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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939836

ABSTRACT

Purpose This research focused primarily on the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (VeroCell) on Chinese physical education (PE) students' health and physical activity (PA) performance. Methods This study used quantitative methods and phenomenological procedures to collect and analyze data. Survey techniques were the main method used for collecting data from Chinese university students, using a self-designed questionnaire with a Cronbach's alpha α value of 0.76. To ensure the quality of the study, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted, and the internal consistency reliability of the instrument was measured (alpha coefficient = 0.82). The determined sample size was 490 and around 90% as the minimum sample size was determined with the help of a sample size calculator. The author using factor loadings with h2 and an independent-sample t-test analyzed the responses of the remaining valid participants (n = 443 with a response rate of 90.40). Results Most participants (around 94%) did not experience any adverse reactions that impacted their daily life activities, health, or performance during physical activity. However, about 30–40% of students felt lethargy, weakness, muscle pain, or swelling. Regarding the impact of the vaccine on daily life, there was no difference in the responses between participants who had only received one shot of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and those who had received two shots (p > 0.05 in most cases). Conclusion The study concluded that the COVID-19 vaccine had no significant effect on PE students' daily activities, health, and PA performance. The results of this study could be used by policymakers to encourage people to get vaccinated and eradicate the isolation caused by COVID-19, which leads many people to develop various non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

2.
Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites ; 42:824-831, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934960

ABSTRACT

The study aims to explore and review the scientific documents published in the pandemic covid-19 and tourism sector. The bibliometric analysis was used to collect and analyze scientific documents in the Web of Science database. The analysis used the R program to get information and map the main idea related to contributors in different objects, including the authors, institution, country and publication source, thematic mapping of the paper in covid-19 and tourism sector. The finding discovers 791 scientific documents and 320 sources. The finding emphasizes that the research topic in pandemic covid-19 and tourism sector is generally given information and benefit.

3.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 2442-2454, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894921

ABSTRACT

Cathepsin L (CTSL), a cysteine protease that can cleave and activate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, could be a promising therapeutic target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still no clinically available CTSL inhibitor that can be used. Here, we applied Chemprop, a newly trained directed-message passing deep neural network approach, to identify small molecules and FDA-approved drugs that can block CTSL activity to expand the discovery of CTSL inhibitors for drug development and repurposing for COVID-19. We found 5 molecules (Mg-132, Z-FA-FMK, leupeptin hemisulfate, Mg-101 and calpeptin) that were able to significantly inhibit the activity of CTSL in the nanomolar range and inhibit the infection of both pseudotype and live SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we discovered that daptomycin, an FDA-approved antibiotic, has a prominent CTSL inhibitory effect and can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. Further, molecular docking calculation showed stable and robust binding of these compounds with CTSL. In conclusion, this study suggested for the first time that Chemprop is ideally suited to predict additional inhibitors of enzymes and revealed the noteworthy strategy for screening novel molecules and drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 and other diseases with unmet needs.

4.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844025

ABSTRACT

The antiviral drug remdesivir has been used to treat the growing number of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the drug is mainly excreted through urine and feces and introduced into the environment to affect non-target organisms, including fish, which has raised concerns about potential ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms. Moreover, studies on the ecological impacts of remdesivir on aquatic environments have not been reported. Here, we aimed to explore the toxicological impacts of microinjection of remdesivir on zebrafish early embryonic development and larvae and the associated mechanism. We found that 100 µM remdesivir delayed epiboly and impaired convergent movement of embryos during gastrulation, and dose-dependent increases in mortality and malformation were observed in remdesivir-treated embryos. Moreover, 10-100 µM remdesivir decreased blood flow and swimming velocity and altered the behavior of larvae. In terms of molecular mechanisms, 80 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by transcriptome analysis in the remdesivir-treated group. Some of these DEGs, such as manf, kif3a, hnf1ba, rgn, prkcz, egr1, fosab, nr4a1, and ptgs2b, were mainly involved in early embryonic development, neuronal developmental disorders, vascular disease and the blood flow pathway. These data reveal that remdesivir can impair early embryonic development, blood flow and behavior of zebrafish embryos/larvae, probably due to alterations at the transcriptome level. This study suggests that it is important to avoid the discharge of remdesivir to aquatic ecosystems and provides a theoretical foundation to hinder remdesivir-induced ecotoxicity to aquatic environments.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335275

