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1.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; : 1-11, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Given the aging population of people with HIV (PWH), along with increasing rates of binge drinking among both PWH and the general older adult population, this study examined the independent and interactive effects of HIV, binge drinking, and age on neurocognition. METHOD: Participants were 146 drinkers stratified by HIV and binge drinking status (i.e., ≥4 drinks for women and ≥5 drinks for men within approximately 2 h): HIV+/Binge+ (n = 30), HIV-/Binge+ (n = 23), HIV+/Binge- (n = 55), HIV-/Binge- (n = 38). All participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery measuring demographically-corrected global and domain-specific neurocognitive T scores. ANCOVA models examined independent and interactive effects of HIV and binge drinking on neurocognitive outcomes, adjusting for overall alcohol consumption, lifetime substance use, sex, and age. Subsequent multiple linear regressions examined whether HIV/Binge group moderated the relationship between age and neurocognition. RESULTS: HIV+/Binge+ participants had worse global neurocognition, processing speed, delayed recall, and working memory than HIV-/Binge- participants (p's < .05). While there were significant main effects of HIV and binge drinking, their interaction did not predict any of those neurocognitive outcomes (p's > .05). Significant interactions between age and HIV/Binge group showed that HIV+/Binge+ participants demonstrated steeper negative relationships between age and neurocognitive outcomes of learning, delayed recall, and motor skills compared to HIV-/Binge- participants (p's < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Results showed adverse additive effects of HIV and binge drinking on neurocognitive functioning, with older adults demonstrating the most vulnerability to these effects. Findings support the need for interventions to reduce binge drinking, especially among older PWH.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311708

ABSTRACT

Background: Even people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. Methods: We investigated 1,701 PLWHA through a telephone interview and found 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of four districts’ CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWHA. Results: The incidence proportion of COVID-19 in PLWHA is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population incidence rate in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19/AIDS patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/μl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. PLWHA who were old, had low CD4+ T lymphocyte count, infected HIV through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed for HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. Conclusions: : PLWHA has comparable COVID-19 morbidity rates as the general population, and older age, low CD4 count, long length since HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naive were potential driving forces of COVID-19 occurrence among PLWHA. Strategies in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA with worse immune responses are needed. Article Summary Line: As COVID-19 continues to spread around the world, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are also at risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWHA in Wuhan, China.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310220

ABSTRACT

Background: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to threaten all human health worldwide. Although the symptoms, signs, responses, and outcomes associated with the disease varies for individuals, few studies have reported on pediatric patients with COVID-19. Methods: : This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records from three tertiary hospitals in Anhui province, China, of 23 children with COVID-19. Here, epidemiologic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory test results, and treatment strategies for these pediatric patients are reported and analyzed. Results: : In total, 23 children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were analyzed. All patients were given a nucleic acid detection test for SARS-CoV-2, and positive results confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19. Ten patients (43.5%) were female, and 19 patients (82.6%) had defined exposure history and familial clustering. The youngest patient was 16 months of age, the oldest, 17 years. The clinical symptoms of all included pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were mild, with cough (12, 52.2%) and fever (10, 43.5%) being the most frequent, making their symptoms indistinguishable from common respiratory infections. There was no difference in clinical manifestation between males and females ( P > 0.05). Eight patients (34.8%) showed changes on chest computed tomography imaging. The median level of each laboratory test parameter was within the normal reference range. Treatments primarily included antiviral therapies, traditional Chinese medicine therapies, and symptomatic supportive treatment. Conclusions: : The symptoms of all 23 pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection included in this study were mild. Because the primary presenting symptoms were indistinguishable from common respiratory infections and because most patients had an exposure history and familial clustering, we recommend supporting the diagnosis of mild or atypical COVID-19 in children with detailed epidemiologic information and chest computed tomography imaging as well as with nucleic acid detection tests. Obtaining a correct diagnosis in the early stage of the disease will contribute to controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to providing more immediate relevant treatment for infected children.

6.
eNeurologicalSci ; 25: 100373, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587851

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100275.].

7.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 38: 100938, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587657

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study evaluated the diagnostic values of the extent of lung injury manifested in non-contrast enhanced CT (NCCT) images, the inflammatory and immunological biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphocyte for detecting acute cardiac injury (ACI) in patients with COVID-19. The correlations between the NCCT-derived parameters and arterial blood oxygen level were also investigated. Methods: NCCT lung images and blood tests were obtained in 143 patients with COVID-19 in approximately two weeks after symptom onset, and arterial blood gas measurement was also acquired in 113 (79%) patients. The diagnostic values of normal, moderately and severely abnormal lung parenchyma volume relative to the whole lungs (RVNP, RVMAP, RVSAP, respectively) measured from NCCT images for detecting the heart injury confirmed with high-sensitivity troponin I assay was determined. Results: RVNP, RVMAP and RVSAP exhibited similar accuracy for detecting ACI in COVID-19 patients. RVNP was significantly lower while both RVMAP and RVSAP were significantly higher in the patients with ACI. All of the NCCT-derived parameters exhibited poor linear and non-linear correlations with PaO2 and SaO2. The patients with ACI had a significantly higher CRP level but a lower lymphocyte level compared to the patients without ACI. Combining one of these two biomarkers with any of the three NCCT-derived parameter further improved the accuracy for predicting ACI in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: The NCCT-delineated normal and abnormal lung parenchmyma tissues were statistically significant predictors of ACI in patients with COVID-19, but both exhibited poor correlations with the arterial blood oxygen level. The incremental diagnostic values of lymphocyte and CRP suggested viral infection and inflammation were closely related to the heart injury during the acute stage of COVID-19.

