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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102366, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867829
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 780714, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855436

ABSTRACT

Background: Both face-to-face and instant messaging (IM) communication are important for families, but face-to-face communication has reduced amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the use and contents of both communication methods amidst the pandemic, their associations with family wellbeing and personal happiness, and the mediation effects of communication quality in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods: This population-based online survey enrolled 4,921 respondents in May 2020, who reported (i) any face-to-face or IM family communication when the pandemic was severe; (ii) communication contents being classified as neutral, positive, supportive, and negative; and (iii) communication quality, family wellbeing and personal happiness (score 0-10). Associations of family wellbeing and personal happiness with communication methods and contents (no communication excluded) were examined using linear regressions (ß), adjusting for each other, sex, age, socioeconomic status, and the number of cohabitants. Mediating effects of communication quality on these associations were examined. Prevalence estimates were weighted by sex, age, and education of the general population. Interactions of methods and contents were examined. Results: Of 4,891 included respondents (female: 52.9%, 45-54 years: 37.7%, ≥65 years: 21.3%), 7.1% reported no communication, 12.7% face-to-face communication only, 26.7% IM only, and 53.4% both methods. More males and those at younger ages, had lower socioeconomic status, or fewer cohabitants showed no family communication or face-to-face only. More respondents reported neutral (83.1-99.3%) than positive (42.1-62.2%), supportive (37.5-54.8%), and negative (10.9-34.5%) contents despite communication methods. Communication quality was higher with both methods than IM only, face-to-face only, and no communication (scores: 6.7 vs. 4.5-6.6, all P ≤ 0.02). Better family wellbeing and personal happiness were associated with using IM only (adjusted ßs: 0.37 and 0.48) and both methods (0.37 and 0.42) than face-to-face only, and positive (0.62 and 0.74) or supportive (0.45 and 0.46) contents (all P ≤ 0.001). Communication quality mediated 35.2-93.5% of these associations. Stronger associations between positive contents and family wellbeing showed in both methods and face-to-face only than IM only (P for interaction = 0.006). Conclusions: We have first shown that, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, family IM communication and positive and supportive contents may promote family wellbeing and personal happiness. People with no family communication may need assistance.

3.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787196

ABSTRACT

Background Both face-to-face and instant messaging (IM) communication are important for families, but face-to-face communication has reduced amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the use and contents of both communication methods amidst the pandemic, their associations with family wellbeing and personal happiness, and the mediation effects of communication quality in Hong Kong Chinese adults. Methods This population-based online survey enrolled 4,921 respondents in May 2020, who reported (i) any face-to-face or IM family communication when the pandemic was severe;(ii) communication contents being classified as neutral, positive, supportive, and negative;and (iii) communication quality, family wellbeing and personal happiness (score 0–10). Associations of family wellbeing and personal happiness with communication methods and contents (no communication excluded) were examined using linear regressions (β), adjusting for each other, sex, age, socioeconomic status, and the number of cohabitants. Mediating effects of communication quality on these associations were examined. Prevalence estimates were weighted by sex, age, and education of the general population. Interactions of methods and contents were examined. Results Of 4,891 included respondents (female: 52.9%, 45–54 years: 37.7%, ≥65 years: 21.3%), 7.1% reported no communication, 12.7% face-to-face communication only, 26.7% IM only, and 53.4% both methods. More males and those at younger ages, had lower socioeconomic status, or fewer cohabitants showed no family communication or face-to-face only. More respondents reported neutral (83.1–99.3%) than positive (42.1–62.2%), supportive (37.5–54.8%), and negative (10.9–34.5%) contents despite communication methods. Communication quality was higher with both methods than IM only, face-to-face only, and no communication (scores: 6.7 vs. 4.5–6.6, all P ≤ 0.02). Better family wellbeing and personal happiness were associated with using IM only (adjusted βs: 0.37 and 0.48) and both methods (0.37 and 0.42) than face-to-face only, and positive (0.62 and 0.74) or supportive (0.45 and 0.46) contents (all P ≤ 0.001). Communication quality mediated 35.2–93.5% of these associations. Stronger associations between positive contents and family wellbeing showed in both methods and face-to-face only than IM only (P for interaction = 0.006). Conclusions We have first shown that, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, family IM communication and positive and supportive contents may promote family wellbeing and personal happiness. People with no family communication may need assistance.

4.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(3): nwac054, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784379
5.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58: 32-38, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783181

ABSTRACT

As with the rapid increase of the number of patients who have recovered from COVID-19 globally, there needs to be a major shift of the focus from rapid pathogen detection, treatment and prevention to the promotion of better recovery. Notwithstanding the scarcity of our understandings, recent studies have unraveled a plethora of pulmonary and systemic consequences which require medical attention. These consequences remained as of the end of follow-up which ranged from 1 month to 1 year. Here, we review the consequences of COVID-19 in terms of the residual symptoms, radiological and functional manifestations, and identify the potential risk factors that contribute to a prolonged recovery. We also summarize the benefits of clinical interventions (particularly the pulmonary rehabilitation program), and address several undetermined concerns and key future research directions.


