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1.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 454, 2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967615

ABSTRACT

The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 dataset is one of the largest international databases of prospectively collected clinical data on people hospitalized with COVID-19. This dataset was compiled during the COVID-19 pandemic by a network of hospitals that collect data using the ISARIC-World Health Organization Clinical Characterization Protocol and data tools. The database includes data from more than 705,000 patients, collected in more than 60 countries and 1,500 centres worldwide. Patient data are available from acute hospital admissions with COVID-19 and outpatient follow-ups. The data include signs and symptoms, pre-existing comorbidities, vital signs, chronic and acute treatments, complications, dates of hospitalization and discharge, mortality, viral strains, vaccination status, and other data. Here, we present the dataset characteristics, explain its architecture and how to gain access, and provide tools to facilitate its use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3748, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908182

ABSTRACT

Given high SARS-CoV-2 incidence, coupled with slow and inequitable vaccine roll-out in many settings, there is a need for evidence to underpin optimum vaccine deployment, aiming to maximise global population immunity. We evaluate whether a single vaccination in individuals who have already been infected with SARS-CoV-2 generates similar initial and subsequent antibody responses to two vaccinations in those without prior infection. We compared anti-spike IgG antibody responses after a single vaccination with ChAdOx1, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the COVID-19 Infection Survey in the UK general population. In 100,849 adults median (50 (IQR: 37-63) years) receiving at least one vaccination, 13,404 (13.3%) had serological/PCR evidence of prior infection. Prior infection significantly boosted antibody responses, producing higher peak levels and/or longer half-lives after one dose of all three vaccines than those without prior infection receiving one or two vaccinations. In those with prior infection, the median time above the positivity threshold was >1 year after the first vaccination. Single-dose vaccination targeted to those previously infected may provide at least as good protection to two-dose vaccination among those without previous infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Chinese Journal of Dermatovenereology ; 36(5):593-598, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903929

ABSTRACT

The infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 may result in a series of skin damages. In addition, some patients report the re-activation of the varicella-zoster virus, which might be related to T cell immune dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recently, studies reported herpes zoster occurrence after inoculating the COVID-19 vaccine. At present, the mechanism of interaction between COVID-19, COVID-19 vaccine and herpes zoster remains unclear, and more high-quality studies are required to further define the relationship.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 1-11, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the role of CD4+ T cells in the mechanisms of COVID-19 related diarrhea. METHODS: We analyzed lymphocyte subsets in patients with COVID-19 and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the transmembrane protease serine 2, and CD4+ T cell-related indicators in the colon were compared between patients with and without diarrhea. Correlation analyses were performed for ACE2 and other indicators to identify the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and CD4+ mediated inflammation. The expression and distribution of CD4+ T cell-associated chemokines and their receptors were detected to determine the possibility of migration of CD4+ T cells to inflammation sites. RESULTS: The CD4+ T cell counts and percentages and CD4/CD8 ratio showed the most significant differences between the 2 groups. The diarrhea group expressed higher levels of ACE2, T-box expressed in T cells (Tbet), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) at both the mRNA and protein levels, with no difference from the nondiarrhea group for the percentage of ACE2+TNFα+ cells, indicating an indirect association between ACE2 and TNFα. The mRNA expression of CXCL10, CXCL11, and CXCR3 and the number of CD4+CXCR3+T cells were increased in the diarrhea group. CONCLUSIONS: CD4+ T cell-mediated inflammation may contribute to COVID-19 related diarrhea. CXCR3+ mediated migration of CD4+ T cells into the gut may perpetuate inflammation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea , Humans , Inflammation , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335237