9.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 747-758, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. FINDINGS: 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0-67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0-198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0-361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04-1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48-2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50-5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls. INTERPRETATION: Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 271, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315588

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines from multiple manufacturers are needed to cope with the problem of insufficient supply. We did two single-center, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 and phase 2 trials to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) in healthy population aged 18 years or older in China. Eligible participants were enrolled, the ratio of candidate vaccine and placebo within each dose group was 3:1 (phase 1) or 5:1 (phase 2). From August 28, 2020, 168 participants were sequentially enrolled and randomly assigned to receive the low dose vaccine, high dose vaccine or placebo with the schedule of 0, 28 days or 0, 14, 28 days in phase 1 trial. From November 18, 2020, 960 participants were randomly assigned to receive the low dose vaccine, high dose vaccine or placebo with the schedule of 0, 21 days or 0, 14, 28 days in phase 2 trial. The most common solicited injection site adverse reaction within 7 days in both trials was pain. The most common solicited systematic adverse reactions within 7 days were fatigue, cough, sore throat, fever and headache. ELISA antibodies and neutralising antibodies increased at 14 days, and peaked at 28 days (phase 1) or 30 days (phase 2) after the last dose vaccination. The GMTs of neutralising antibody against live SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days or 30 days after the last dose vaccination were highest in the adult high dose group (0, 14, 28 days), with 102.9 (95% CI 61.9-171.2) and 102.6 (95% CI 75.2-140.1) in phase 1 and phase 2 trials, respectively. Specific T-cell response peaked at 14 days after the last dose vaccination in phase 1 trial. This vaccine is safe, and induced significant immune responses after three doses of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

12.
Urol Oncol ; 39(10): 733.e11-733.e16, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has disrupted the clinical pathway for patients with suspected upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). This aims to investigate the optimal management of UTUC during the pandemic by determining 1) Whether a three-month delay of RNU leads to worsened overall survival, 2) Whether radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) can be performed without prior diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS). METHODS: Consecutive patients with RNU performed for suspected UTUC in four hospitals in Hong Kong and Taiwan were included. Patients with histologically proven UTUC and with RNU performed within one year were dichotomized into early (≤3 months) and delayed (>3 months) RNU groups. Diagnostic performances of predictive models based on pre-URS factors (gross haematuria, suspicious or malignant urine cytology, and filling defect or contrast-enhancing mass on computed tomography), with or without URS, were analysed using receiver operating characteristics and area under curve (AUC). Overall survival was analysed using Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2019, 665 patients underwent RNU, and 491 of them had prior diagnostic URS. The early RNU group had a better overall survival (P = 0.015). Early RNU was associated with a better overall survival upon multivariate analysis (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33, P = 0.035). Large tumour size, multi-focal tumour, T2 or above disease, and positive nodal status were associated with a poorer overall survival. A combination of any 2 out of the 3 pre-URS factors achieved a positive predictive value of 99.5 to 100%. Presence of all 3 pre-URS factors achieved an AUC of 0.851 with URS, and AUC of 0.809 without URS. CONCLUSIONS: A delay of RNU for over 3 months was associated with poorer overall survival and has to be avoided despite the current COVID-19. We can also consider direct RNU based on clinical factors alone. This also avoids URS hospitalization and expedites the clinical pathway of UTUC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4603-4607, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263098