Como consecuencia del rápido aumento del número de pacientes que se han recuperado de la COVID-19 en todo el mundo, es necesario cambiar el enfoque de la detección rápida del patógeno, el tratamiento y la prevención para promover una mejor recuperación. A pesar de la escasez de nuestros conocimientos, estudios recientes han desvelado una plétora de consecuencias pulmonares y sistémicas que requieren atención médica. Estas consecuencias se mantienen al final del seguimiento, que oscila entre 1 mes y 1 año. Aquí se hace una revisión de las consecuencias de la COVID-19 en términos de síntomas residuales y manifestaciones radiológicas y funcionales y se identifican los posibles factores de riesgo que contribuyen a una recuperación demorada. También se resumen los beneficios de las intervenciones clínicas (en particular el programa de rehabilitación pulmonar) y se abordan varias preocupaciones no resueltas y direcciones clave de investigación futura.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Forecasting , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776233

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused different types of harms and benefits, but the combined patterns of perceived harms and benefits are unclear. We aimed to identify the patterns of perceived harms and benefits of the COVID-19 outbreak and to examine their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, happiness, and changes in smoking and drinking. A population-based cross-sectional online survey was conducted in May 2020 on Hong Kong adults (N = 4520). Patterns of perceived harms and benefits of COVID-19 were identified using latent profile analysis. Their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, happiness, and changes in smoking and drinking were examined using multinomial logistic regression. We identified three distinct patterns: indifferent (66.37%), harm (13.28%), and benefit (20.35%). Compared with the indifferent subgroup, the harm subgroup was younger, less happy, and had increased drinking, and hence might be at higher risk, whereas the benefit subgroup was more likely to be female, live with one or more cohabitants, have postsecondary education, be happier, and have decreased drinking, and could be more adaptive. Future studies can target the harm subgroup to facilitate their positive adjustments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760589

ABSTRACT

Family support through the sharing of information helps to shape and regulate the health and behaviours of family members, but little is known about how families are sharing COVID-19-related information, or about its associations with family communication quality and well-being. We examined the associations of COVID-19 information sharing methods with sociodemographic characteristics, the perceived benefits of information communication and technology (ICT) methods, and family communication quality and well-being in Hong Kong. Of 4852 respondents (53.2% female, 41.1% aged over 55 years), the most common sharing method was instant messaging (82.3%), followed by face-to-face communication (65.7%), phone (25.5%) and social media (15.8%). Female sex (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.09), older age (aPRs 1.14-1.22) and higher household income (aPR 1.06) (all p ≤ 0.04) were associated with instant messaging use, while post-secondary education was associated with face-to-face (aPR 1.10), video call (aPR 1.79), and email (aPR 2.76) communications (all p ≤ 0.03). Each ICT sharing method used was associated with a higher likelihood of both reported benefits (aPRs 1.26 and 1.52), better family communication quality and family well-being (adjusted ßs 0.43 and 0.30) (all p ≤ 0.001). We have first shown that COVID-19 information sharing in families using both traditional methods and ICTs, and using more types of methods, was associated with perceived benefits and better family communication quality and well-being amidst the pandemic. Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 information sharing using ICTs were observed. Digital training may help enhance social connections and promote family well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Information Dissemination , Male
8.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 322(5): L712-L721, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759484

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence has confirmed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for development of severe pathological changes in the peripheral lungs of patients with COVID-19. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Because bronchiolar club cells are crucial for maintaining small airway homeostasis, we sought to explore whether the altered susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection of the club cells might have contributed to the severe COVID-19 pneumonia in COPD patients. Our investigation on the quantity and distribution patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in airway epithelium via immunofluorescence staining revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity of the ACE2-positive epithelial cells was significantly higher in club cells than those in other epithelial cells (including ciliated cells, basal cells, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, and alveolar type 2 cells). Compared with nonsmokers, the median percentage of club cells in bronchiolar epithelium and ACE2-positive club cells was significantly higher in COPD patients. In vitro, SARS-CoV-2 infection (at a multiplicity of infection of 1.0) of primary small airway epithelial cells, cultured on air-liquid interface, confirmed a higher percentage of infected ACE2-positive club cells in COPD patients than in nonsmokers. Our findings have indicated the role of club cells in modulating the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-related severe pneumonia and the poor clinical outcomes, which may help physicians to formulate a novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 patients with coexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Health Technol (Berl) ; 12(1): 215-226, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704286