ABSTRACT

Summary Background People living with chronic disease, particularly seniors older than 60 years old, are lagging behind in the national vaccination campaign in China due to uncertainty of safety and effectiveness. However, this special population made up of most severe symptom and death cases among infected patients and should be prioritized in vaccination program. In this retrospective study, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the CoronaVac inactivated vaccines in people with underlying medical conditions to address the vaccine hesitation in this special population. Methods In this cohort study, volunteers aged 40 years and older, had received two doses of CoronaVac inactivated vaccines (3-5 weeks interval), been healthy or with at least one of the six diseases: coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic respiratory disease (CRD), obesity and cancer, were recruited from 4 study sites in China. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events within 14 days after each dose of vaccination. The primary immunogenic outcome was geometric mean titer (GMT) of neutralizing antibodies to living SARS-CoV-2 virus at 14-28 days, 3 months, and 6 months after full two-dose vaccination. This study is registered with ChiCTR.org.cn (ChiCTR2200058281) and is active but no longer recruiting. Findings Among 1,302 volunteers screened between Jul 5 and Dec 30, 2021, 969 were eligible and enrolled in our cohort, including 740 living with underlying medical conditions and 229 as healthy control. All of them formed the safety cohort. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 150 (20.27%) of 740 in the comorbidities group versus 32 (13.97%) of 229 in the healthy group, with significant difference (P=0.0334). The difference was mainly contributed by fatigue and injection-site pain in some groups. Most adverse reactions were mild (Grade 1). We did not observe any serious adverse events related to vaccination. By day 14-28 post vaccination, the seroconversion rates and GMT of neutralizing antibody showed no significant difference between disease group and healthy group, except CAD group (P=0.03) and CRD group (P=0.04) showed slight reduction. By day 90, the neutralizing antibody GMTs were significantly reduced in each group, with no significant difference between diseases and healthy group. By day 180, the neutralizing antibody continued to decrease in each group, but with slower declination. Interpretation For people living with chronic disease especially seniors older than 60 years, the CoronaVac vaccines are as safe as in healthy people. Although the immunogenicity is slightly different in subgroup of some diseases compared with that of the healthy population, the overall trend was consistent. Our findings highlight the evidence to address vaccine hesitancy for seniors and people living with chronic diseases. Funding Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010, China), Sinovac Biotech Ltd (PRO-nCOV-4004).

6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 751828, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775939

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite growing recognition of hearing loss as a risk factor for late life cognitive disorders, sex and gender analysis of this association has been limited. Elucidating this is one means to advocate for holistic medicine by considering the psychosocial attributes of people. With a composite Gender Score (GS), we aimed to assess this among aging participants (50+) from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) cohort. Methods: The GS was derived from gender-related variables in HRS by factor analyses and logistic regression, ranging from 0 (toward masculinity) to 100 (toward femininity). GS tertiles were also used to indicate three gender types (GS tertile 1: lower GS indicates masculinity; GS tertile 2: middle GS indicates androgyny; GS tertile 3: higher GS indicates femininity). Univariate followed by multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cognitive impairment (assessed by adapted Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status) from hearing acuity, as well as to explore the interactions of sex and gender with hearing acuity. The risk of cognitive impairment among hearing-impaired participants was assessed using multivariable models including sex and gender as exposure variables. Results: Five variables (taking risks, loneliness, housework, drinking, and depression) were retained to compute the GS for each participant. The distribution of GS between sexes partly overlapped. After adjusting for confounding factors, the OR for cognitive impairment associated with hearing impairment was significantly higher (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.15), and this association was not modified by female sex (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.27), but by androgynous gender (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.81). In the multivariable models for participants with hearing impairment, androgynous and feminine gender, as opposed to female sex, was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment (OR of GS tertile 2 = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.84; OR of GS tertile 3 = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.87; OR of female sex = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.08). Conclusions: Hearing impairment was associated with cognitive impairment among older people, and this association may be attenuated by a more feminine GS.


Subject(s)
Hearing Loss , Aged , Cognition , Female , Femininity , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retirement
7.
Journal of Shandong University ; 59(7):104-111, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1737324

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether lung function was causally associated with risk of fatality of COVID-19 based on a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305021

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) may present with slight liver damage. In the global outbreak, the number of pregnant women infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is increasing. For the pregnant patients with ICP, COVID-19 may cause severe liver damage. Case presentation: A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted with fever and respiratory symptoms to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan amid the outbreak of COVID-19. Her chest CT scan showed an infection with viral pneumonia as multiple ground glass opacities in both lungs were spotted. Laboratory tests revealed increased white blood cell (WBC) count and decreased lymphocyte count. The levels of serum total bile acid (TBA) were highly elvated. So were the indices of liver function, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (?-GT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The patient was later diagnosed of COVID-19 with comorbid ICP, presenting severe liver damage. Through timely termination of pregnancy and effective treatments, the prognoses of the patient and the fetus were well improved. Conclusions: : This case highlights that COVID-19 may be a risk factor of severe liver damage for patients with ICP.Timely termination of pregnancy and effective symptomatic treatments are helpful to improve the progonosis.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323537