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis has been intensively investigated, the host mechanisms of viral clearance and inflammation resolution are still elusive because of the ethical limitation of human studies based on COVID-19 convalescents. Here we infected Syrian hamsters by authentic SARS-CoV-2 and built an ideal model to simulate the natural recovery process of SARS-CoV-2 infection from severe pneumonia 1,2 . We developed and applied a spatial transcriptomic sequencing technique with subcellular resolution and tissue-scale extensibility, i.e. , Stereo-seq 3 , together with single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), to the entire lung lobes of 45 hamsters and obtained an elaborate map of the pulmonary spatiotemporal changes from acute infection, severe pneumonia to the late viral clearance and inflammation resolution. While SARS-CoV-2 infection caused massive damages to the hamster lungs, including naïve T cell infection and deaths related to lymphopenia, we identified a group of monocyte-derived proliferating Slamf9 + Spp1 + macrophages, which were SARS-CoV-2 infection-inducible and cell death-resistant, recruiting neutrophils to clear viruses together. After viral clearance, the Slamf9 + Spp1 + macrophages differentiated into Trem2 + and Fbp1 + macrophages, both responsible for inflammation resolution and replenishment of alveolar macrophages. The existence of this specific macrophage subpopulation and its descendants were validated by RNAscope in hamsters, immunofluorescence in hACE2 mice, and public human autopsy scRNA-seq data of COVID-19 patients. The spatiotemporal landscape of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamster lungs and the identification of Slamf9 + Spp1 + macrophages that is pivotal to viral clearance and inflammation resolution are important to better understand the critical molecular and cellular players of COVID-19 host defense and also develop potential interventions of COVID-19 immunopathology.

6.
Applied Sciences ; 12(7):3562, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785491

ABSTRACT

Among the numerous learning management platforms, Moodle is free, open-source software supporting expanding and modularized system functions and services to facilitate online courses or online resources and interactive activities. This study enhanced a personalized learning service for the Moodle e-learning management system, which synchronizes the user’s identity according to the user information database of the third-party user management platform system. According to the user’s demand to provide a personalized e-course, including personalized learning process, e-materials, and learning path to improve learning efficiency. This study adopted the pre-test and post-test achievement to compare the benefit of the personalized e-learning platform. Research samples were students in the “programming” course at the Technology University in central Taiwan. The experiment results indicate: (i) The average post-test result after using the proposed platform was higher than the average pre-test result (before using the proposed platform). (ii) The learning effect gap in the post-test between students was less than in the pre-test result. Hence, the proposed personalized e-learning platform was beneficial.

7.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 45(2): 85-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774434

ABSTRACT

To slow the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality, the Children's National Hospital developed a multidisciplinary, collaborative vaccine program aimed at equitably and expeditiously vaccinating the pediatric population of the surrounding community. Interdepartmental collaboration, professional expertise, and community partnerships allowed for a dynamic and successful program design that began as large volume-centralized vaccine clinics and expanded to smaller volume ambulatory clinics. This strategy proved successful at meeting local vaccine demand; however, strategies to improve vaccine uptake in communities with high rates of hesitancy are still needed to maximize vaccine equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(8): 2404-2419, 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Millions of people have died of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and retrospective studies of the disease in local regions are necessary. AIM: To characterize the epidemiological features and dynamic changes in blood biochemical indices for SARS-CoV-2-infected patients in Hebi, a representative city with a large floating population in North China. METHODS: From January 25 to February 10, 2020, the clinical data of patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in Hebi city (China) were evaluated at admission, and laboratory data for hematologic parameters, inflammatory indices, coagulation function indices, liver function indices, blood lipid indices, renal function indices, myocardial enzyme activities and five blood biochemical markers of immunity were evaluated at admission, upon hospitalization and before discharge. RESULTS: Sixteen confirmed COVID-19 patients developed pneumonia but were cured after adequate treatment. Fever and fatigue were the common symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities of patients at admission were leukopenia, eosinopenia, decreased percentage of eosinophils, elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels, hypoalbuminemia, mildly increased aspartate transferase activity and levels of bilirubin, and increased levels of ß2-microglobulin. Importantly, aggravated liver dysfunction was detected in most patients, which may be partially attributed to virus infection as well as medicinal treatment. CONCLUSION: This study provides several potential diagnostic markers and dynamic biochemical indices of disease progression to better prevent, diagnose and treat COVID-19 infection.