ABSTRACT

A mandatory self-quarantine is necessary for those who return from overseas or any red zone areas. It is important that the self-quarantine is conducted without the non-adherence issue occurring and causes the self-quarantine individual to be the carrier of the COVID-19 in the community. To navigate and resolve this issue, most countries have implemented a series of COVID-19 monitoring and tracing systems. However, there are some restrictions and limitation which can lead to intentional non-adherence. The quarantined individuals can still travel within the community by removing the wristband or simply providing an incorrect contact status in the tracing application. In this paper, a novel configuration for mandatory self-quarantine system is proposed. It will enable interaction between the wearable and contact tracing technologies to ensure that the authorities have total control of the system. The hardware of the proposed system in the wearable device is low in cost, lightweight and safe to use for the next user after the quarantine is completed. The software (software and database) that linked between the quarantine user and normal user utilizes edge artificial intelligence (AI) for reporting and flagging mechanisms.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315557

ABSTRACT

Background: Confirmed as a familial clustered case, a COVID-19 patient displaying established symptoms was simultaneously diagnosed with an HIV infection, and treated with several antiviral and compassionate drugs. Case presentation: The upper respiratory tract Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for the novel coronavirus continued to be positive for consecutive 49 days. During the course of treatment, it was observed that the other six cases in the family were non-HIV infected and displaying common Covid-19 symptoms, the familial cluster received parallel treatment along with the aforementioned patient, and the median time for the NAT to present as negative was 29 days. Conclusions: : The results of this research indicate that the novel coronavirus attacks T lymphocyte subsets, andfurther studies with larger sample sizes are required to verify how the immune escape mechanism of the new coronavirus interacts with HIV infection.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313433

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding of the incidence and effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors and related outcomes associated with AKI among patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Method: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 associated-pneumonia admitted to a tertiary hospital in Wuhan between January to February 2020. AKI was defined and staged according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) classification criteria. Cox’s multivariate regression and logistic regression modelling were used to assess the effects of AKI on hospital mortality and risk factors associated with occurrence of AKI. Primary outcomes were risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality. Results: : 342 patients were finally enrolled in this study. AKI occurred in 13.4% (n = 46), among them 7.0% (n = 24) developed stage 1AKI, and 6.4% (n = 22) developed stage 2 - 3 AKI. Overall 26.9% (n = 92) died during hospitalization. Among them 19.3% (57/296) of the non-AKI patients died, 62.5%(15/24) of stage 1 AKI patients, and 90.9% (20/22) of stage 2 - 3 AKI patients died. AKI was strongly associated with mortality (HR 2.52;95% CI, 1.59-3.96;p <0.001). Further analysis shows that progression to AKI stage 2 - 3 doubles the hazard ratio for death. Age, leukocytes number, fibrinogen concentration, C-reative protein level, and severity of pneumonia at admission were independent risk factors associated with the development of AKI. Conclusion: Acute kidney injury is common among hospitalized COVID-19 patients and strongly associated with increased mortality, early detection and prevention of the progression of AKI may be critical to reduce mortality of these patients.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324504

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is making deadly impact on the human lives all over the world. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the changes involved in clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients over time. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to compare the patients whose onset of illness in January with the patients whose onset of illness in February in Wuhan, China. Results: Among enrolled 896 patients, the median age was 60 years (47-69 years), 685 (76.5%) were categorized into group A (patients with illness onset in January), and 211 (23.5%) were categorized into group B (patients with illness onset in February). Compared with group B, group A had a higher rate of fever (p<0.001), the lower rate of asymptomatic (p<0.001). Group A had a higher incidence of neutrophilia (p=0.043), elevated D-miner (p<0.001), increased LDH (p=0.002), but lower incidence of normal CT scan (p=0.001). CD3 cells (p=0.015) and CD4 cells p=0.04) count significantly reduced in group A. Critical patients decreased (p=0.005) and mild patients increased (p=0.001) in group B. The fatality rate significantly decreased in group B (p=0.028). Conclusions: The condition of patients with onset of illness in January were more serious than patients with onset of illness in February. It indicates that virulence showed reducing effect, but more basic research is required to support the hypothesis.

13.
Health and Technology ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615238

ABSTRACT

A mandatory self-quarantine is necessary for those who return from overseas or any red zone areas. It is important that the self-quarantine is conducted without the non-adherence issue occurring and causes the self-quarantine individual to be the carrier of the COVID-19 in the community. To navigate and resolve this issue, most countries have implemented a series of COVID-19 monitoring and tracing systems. However, there are some restrictions and limitation which can lead to intentional non-adherence. The quarantined individuals can still travel within the community by removing the wristband or simply providing an incorrect contact status in the tracing application. In this paper, a novel configuration for mandatory self-quarantine system is proposed. It will enable interaction between the wearable and contact tracing technologies to ensure that the authorities have total control of the system. The hardware of the proposed system in the wearable device is low in cost, lightweight and safe to use for the next user after the quarantine is completed. The software (software and database) that linked between the quarantine user and normal user utilizes edge artificial intelligence (AI) for reporting and flagging mechanisms.