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been a few articles on pulmonary function studies in COVID-19 patients discharged one month later or three month later. However, there is no literature mentioned about the pulmonary function of hospitalized COVID-19 patients so far.Methods: In this study, we firstly performed a retrospective study to identify the pulmonary function changes with 449 COVID-19 inpatients including 141 asymptomatic carriers compared with 228 non-COVID-19 outpatients which accepted pulmonary function test in health examine center.Results: We found that COVID-19 patients included asymptomatic carriers had worse pulmonary function compared to non-COVID-19 patients even when they were hospitalized. In addition, age may be an important factor which contributes to pulmonary dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Besides, the IL-6 level in the blood may affect the evaluation of lung function results and may be used to predict the pulmonary function of COVID-19 patients.Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training for COVID-19 patients is critical to their recovery.Funding Information: Supported by Novel coronavirus pneumonia emergency treatment and diagnosis technology research project of Heilongjiang provincial science and Technology Department, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81571871, 81770276), Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital Haiyan Fund (JJMS2021-10), Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Fund (LBH-Z20070).Declaration of Interests: All the authors have no conflict of interest to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: A written informed consent was regularly obtained from all patients upon admission into the 1st affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University (the intensive care center for severe COVID-19 patients in Harbin, Heilongjiang province). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of 1st affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309725

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate imaging features and performed quantitative analysis for mild novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) cases ready for discharge. Methods: : CT images of 125 patients (16-67 years, 63 males) recovering from COVID-19 were examined. We defined the double-negative period (DNp) as the period between the sampling days of two consecutive negative RT-PCR and three days thereafter. Lesion demonstrations and distributions on CT in DNp (CT DN ) were evaluated by radiologists and artificial intelligence (AI) software. Major lesion transformations and the involvement range for patients with follow-up CT were analyzed. Results: : Twenty (16.0%) patients exhibited normal CT DN ;abnormal CT DN for 105 indicated ground-glass opacity (GGO) (99/125, 79.2%) and fibrosis (56/125, 44.8%) as the most frequent CT findings. Bilateral-lung involvement with mixed or random distribution was most common for GGO on CT DN . Fibrous lesions often affected both lungs, tending to distribute on the subpleura. Follow-up CT showed lesion improvement manifesting as GGO thinning (40/40, 100%), fibrosis reduction (17/26, 65.4%), and consolidation fading (9/11, 81.8%), with or without range reduction. AI analysis showed the highest proportions for right lower lobe involvement (volume, 12.01±35.87cm 3 ;percentage;1.45±4.58%) and CT-value ranging –570 to –470 HU (volume, 2.93±7.04cm 3 ;percentage, 5.28±6.47%). Among cases with follow-up CT, most of lung lobes and CT-value ranges displayed a significant reduction after DNp. Conclusions: : The main CT imaging manifestations were GGO and fibrosis in DNp, which weakened with or without volume reduction. AI analysis results were consistent with imaging features and changes, possibly serving as an objective indicator for disease monitoring and discharge.

11.
Nat Med ; 28(5): 1072-1082, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684095

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses are an important part of immunity after Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. However, antibody trajectories and the associated duration of protection after a second vaccine dose remain unclear. In this study, we investigated anti-spike IgG antibody responses and correlates of protection after second doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the United Kingdom general population. In 222,493 individuals, we found significant boosting of anti-spike IgG by the second doses of both vaccines in all ages and using different dosing intervals, including the 3-week interval for BNT162b2. After second vaccination, BNT162b2 generated higher peak levels than ChAdOX1. Older individuals and males had lower peak levels with BNT162b2 but not ChAdOx1, whereas declines were similar across ages and sexes with ChAdOX1 or BNT162b2. Prior infection significantly increased antibody peak level and half-life with both vaccines. Anti-spike IgG levels were associated with protection from infection after vaccination and, to an even greater degree, after prior infection. At least 67% protection against infection was estimated to last for 2-3 months after two ChAdOx1 doses, for 5-8 months after two BNT162b2 doses in those without prior infection and for 1-2 years for those unvaccinated after natural infection. A third booster dose might be needed, prioritized to ChAdOx1 recipients and those more clinically vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297068

ABSTRACT

Given high SARS-CoV-2 incidence, coupled with slow and inequitable vaccine roll-out, there is an urgent need for evidence to underpin optimum vaccine deployment, aiming to maximise global population immunity at speed. We evaluate whether a single vaccination in previously infected individuals generates similar initial and subsequent antibody responses to two vaccinations in those without prior infection. We compared anti-spike IgG antibody responses after a single dose of ChAdOx1, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the COVID-19 Infection Survey in the UK general population. In 100,849 adults who received at least one vaccination, 13,404 (13.3%) had serological and/or PCR evidence of prior infection. Prior infection significantly boosted antibody responses for all three vaccines, producing a higher peak level and longer half-life, and a response comparable to those without prior infection receiving two vaccinations. In those with prior infection, median time above the positivity threshold was estimated to last for >1 year after the first dose. Single-dose vaccination targeted to those previously infected may provide protection in populations with high rates of previous infection faced with limited vaccine supply, as an interim measure while vaccine campaigns are scaled up.