9.
Global Mental Health ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1758035

ABSTRACT

Background Risk perception among nurses after the COVID-19 pandemic is a crucial factor affecting their attitudes and willingness to work in clinics. Those with poor psychological status could perceive risks sensitively as fears or threats that are discouraging. This article aimed to determine whether psychological outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and insomnia, following the COVID-19 pandemic were differentially related to the risk perceptions of nurses working in clinics and increased perceived risk. Method The participants were 668 nurse clinicians from five local hospitals. Risk perceptions and psychological outcomes were measured by adapted questionnaires via the Internet. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified subgroups of individuals who showed similar profiles regarding the perceived risks in nursing. Multinomial regression and probit regression were used to examine the extent to which sociodemographic and psychological outcomes predicted class membership. Results LPA revealed four classes: groups with low-, mild-, moderate-, and high-level risk perceptions. Membership of the high-level risk perception class was predicted by the severity of psychological outcomes. Anxiety significantly accounted for a moderate increase in risk perceptions, while the symptoms of insomnia, depression, and PTSD accelerated the increase to the high level of risk perception class. Conclusions By classifying groups of nurse clinicians sharing similar profiles regarding risk perceptions and then exploring associated predictors, this study shows the psychological outcomes after COVID-19 significantly impacted pandemic-associated risk perceptions and suggests intervening in nurses' psychological outcomes while simultaneously focusing on work-related worries is important following the outbreak of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the treatment of children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Methods: We retrospectively collected and compared the data of patients with CDH admitted between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021 with the CDH patients admitted before the pandemic between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2019 (control group). Results: During the pandemic, 41 patients with CDH diagnosed prenatally were transferred to our hospital, and 40 underwent surgical repair. The number of patients treated in our hospital increased by 24.2% compared with that before the pandemic. During the pandemic, the overall survival rate, postoperative survival rate and recurrence rate were 85.4%, 87.5% and 7.3%, respectively, and there were no significant differences compared with the control group. The average length of hospital stay in patients admitted during the pandemic was longer than that in the control group, and the incidence of nosocomial infection was higher than that in the control group. Conclusions: CDH patients confirmed to be SARS-CoV-2 infection-free can receive routine treatment. Our data indicate that the implementation of protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, along with appropriate screening and case evaluation, do not have a negative impact on the prognosis of children.

11.
Applied Intelligence ; : 1-18, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695769

ABSTRACT

Objective: The high incidence of respiratory diseases has dramatically increased the medical burden under the COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2020. It is of considerable significance to utilize a new generation of information technology to improve the artificial intelligence level of respiratory disease diagnosis. Methods: Based on the semi-structured data of Chinese Electronic Medical Records (CEMRs) from the China Hospital Pharmacovigilance System, this paper proposed a bi-level artificial intelligence model for the risk classification of acute respiratory diseases. It includes two levels. The first level is a dedicated design of the “BiLSTM+Dilated Convolution+3D Attention+CRF” deep learning model that is used for Chinese Clinical Named Entity Recognition (CCNER) to extract valuable information from the unstructured data in the CEMRs. Incorporating the transfer learning and semi-supervised learning technique into the proposed deep learning model achieves higher accuracy and efficiency in the CCNER task than the popular “Bert+BiLSTM+CRF” approach. Combining the extracted entity data with other structured data in the CEMRs, the second level is a customized XGBoost to realize the risk classification of acute respiratory diseases. Results: The empirical study shows that the proposed model could provide practical technical support for improving diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: Our study provides a proof-of-concept for implementing a hybrid artificial intelligence-based system as a tool to aid clinicians in tackling CEMR data and enhancing the diagnostic evaluation under diagnostic uncertainty.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325355

