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1.
Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877121

ABSTRACT

Ultrafast, portable, and inexpensive molecular diagnostic platforms are critical for clinical diagnosis and on-site detection. There are currently no available real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices able to meet the demands of point-of-care testing, as the heating and cooling processes cannot be avoided. In this study, the dual temperature modules were first designed to process microfluidic chips automatically circulating between them. Thus, a novel ultrafast molecular diagnostic real-time PCR device (approximately 18 and 23 min for DNA and RNA detection, respectively) with two channels (FAM and Cy5) for the detection of 12 targets was developed. The device contained three core functional components, including temperature control, optics, and motion, which were integrated into a portable compact box. The temperature modules accurately control temperature in rapid thermal cycles with less than ±0.1 °C, ±1 °C and ±0.5 °C for the temperature fluctuation, uniformity, and error of indication, respectively. The average coefficient of variation (CV) of the fluorescence intensity (FI) for all 12 wells was 2.3% for FAM and 2.7% for Cy5. There was a good linear relationship between the concentrations of fluorescent dye and the FIs of FAM and Cy5(R2 = 0.9990 and 0.9937), and the average CVs of the Ct values calculated by the embedded software were 1.4% for FAM and Cy5, respectively. The 100 double-blind mocked sputum and 249 clinical stool samples were analyzed by the ultrafast real-time PCR device in comparison with the DAAN Gene SARS-CoV-2 kit run on the ABI 7500 instrument and Xpert C. difficile/Epi, respectively. Among the 249 stool samples, the ultrafast real-time PCR device detected toxigenic C. difficile in 54 samples (54/249, 21.7%) with a specificity and positive predictive values of 99.0 and 96.3%, which were higher than the Xpert C. difficile/Epi values of 94.4 and 88.1% (p > 0.05). The ultrafast real-time PCR device detected 15 SARS-CoV-2 positive samples, which has a 100% concordance with that obtained by the DAAN Gene SARS-CoV-2 kit. This study demonstrated that the ultrafast real-time PCR device integrated with microfluidic chips and dual temperature modules is an ultrafast, reliable, easy-to-use, and cost-effective molecular diagnostic platform for clinical diagnosis and on-site testing, especially in resource-limited settings.

2.
Integrative Medicine in Nephrology and Andrology ; 8(1):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871289

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical features of elderly patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to explore the relationship between COVID-19 patients and kidney injury. Methods: A total of 188 elderly patients with confirmed COVID-19 enrolled in this study were hospitalized for at least 1 week in the Central Theater Command General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army from January 3, 2020 to March 14, 2020. The recorded information included clinical data and results of kidney-related laboratory tests. Retrospective analysis was performed. Results: The median age of the patients was 69 years (interquartile range 65–78, range: 60–97 years);31.4% were 60–74 years old, and 68.6% were over 75 years old. A total of 12.8% and 18.6% of the patients were in critical and severe stages of COVID-19, respectively. The proportions of patients using mechanical ventilators and deaths were 9.5% and 8.5%, respectively. A total of 26.1% and 8.5% of the patients showed mild elevation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels at admission. A total of 18.6% and 5.9% of the patients had elevated BUN and SCr 1 week after admission, respectively. A total of 3.1% of the patients were diagnosed with acute kidney injury, and 75% of those patients had chronic kidney disease before admission. Compared with the patients aged 60–74 years, those over 75 years exhibited significantly increased proportions of elevated BUN levels, critical illness, use of mechanical ventilated, and death. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that an elevated BUN level at admission and 1 week after admission were independent risk factors for death in the elderly patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: There were more critical cases and a high mortality in elderly patients with COVID-19. An increased BUN level was an independent risk factor for death in elderly patients with COVID-19.