14.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(1): 58-65, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605425

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Both genetic variants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute to the risk of incident severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Whether genetic risk of incident severe COVID-19 is the same regardless of preexisting COPD is unknown. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential interaction between genetic risk and COPD in relation to severe COVID-19. Methods: We constructed a polygenic risk score for severe COVID-19 by using 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 430,582 participants from the UK Biobank study. We examined the associations of genetic risk and COPD with severe COVID-19 by using logistic regression models. Results: Of 430,582 participants, 712 developed severe COVID-19 as of February 22, 2021, of whom 19.8% had preexisting COPD. Compared with participants at low genetic risk, those at intermediate genetic risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.66) and high genetic risk (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.18-1.92) had higher risk of severe COVID-19 (P for trend = 0.001), and the association was independent of COPD (P for interaction = 0.76). COPD was associated with a higher risk of incident severe COVID-19 (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P = 0.002). Participants at high genetic risk and with COPD had a higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.35-3.04; P < 0.001) than those at low genetic risk and without COPD. Conclusions: The polygenic risk score, which combines multiple risk alleles, can be effectively used in screening for high-risk populations of severe COVID-19. High genetic risk correlates with a higher risk of severe COVID-19, regardless of preexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Pract ; 12(1): 1-7, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580975

ABSTRACT

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists are important drugs in our armamentarium of treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to their glucose-lowering effects, they have effects on weight, other metabolic diseases and perhaps most importantly, a cardioprotective and reno-protective effect. Liraglutide is a long-acting GLP-1 agonist which was originally used at 1.8 mg daily for the treatment of DM. However, high-dose liraglutide-liraglutide 3 mg daily, has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment for obesity, with or without DM. In this manuscript, I present two patients who had unusual responses to combination therapy with high-dose liraglutide and SGLT2 inhibitor-marked and/or rapid improvement in glycemic control and weight loss. Drawing from the observations in both cases, I discuss the complementary mechanisms of actions of both drugs, review the clinical effects of combination therapy and distil them into clinical pearls of practical utility for the physician. Given the "clash of the two pandemics" of obesity and COVID-19 and the burgeoning rates of obesity which loom in the near horizon, this is most timely.

16.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 496, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561217

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the end stage of a broad range of heterogeneous interstitial lung diseases and more than 200 factors contribute to it. In recent years, the relationship between virus infection and pulmonary fibrosis is getting more and more attention, especially after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019, however, the mechanisms underlying the virus-induced pulmonary fibrosis are not fully understood. Here, we review the relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and several viruses such as Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), Influenza virus, Avian influenza virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 as well as the mechanisms underlying the virus infection induced pulmonary fibrosis. This may shed new light on the potential targets for anti-fibrotic therapy to treat pulmonary fibrosis induced by viruses including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Pulmonary Fibrosis , SARS Virus , Virus Diseases , Animals , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 74(5): 741-747, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556247

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of acquiring infections owing to immunologic dysfunction and use of potent immunomodulatory medications; however, few data are available on their risk of COVID-19. We estimated the rate of COVID-19 among RA participants and compared it with that of the general population. METHODS: Using the Health Improvement Network, we identified RA patients before February 2020 and followed them to September 2020. We calculated the rate of COVID-19 among participants with RA and compared it with that of the general population using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for potential confounders using overlap weighting of exposure score. We repeated the same analysis among participants with osteoarthritis, a nonautoimmune rheumatic disease, as a negative control exposure. RESULTS: We identified 225 cases of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 among 17,268 RA patients, and 14,234 cases among 1,616,600 participants in the general population (1.4 versus 0.9/1,000 person-months), with the adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj ) being 1.19 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.04-1.36). Confirmed COVID-19 cases developed in 46 RA participants and in 2,249 in the general population (0.3 versus 0.1/1,000 person-months), with the HRadj being 1.42 (95% CI 1.01-1.95). No statistically significant difference was observed for suspected and confirmed (HR 1.00 [95% CI 0.93-1.07]) or confirmed (HR 1.08 [95% CI 0.92-1.27]) COVID-19 rates between participants with osteoarthritis and the general population. CONCLUSION: RA, but not osteoarthritis, was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19. Our findings provide timely evidence to support recommendations that booster vaccines and priority access to anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody treatments should be encouraged for RA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Osteoarthritis/complications , Osteoarthritis/diagnosis , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models
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