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple organ damage and abnormal inflammation caused by COVID-19 have previously been reported in hospitalized patients. It remains unclear whether these patients can return to a healthy individual three months after discharge and whether there are related sequelae.Methods: We followed up 95 severe/critical patients and 51 mild/moderate ones who recovered from COVID-19 and were discharged from hospital for 3 months. For comparison, 28 asymptomatic COVID-19 recovered individuals and 42 uninfected healthy donors (HDs) were included. At the visit, patients were interviewed and subjected to quality-of-life evaluation (St. George respiratory questionnaire [SGRQ]), pulmonary function tests, chest CT imaging, laboratory examination, detection of immune cells, and cytokine profiling.Findings: At three months, all recovered patients tested negative for nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2, and most were positive for serum SARS-COV-2 IgG, but few were still positive for serum IgM. The SGRQ scores for the quality-of-life were higher in recovered patients, especially those who had had severe/critical disease. Laboratory test revealed that CRP, LDH and D-dimer, three prevalent risk factors for COVID-19 prognosis in the acute phase, did not recover to the level of uninfected HDs in the convalescence. Immune cells virtually returned to normal levels in patients who recovered from COVID-19, but some pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially chemokines and factors related to vascular injury and angiogenesis, did not return to the level of HDs, and this was especially true of severe/critical recovered patients. CT of the lungs showed that ground-glass opacity (GGO) still lingered as the main manifestation, followed by strip-like fibrosis. Artificial intelligence (AI) analysis indicated that the lesions were most prominent in the lower lobe of right lung, and were mainly found in recovered severe/critical individuals. Abnormal lung function was mainly manifested as restrictive ventilation dysfunction and lowered diffusion capacity, which was more pronounced in severe/critical COVID-19 recovered patients. Overall, the recovery status of the patients varied with the severity of the disease.Interpretation: Decreased physical quality of life, respiratory sequelae (restrictive ventilatory dysfunction, diffusion capacity disorder, and chest CT abnormalities), vascular injury and aberrant cytokine profiles still existed three months after discharge, and were more frequent and conspicuous in severe/critical COVID-19 rehabilitation patients compared to their mild/moderate and asymptomatic counterparts.Trial Registration: This project was registered on the Clinical Trials website (No. NCT04456101) Funding: This study was supported in part by the National Natural Science Special Foundation of China (82041018, 81800094), National Major Science and Technology Projects of China (CN):2019ZX09301001, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (CN):2020YFC0844300, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, HUST: 2020kfyXGYJ011.Declaration of Interests: The authors have no conflict of interest or financial relationships to disclose. All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.Ethics Approval Statement: The protocol used in this project has been reviewed and approved by the institutional review boards of Medical Ethics Committee of Wuhan Union Hospital (NO.0271-01). All participants or their surrogates signed informed consent.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325252