3.
Journal of Business Economics and Management ; 23(2):364-381, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843034

ABSTRACT

Monetary policy uncertainty (MPU) not only imposes a great impact on the systematic financial risks of a country but also generates a significant spillover effect on countries having close economic exchanges with the former under the background of global economic integration. With the daily return rates of 64 listed financial companies in China from February 2006 to September 2020 used as the samples, China’s systematic financial risks were measured in this research by using long-run marginal expected shortfall (LRMES). On this basis, an FAVAR model with time-varying parameters was constructed to empirically investigate the spillover effect of US MPU on China’s systematic financial risks and its main transmission channels. Results showed that within the sample period (February 2006 – September 2020), US MPU generated a significant positive spillover effect on China’s systematic financial risks, namely, China’s systematic financial risks would be aggravated if the level of US MPU was elevated. From different time intervals, the spillover level was particularly high during global financial crises and global COVID-19 pandemic, indicating that the spillover effect of MPU is nonlinear and closely related to global major sudden risk events. Through the further research, it is found that this effect is mainly transmitted through short-term capital flow, interest rate, and economic uncertainty-induced channels, among which the short-term capital flow is the most important.

4.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(7): 1483-1485, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761435
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329783

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune escape ability raises the urgent need for developing cross-neutralizing vaccines against the virus. NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in adults previously vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates ( NCT05069129 ). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who had administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, were vaccinated with either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The primary outcome was immunogenicity and safety of booster vaccinations. The exploratory outcome was cross-reactive immunogenicity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both booster vaccinations, and the overall safety profile of heterologous boost was quite similar to that of homologous boost. Heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster was immunogenically superior to homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster were significantly higher than by the booster of BBIBP-CorV against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple VOCs. Especially, the neutralizing activity induced by NVSI-06-08 booster against the immune-evasive Beta variant was no less than that against the prototype strain, and a considerable level of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron (GMT: 367.67;95%CI, 295.50-457.47) was induced by heterologous booster, which was substantially higher than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03;95%CI, 36.37-55.74). Our findings showed that NVSI-06-08 was safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which was immunogenically superior to homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV. Our study also indicated that the design of hybrid antigen may provide an effective strategy for broad-spectrum vaccine developments.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323541

ABSTRACT

Background: Information about liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 is scarce. We aimed to explored the pattern and risk factors of liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Methods: . In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive confirmed patients with COVID-19 in Fuyang Second People’s Hospital between January 20 and February 25, 2020 and collected clinical characteristics until discharge. The pattern and risk factors of liver dysfunction, viral shedding and outcome were analyzed. Results: . Totally, 146 patients were analyzed. The median age was 44.9 years and 54.1% were men, 43.8% patients presented liver dysfunction (22.6% on admission, 21.2% during hospitalization). The percentage of elevated ALT (15.1% on admission and 24.7% during hospitalization) were significantly higher than ALP (2.1% on admission and 3.4% during hospitalization) ( P < 0.001). Four clinical types were identified, type 1 (persistent normal liver function, 56.2%), type 2 (normal liver function on admission developed to liver dysfunction during hospitalization, 21.2%), type 3 (liver dysfunction on admission restored to normal on discharge, 13.0%) and type 4 (persistent liver dysfunction, 9.6%). The median duration of viral shedding was 12.0 (type 1), 15.0 (type 2), 14.0 (type 3) and 18.0 (type 4) days ( P < 0.001). Prolonged viral shedding and severity were potential risk factors associated with liver dysfunction. Conclusions: . The incidence of liver dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 is common but not severe, which mainly due to SARS-CoV-2-mediated immune injury on hepatocyte rather than cholangiocyte, DILI and underlying chronic liver disease should not be neglect.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315233

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global catastrophic disease that has severely affected more than 185 countries. The key steps in fighting against COVID-19 involve early detection and tracking of the treatment effects. A large number of studies highlighted computed tomography (CT) as a reliable method for early diagnosis and follow-up monitoring of the disease. However, there are limited data on quantitative analysis of the follow-up images. In this study, we used a deep learning model using a neural network with high accuracy in automatic segmentation and quantification to analyze the infected lesions on chest CT images.MethodsWe used a deep learning model using a neural network with high accuracy in automatic segmentation and quantification to analyze the infected lesions on chest CT images. A total of 14 patients (mean age, 53±14 years;age range, 23–74 years;42.9% men and 57.1% women) with confirmed mild-type COVID-19 from January 1 to May 7, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Initial and follow-up original CT images were collected, and CT quantitative parameters, including percentage of infection (POI) and density variation of pneumonia, were determined.ResultsThe median initial POI was 3.4% (interquartile range, IQR 0.5%–8.4%) for the whole lung, 0.8% (IQR 0.2%–6.7%) for the left lung, and 5.8% (IQR 0.5%–9.7%) for the right lung. The infection was more serious in the right than in the left lung. The infected region mainly involved bilateral lower lobes, more pronounced on the right side. Quantitative CT showed that POI significantly decreased throughout the follow-up period in all 14 patients (p < 0.001). Among them, 50% of the patients had a more significant decrease in POI (51.3%) after a negative nucleic acid test. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the CT number range of ground-glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation (p < 0.001).ConclusionsThis study demonstrated the quantitative analysis of follow-up CT scans plays an important role in the monitoring of COVID-19 treatment, which could help in treatment planning and standardizing the assessment for discharge.