13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296296

ABSTRACT

We investigated anti-spike IgG antibody responses and correlates of protection following second doses of ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the UK general population. In 222,493 individuals, we found significant boosting of anti-spike IgG by second doses of both vaccines in all ages and using different dosing intervals, including the 3-week interval for BNT162b2. After second vaccination, BNT162b2 generated higher peak levels than ChAdOX1. Antibody levels declined faster at older ages and in males with BNT162b2, but declines were similar across ages and sexes with ChAdOX1. Prior infection significantly increased antibody half-life with both vaccines. Anti-spike IgG levels were associated with protection from infection after vaccination and, to an even greater degree, after prior infection. At least 67% protection against infection was estimated to last for 2-3 months after two ChAdOx1 doses and 6-15 months after two BNT162b2 doses in those without prior infection, and 1-2 years for those unvaccinated after natural infection. A third booster dose may be needed, prioritised to ChAdOx1 recipients and those more clinically vulnerable.

14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294537

ABSTRACT

Introduction With an increase in neoadjuvant therapy recommendations for most early-stage breast cancer patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become increasingly imperative to ensure that molecular diagnostic assays provide reliable results from preoperative core needle biopsies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the concordance of MammaPrint results (70-gene signature) and BluePrint results (80-gene signature) between core needle biopsies (CNB) and surgical resection (SR) specimens using prospectively collected matched tissues from patients enrolled in the FLEX trial ( NCT03053193 ). Methods We analyzed 113 matched CNB and SR tumor specimens from women with early-stage breast cancer enrolled in the FLEX trial. Each patient enrolled in the trial receives a MammaPrint recurrence risk classification test with or without BluePrint molecular subtyping. Concordance of MammaPrint is reported using overall percentage agreement, positive predictive value (PPV, High Risk), negative predictive value (NPV, Low Risk), and Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Additionally, correlations between sample types are reported using Pearson correlation coefficient. Results We found good concordance for MammaPrint results between CNB and SR tumor samples (90.3%, κ = 0.803), with a 95.1% NPV and 84.6% PPV. There was also a strong correlation of MammaPrint indices between CNB and SR specimens (r = 0.94). In addition to our primary objective, we determined the concordance of BluePrint subtyping in the matched tumor samples, and found excellent concordance (98.2%) and strong correlation of BluePrint scores within each subtype. Conclusion CNB samples demonstrated overall high concordance with paired SR samples for MammaPrint risk classification, ensuring that physicians are provided with accurate prognostic information for therapy decisions based on testing of core biopsy tissue. Further, BluePrint molecular subtyping also had good concordance between the sample types, outperforming concordance rates based on traditional IHC based classification. Overall, with an increase in neoadjuvant therapy, physicans and patients can be assured that MammaPrint and BluePrint provide reliable results that guide timely and appropriate therapies using preoperative CNB specimens.

15.
Elife ; 102021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529015

ABSTRACT

Background: There is potentially considerable variation in the nature and duration of the care provided to hospitalised patients during an infectious disease epidemic or pandemic. Improvements in care and clinician confidence may shorten the time spent as an inpatient, or the need for admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) or high dependency unit (HDU). On the other hand, limited resources at times of high demand may lead to rationing. Nevertheless, these variables may be used as static proxies for disease severity, as outcome measures for trials, and to inform planning and logistics. Methods: We investigate these time trends in an extremely large international cohort of 142,540 patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Investigated are: time from symptom onset to hospital admission, probability of ICU/HDU admission, time from hospital admission to ICU/HDU admission, hospital case fatality ratio (hCFR) and total length of hospital stay. Results: Time from onset to admission showed a rapid decline during the first months of the pandemic followed by peaks during August/September and December 2020. ICU/HDU admission was more frequent from June to August. The hCFR was lowest from June to August. Raw numbers for overall hospital stay showed little variation, but there is clear decline in time to discharge for ICU/HDU survivors. Conclusions: Our results establish that variables of these kinds have limitations when used as outcome measures in a rapidly evolving situation. Funding: This work was supported by the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office and Wellcome [215091/Z/18/Z] and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation [OPP1209135]. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6250, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493099