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest computed tomography (CT) provides insight into the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Purpose To quantify the chest CT scans of patients with CODIV-19 pneumonia using the pulmonary inflammation index (PII)and associate it with the severity of pneumonia. Methods A total of thirty inpatients admitted between January 30 and February 29, 2020 with confirmed COVID-19 infection were enrolled in this retrospective review. Patients were classified as “severe”(those who met the severe pneumonia criteria) or “mild”. Chest CT scans and clinical statistics data were obtained at four milestones (the date of admission, 3 days after treatment, 1 week after treatment and the time the last CT scan was obtained before discharge orthe completionof our research). Results Thirty patients (18 males and 12 females, age 20–74 years) with confirmed COVID-19pneumonia were evaluated. Increased neutrophilswere noted in 11 (36.7%) patients and decreased in 3 (10%) patients. Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in 22 (73.3%) patients and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in 27 (90%) patient were observed, but elevation of procalcitonin was not obvious. Seven (53.8%) patients had elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).The presentation of CT opacities was mainly in the form of distribution in both the severe andmild groups. The mean PII score in the severe group was 58% and 13.7% in the mild group. The score in the severe group was more than 50%and less than 20%in the mild group at every milestone. The score in the severe group was always higher than the mild group, therefore, the severity of the disease may be positively correlated with PII score. Conclusion The pulmonary inflammation index (PII) score of chest CT scans correlated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) progression and could be used to indicate severity in patients.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325215

ABSTRACT

We examined characteristics of chest CT during different time periods for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Huizhou, China. This study included 56 COVID-19 patients having abnormal CT acquired between January 22 and March 3, 2020. Scans of 56 patients were classified into 4 groups (Group 1-Group 4) based on the date on which scan was obtained at the 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd week and longer than 3 weeks after illness onset. Forty-five patients with follow-up scans were categorized into 4 groups according to extents that lesions reduced. GGO was prevalent in Groups 1-4 (58.1-82.6%). Consolidation was the more common in Group 2 (26.2%) and then declined in Group 3 and 4 (20.0%;9.7%). The highest frequency of fibrous stripes occurred in Group 3 (46.7%) and then decreased to 35.5% in Group 4. CT scores were higher for Group 2 than others. Among 45 follow-up patients, 11 (24.4%) of them recovered with lesions reducing ≥75% and had shorter hospital durations compared with others. There were temporal patterns of lung abnormalities in COVID-19 patients, with the highest extent of lesion involvement occurring in the 2 nd week. Isolation and review are required for COVID-19 patients who have been discharged from hospital.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324815

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) entry depends on the host membrane serine protease TMPRSS2, which can be blocked by some clinically-proven drugs. Here we analyzed spatial relevance between glycosylation sequons and antibody epitopes and found that, different from SARS-CoV S, most high-surface-accessible epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 S are blocked by the glycosylation, and the optimal epitope with the highest surface accessibility is covered by the S1 cap. TMPRSS2 inhibitor treatments may prevent unmasking of this epitope and therefore prolong virus clearance and may induce antibody-dependent enhancement. Interestingly, a heparin-binding sequence immediately upstream of the S1/S2 cleavage site has been found in SARS-CoV-2 S but not in SARS-CoV S. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 with heparins may lead to exposure of S686, which then facilitates the S1/S2 cleavage, induces exposure of the optimal epitope, and therefore increases the antibody titres. A combination of heparin and vaccine (or convalescent serum) treatments thus is recommended.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324802

ABSTRACT

Background: : Novel coronavirus disease(COVID-19)has become a worldwide pandemic and precise fatality data by age group are needed urgently. This study to delineate the clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 patients aged ≥75 years and identify the risk factors of in-hospital death. Methods: : A total of 141 consecutive patients aged ≥75 years who were admitted to the hospital between 12 th and 19 th February 2020. In-hospital death, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on admission were obtained from medical records. The final follow-up observation was 31 st March 2020. Results: : The median age was 81 years (84 female, 59.6%). Thirty-eight (27%) patients were classified as severe or critical cases. 18 (12.8%) patients had died in hospital and the remaining 123 were discharged. Patients who died were more likely to present with fever (38.9% vs. 7.3%);low percutaneous oxygen saturation(SpO 2 ) (55.6% vs. 7.3%);reduced lymphocytes (72.2% vs. 35.8%) and platelets (27.8% vs. 4.1%);and increased D-dimer (94.4% vs. 42.3%), creatinine (50.0% vs. 22.0%), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (77.8% vs. 30.1%), high sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI) (72.2% vs. 14.6%), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (72.2% vs. 6.5%;all P<0.05) than patients who recovered. Male sex (odds ratio [OR]=13.1, 95% confidence interval[CI] 1.1 to 160.1, P=0.044), body temperature >37.3°C (OR=80.5, 95% CI 4.6 to 1407.6, P=0.003), SpO 2 ≤90% (OR=70.1, 95% CI 4.6 to 1060.4, P=0.002), and NT-proBNP>1800ng/L (OR=273.5, 95% CI 14.7 to 5104.8, P<0.0001) were independent risk factors of in-hospital death. Conclusions: : In-hospital fatality among COVID-19 patients can be estimated by sex and on-admission measurements of body temperature, SpO 2 , and NT-proBNP.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324791