8.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres ; n/a(n/a):e2021JD035710, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1665681

ABSTRACT

Unexpectedly frequent severe haze episodes were observed in Beijing during February-March in 2021 after two phases of clean air action plan (2013-2020), yet the causes remained unclear. Here we conducted real-time fine particle (PM2.5) composition measurements during January-March in 2021 using a time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor and an aethalometer and compared with those during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) period in 2020. Our results showed ubiquitously elevated concentrations of chloride, black carbon (BC), and primary organic aerosol (POA) in 2021, suggesting increased primary emissions during the post COVID-19 period. By using the machine-learning based random forest (RF) algorithm, we found largely different responses of aerosol changes to meteorology in different months. After decoupling the effects of meteorology, the PM2.5 changes from 2020 to 2021 were reduced from -35.6% to -29.0% in January, -24.1% to -4.5% in February and +92.6% to +34.2% in March, respectively. Our results demonstrate dominant roles of stagnant meteorology and secondary production in the formation of severe haze episodes in March 2021. In particular, we found that the compositions of observed and deweathered PM2.5 were fairly similar between 2020 and 2021, and the ratios of secondary OA to secondary inorganic aerosols were close. Our study indicates that decoupling the influence of meteorological conditions is of great importance for better evaluation of mitigating strategies of air pollution due to the large impact of meteorology on the changes in PM2.5 species particularly in a short period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Practical Geriatrics ; 34(7):745-749, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1473135

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and risk factors of mortality in the elderly patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia(COVID-19).

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 694051, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369728

ABSTRACT

Objective: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out in Hubei Province and spread rapidly to the whole country, causing huge public health problems. College students are a special group, and there is no survey on insomnia among college students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and related factors of insomnia in college students during the period of COVID-19. Method: A total of 1,086 college students conducted a cross-sectional study through the questionnaire star platform. The survey time was from February 15 to February 22, 2020. The collected information included demographic informatics and mental health scale, Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) to assess sleep quality, Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) to assess general psychological symptoms, Chinese perceived stress scale (CPSS) to assess stress. We used logistic regression to analyze the correlation between related factors and insomnia symptoms. Results: The prevalence of insomnia, general psychological symptoms and stress were 16.67, 5.8, and 40.70%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender (OR = 1.55, p = 0.044, 95% CI = 1.00-2.41), general psychological symptoms (OR = 1.49, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 1.40-1.60) and living in an isolation unit (OR = 2.21, p = 0.014, 95% CI = 1.17-4.16) were risk factors for insomnia of college students. Conclusion: Our results show that the insomnia is very common among college students during the outbreak of covid-19, and the related factors include gender, general psychological symptoms and isolation environment. It is necessary to intervene the insomnia of college students and warrants attention for mental well-being of college students.

11.
British Food Journal ; 123(8):2818-2830, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1364873

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many countries around the world. Due to the debate on the source of the outbreak, wildlife meat consumption has gained international attention and become an area that requires further exploration. The purpose of this research is to explore the differences in game consumption motivations and behaviours among populations in northern and southern China. Design/methodology/approach: An online survey on wild meat awareness with (potential) game consumers across the country as target groups was conducted. Findings: Results from this study showed that consumers in the southern region have a preference for wildlife. This preference was determined by factors such as natural environment, history and culture and the level of economic development. However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of game consumption between the north and south since game meat is not a major component of the daily diet. Practical implications: The government should consider banning this trade permanently to prevent future disease outbreaks caused by wildlife-to-human transmissions. Originality/value: The consumption of game meat is regional, but the animals in game trades live across a wider area, and thus, game trades have a global influence on ecological systems and human health. Therefore, this epidemic is also a global concern, which might lead people to display a highly negative attitude towards consuming game meat.