ABSTRACT

Understanding the trajectory, duration, and determinants of antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection can inform subsequent protection and risk of reinfection, however large-scale representative studies are limited. Here we estimated antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population using representative data from 7,256 United Kingdom COVID-19 infection survey participants who had positive swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests from 26-April-2020 to 14-June-2021. A latent class model classified 24% of participants as 'non-responders' not developing anti-spike antibodies, who were older, had higher SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold values during infection (i.e. lower viral burden), and less frequently reported any symptoms. Among those who seroconverted, using Bayesian linear mixed models, the estimated anti-spike IgG peak level was 7.3-fold higher than the level previously associated with 50% protection against reinfection, with higher peak levels in older participants and those of non-white ethnicity. The estimated anti-spike IgG half-life was 184 days, being longer in females and those of white ethnicity. We estimated antibody levels associated with protection against reinfection likely last 1.5-2 years on average, with levels associated with protection from severe infection present for several years. These estimates could inform planning for vaccination booster strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/physiology , Bayes Theorem , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e699-e709, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody measurements can be used to estimate the proportion of a population exposed or infected and may be informative about the risk of future infection. Previous estimates of the duration of antibody responses vary. METHODS: We present 6 months of data from a longitudinal seroprevalence study of 3276 UK healthcare workers (HCWs). Serial measurements of SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid and anti-spike IgG were obtained. Interval censored survival analysis was used to investigate the duration of detectable responses. Additionally, Bayesian mixed linear models were used to investigate anti-nucleocapsid waning. RESULTS: Anti-spike IgG levels remained stably detected after a positive result, for example, in 94% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 91-96%) of HCWs at 180 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels rose to a peak at 24 (95% CrI 19-31) days post first polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive test, before beginning to fall. Considering 452 anti-nucleocapsid seropositive HCWs over a median of 121 days from their maximum positive IgG titer, the mean estimated antibody half-life was 85 (95% CrI 81-90) days. Higher maximum observed anti-nucleocapsid titers were associated with longer estimated antibody half-lives. Increasing age, Asian ethnicity, and prior self-reported symptoms were independently associated with higher maximum anti-nucleocapsid levels and increasing age and a positive PCR test undertaken for symptoms with longer anti-nucleocapsid half-lives. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid antibodies wane within months and fall faster in younger adults and those without symptoms. However, anti-spike IgG remains stably detected. Ongoing longitudinal studies are required to track the long-term duration of antibody levels and their association with immunity to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Bayes Theorem , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105196, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322004

ABSTRACT

So far, there is still no specific drug against COVID-19. Taking compound 1 with anti-EBOV activity as the lead, fifty-four 12N-substituted aloperine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities using pseudotyped virus model. Among them, 8a exhibited the most potential effects against both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2, as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, indicating a broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus profile. The mechanism study disclosed that 8a might block a late stage of viral entry, mainly via inhibiting host cathepsin B activity rather than directly targeting cathepsin B protein. Also, 8a could significantly reduce the release of multiple inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner, such as IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8 and MCP-1, the major contributors to cytokine storm. Therefore, 8a is a promising agent with the advantages of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus and anti-cytokine effects, thus worthy of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Quinolizidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Cathepsin B/antagonists & inhibitors , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Piperidines/chemical synthesis , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Piperidines/toxicity , Quinolizidines/chemical synthesis , Quinolizidines/pharmacokinetics , Quinolizidines/toxicity , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
20.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(9): 1140-1149, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320232

ABSTRACT

We report that in a cohort of 45,965 adults, who were receiving either the ChAdOx1 or the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in those who had no prior infection with SARS-CoV-2, seroconversion rates and quantitative antibody levels after a single dose were lower in older individuals, especially in those aged >60 years. Two vaccine doses achieved high responses across all ages. Antibody levels increased more slowly and to lower levels with a single dose of ChAdOx1 compared with a single dose of BNT162b2, but waned following a single dose of BNT162b2 in older individuals. In descriptive latent class models, we identified four responder subgroups, including a 'low responder' group that more commonly consisted of people aged >75 years, males and individuals with long-term health conditions. Given our findings, we propose that available vaccines should be prioritized for those not previously infected and that second doses should be prioritized for individuals aged >60 years. Further data are needed to better understand the extent to which quantitative antibody responses are associated with vaccine-mediated protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom , Young Adult
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