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in perinatal period, and systematically assess the mother-to-child transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 Methods: . We retrospectively analyzed the data of 23 pregnant patients in late pregnancy. Clinical specimens, including maternal and neonatal throat swabs, vaginal secretions, placenta tissues, and breast milk, were collected for the nucleic acid test of the virus. Pregnancy outcomes and neonatal results were also analyzed. Results: . Overall, 10 patients (43.5%) had no symptoms and were found by routine chest CT. Complications appeared after COVID-19 onset included PROM (17.4%) and fetal distress (4.3%). Typical signs of viral pneumonia were recorded in chest CT of all patients. No patients developed severe pneumonia or died of COVID-19. All of 25 neonates were born alive. No severe asphyxia or neonatal death was observed. Although three neonates were tested transiently suspected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after being transferred to neonatology department, no newborns developed COVID-19. Out of various clinical specimens tested, only a rectal swab sample from one pregnant patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, while all the other specimens including first sample of newborn throat swabs were negative. Pathological examination found no obvious chorioamnionitis or clear virus inclusion body in placenta, and ACE2 (angiotension-converting enzyme 2) was expressed at a moderate level. Conclusions: . As in the general population of COVID-19, asymptomatic patients were present in pregnant women. There is no confirmatory evidence for mother-to-child transmission in COVID-19 patients with late pregnancy.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324525

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of COVID-19 has been devastating on a global scale. Our study aimed to identify factors in predicting prolonged negative conversion time (NCT) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. Methods: : The clinical features and treatment outcomes were retrospectively analyzed from 32 hospitalized mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. Then univariate and multivariate analysis were used to predict in the factors of prolonged NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results: : The general clinical symptoms were cough (78.1%), fever (75%), diarrhea (68.8%), expectoration (56.3%), and nausea (37.5%). More than 40% of the patients had decreased erythrocyte, hemoglobin and leucocyte and 93.8% patients were detected in abnormalities of chest CT. The median NCT of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was 19.5 days (IQR: 14.25–25). Univariate analysis found fever, nausea, diarrhea and abnormalities in chest CTs were positively associated with prolonged NCT of viral RNA (P<0.05). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model revealed that fever [Exp (B), 0.284;95% CI, 0.114‑0.707;P<0.05] and nausea [Exp (B), 0.257;95%CI, 0.096‑0.689;P<0.05] were two significant independent factors. Conclusions: : Fever, nausea, diarrhea and abnormalities in chest CT are potential factors for predicting prolonged NCT of viral RNA. Moreover, Fever and nausea were two significant independent factors in prolonged NCT of viral RNA in mild/moderate COVID-19 patients.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324348

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic threatens the health of humans and causes great economic losses. Predictive modelling and forecasting the epidemic trends are essential for developing countermeasures to mitigate this pandemic. We develop a network model, where each node represents an individual and the edges represent contacts between individuals where the infection can spread. The individuals are classified based on the number of contacts they have each day (their node degrees) and their infection status. The transmission network model was respectively fitted to the reported data for the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan (China), Toronto (Canada), and the Italian Republic using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) optimization algorithm. Our model fits all three regions well with narrow confidence intervals and could be adapted to simulate other megacities or regions. The model projections on the role of containment strategies can help inform public health authorities to plan control measures.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324341

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of a patient with bilateral lung transplantation due to severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), who subsequently complicated with acute myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

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