12.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 53(2): 353-357, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064573

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Since the end of 2019, dialysis patients have been at risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as other potential complications. Hence, we sought to describe the clinical characteristics of dialysis patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: We reviewed clinical outcomes, which consisted of clinical data extracted from the medical records of 695 registered dialysis patients at the Dialysis Center of Central Hospital of Wuhan from January 13th, 2020, to February 29th, 2020, and performed statistical analysis. According to the results, there were 447, 227 and 21 hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and combined HD and PD (HD&PD) cases, respectively. RESULTS: During the outbreak of COVID-19, 36 dialysis patients were infected by SARS-CoV-2. Among those 36 patients, 32 (7.2%) were on HD, and 4 (1.8%) were on PD. When comparing SARS-CoV-2 infection between HD and PD, the relative risk was 4.07 (RR = 4.07, 95% CI 1.46-11.35). We noted a median age of 66 years during the observation period, and the number of male patients was 23 (63.9%). There were 15 fatal cases tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (13 cases on HD and 2 cases on PD). By comparing mortality in the same period of 2018, 2019 and 2020, the all-cause mortality of hemodialysis patients was significantly higher in 2020 (4.89%) than in either 2018 (2.55%) or 2019 (1.97%). There was no significant difference in mortality from all causes excluding COVID-19, during the same period among the 3-year period. However, during the COVID-19 outbreak, the mortality from all causes excluding COVID-19 was 2.73%, which was slightly higher than that from COVID-19 (2.16%). CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 seriously threatens the health of people with uremia, deaths from all causes excluding COVID-19 during the epidemic cannot be ignored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/methods , Aged , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Jie Fang Jun Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 45(11):1156-1160, 2020.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-977813

ABSTRACT

Objective  To get the message of kidney injury and its causes in patients with COVID-19, and analyze the correlation of kidney injury to COVID-19 typing and prognosis, so provide a reference for the treatment and prognosis evaluation of COVID-19. Methods According to the retrospective cohort study protocol, the clinical data and prognosis of 319 confirmed patients with COVID-19, admitted in the General Hospital of Central Theater Command (Wuhan) from Jan. 1st to Mar. 14th, 2020, were collected. The correlation of COVID-19 patients' renal function changes to the classification and prognosis of diseases were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The mean age of the 319 confirmed patients with COVID-19 was (55.2±17.0) years. The proportion of non-critical group (mild+moderate type) and critical group (severe+critical type) were 62.1% (198/319) and 37.9% (121/319), respectively. The fatality rate of present study cohort was 5.6% (18/319). About 3.8% cases (12/319) were with elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) at admission, and about 5.6% cases (18/319) were with elevated BUN only at admission. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the age, the levels of SCr and BUN at admission and one week after admission, the combination of diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease were the risk factors associated with the death in critical group patients (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the elevated levels of BUN at admission and one week after admission were the independent risk factors of death in the critical group patients. Conclusions The elevated levels of BUN at admission and one week after admission were the important clinical features and independent risk factors associated with the death of critical COVID-19 patients. More attention should be paid to all kinds of clinical factors that may lead to increase the level of BUN.

14.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo ; 62:e76-e76, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-868752

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. Numerous studies have shown its typical and atypical CT findings. We report one COVID-19 patient who presented with a transient pneumothorax, spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP), as well as subcutaneous emphysema during hospitalization. Chest CT andclinical findings were discussed, and a literature review is presented. The probable cause of SP in COVID-19 was alveolar damage. Once pneumothorax and SP were present, the patient should be carefully monitored to prevent respiratory deterioration, especially when lung lesions are severe.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 128-130, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-281360

ABSTRACT

Owing to the frequent travel connections between Wuhan and Zhejiang, Zhejiang was the third worst-affected province in China with 1,205 cases confirmed before 26 February 2020. The transmissibility of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease was monitored in Zhejiang, accounting for the transmissions from imported cases. Even though Zhejiang was one of the worst-affected provinces, an interruption of disease transmission (i.e. instantaneous reproduction numbers <1) was observed in early/mid-February after a comprehensive set of interventions combating the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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