were not reported previously. We wish to alert the potential transmission risk in COVID-19 patients with negative swab tests to the clinicians and stress the role of serological detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2.MethodsThis study evaluated a total of 6 cases and four of them were health care providers who worked in the same ward. All epidemiological and clinical information was collected. Respiratory samples of the patients were tested for influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RNA The reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was conducted and serological detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG/IgM is performed by chemiluminescence immunoassay kit.ResultsWe reported two related clusters of COVID-19 cases. The first cluster is a nosocomial infection of four health care providers at early January in one ward of university hospital. One of them made sequential familial cluster of infection. For total six cases, four of them (66.7%) showed negative RNA of SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swabs. All patients received either self-quarantined at home or were admitted to hospital for isolated treatment. All recovered and had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM positive (100%) for serological detection of SARS-CoV-2 at recovery stage.ConclusionsOur study provides a cautionary warning that negative results of nasopharyngeal swabs of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection can increase the risk of nosocomial infection among health care providers. Serologic detection for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM is an important test in the assistant diagnosis of COVID-19.

19.
2d Materials ; 9(1):8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585203

ABSTRACT

Recently, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally with major impact on public health. Novel methods that enable fast and efficient detection of the virus and the associated biomarkers, such as SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, may provide alterative opportunities for early diagnosis, disease status monitoring, and the development of vaccines. Here, we report the fabrication of a functionalized MoS2-field effect transistor (FET) for sensitive and quantitative detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (S-RBD) in vaccinated serum specimens. The device was modified by SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD fusion protein on the surface and enabled rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In addition, an on-chip calibration method was established for quantitative measurement. Furthermore, this method was applied to measure the levels of S-RBD antibodies in serum specimens from vaccinated donors. The devices showed no response to negative control samples from individuals who did not receive vaccination, suggesting the high specificity of this method. This study illustrated the successful fabrication of S-RBD functionalized MoS2-FET with potential clinical applications to facilitate vaccine development and efficacy evaluation.

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