ABSTRACT

We compared the performance of five assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection on nasopharyngeal swab samples: Roche "cobas," Luminex "ARIES," MiRXES "Fortitude," Altona "RealStar," and Thermo Fisher Scientific "TaqPath." A total of 94 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 80 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases in the first 2 weeks of illness (median, 7 days; range, 2-14 days) and 14 healthy controls. After collection, all samples were transported to the hospital clinical laboratory within 24 h. These samples were tested on all five assays within 3 days of sample receipt. Of the 94 samples, 69 yielded the same result on all platforms, resulting in an agreement of 73.4% (69 of 94). Of these, 14 were the healthy control swabs which all tested negative, demonstrating good specificity across all platforms. The ARIES assay had the lowest detection rate (68.8%), followed by Fortitude (85.0%), RealStar (86.3%), cobas (95.0%), and TaqPath (100%). Statistically significant differences were observed for ARIES, Fortitude, and RealStar when compared against the best performing TaqPath using McNemar's χ2 test. A consensus result was established based on the results obtained by the cobas, Fortitude, RealStar, and TaqPath. Six discrepancies had failed to reach a consensus and were adjudicated using the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2. Overall, the TaqPath and cobas assays were the most sensitive at detecting their designated SARS-CoV-2 gene targets. On the other hand, the ARIES assay was the least sensitive, thus warranting the need for assay re-optimization before go-live at the testing laboratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Hepatol Commun ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although abnormal liver chemistries are linked to a higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related death, liver manifestations may be diverse and even confusing. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of published liver manifestations and described the liver damage in patients with COVID-19 who died or discharged alive. APPROACH & RESULTS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and three Chinese electronic databases through April 22, 2020. We analyzed pooled data on liver chemistries stratified by the main clinical outcome of COVID-19, using a fixed or random-effects model. In our meta-analysis of 19 studies, which included a total of 4,103 patients, the pooled mean alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were respectively 31.7 and 51.0 IU/L in the patients with COVID-19 who died and 27.7 and 32.9 IU/L in those discharged alive (both p < 0.0001). Compared with the patients discharged alive, those who died tended to have lower albumin levels but longer prothrombin time and higher international standardized ratio. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, according to the main clinical outcome of COVID-19, we comprehensively described three patterns of liver impairment related to COVID-19, hepatocellular injury, cholestasis, and hepatocellular disfunction. The patients who died from COVID-19 tended to have different liver chemistries from those discharged alive. Special caution should be given to the patients with relatively higher index of liver chemistries.

15.
eNeurologicalSci ; 23: 100336, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188538

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100275.].

16.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4603-4607, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130631

ABSTRACT

We compared the performance of five assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection on nasopharyngeal swab samples: Roche "cobas," Luminex "ARIES," MiRXES "Fortitude," Altona "RealStar," and Thermo Fisher Scientific "TaqPath." A total of 94 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from 80 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 cases in the first 2 weeks of illness (median, 7 days; range, 2-14 days) and 14 healthy controls. After collection, all samples were transported to the hospital clinical laboratory within 24 h. These samples were tested on all five assays within 3 days of sample receipt. Of the 94 samples, 69 yielded the same result on all platforms, resulting in an agreement of 73.4% (69 of 94). Of these, 14 were the healthy control swabs which all tested negative, demonstrating good specificity across all platforms. The ARIES assay had the lowest detection rate (68.8%), followed by Fortitude (85.0%), RealStar (86.3%), cobas (95.0%), and TaqPath (100%). Statistically significant differences were observed for ARIES, Fortitude, and RealStar when compared against the best performing TaqPath using McNemar's χ2 test. A consensus result was established based on the results obtained by the cobas, Fortitude, RealStar, and TaqPath. Six discrepancies had failed to reach a consensus and were adjudicated using the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2. Overall, the TaqPath and cobas assays were the most sensitive at detecting their designated SARS-CoV-2 gene targets. On the other hand, the ARIES assay was the least sensitive, thus warranting the need for assay re-optimization before go-live at the testing laboratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(4): 423-427, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed a major threat to the clinical practice of orthopedic surgeons, especially in the emergency department. We aim to present: (1) the criteria established by the Surgery Management Committee of Taipei Veterans General Hospital in response to COVID-19 and (2) the impact of COVID-19 screening on orthopedic trauma patients in the emergency department. METHODS: From April 1 to April 30, 2020, all orthopedic trauma patients in the emergency department were screened for COVID-19 if they fulfilled any of the following: (1) travel from abroad within 14 days, (2) high-risk occupation, (3) contact or cluster history with a COVID-19-positive patient, and (4) any associated symptom, including fever up to 38°C, cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea, loss of taste or smell, muscle soreness, malaise, or shortness of breath. We recorded details on the injury, fever, management, and associated outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 163 orthopedic trauma patients presenting to the emergency department, 24 were screened for COVID-19; of these, 22 received surgery. Sixty-two patients received surgery without screening for COVID-19. Fever was the most common reason to screen for COVID-19 (N = 20; 83.3%). No patients were COVID-19 positive. Screened patients had a significantly longer mean interval from presentation to the emergency department to surgery (2.7 ± 2.5 vs. 1.5 ± 0.8 days, p = 0.037). Of the 20 patients screened because of fever, the focus was not identified in 12 (60.0%) patients. The other eight had urinary tract infection (N = 6; 27.2%), septic hip (N = 1; 4.6%), and concomitant pneumonia and urinary tract infection (N = 1; 4.6%). The mean duration of fever and hospital stay was 4.3 ± 4.6 and 8.7 ± 4.9 days, respectively. There were no thromboembolic events, surgical complications, or in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: We developed safe and reliable screening criteria for this COVID-19 pandemic. The delay in surgery was reasonable and did not adversely affect in-patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Fractures, Bone , Orthopedics , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Fever , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Taiwan , Young Adult
18.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(2): 171-176, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), which began in December 2019, spread mostly from person to person through respiratory droplets. A recommendation was issued to postpone all elective surgical practices. However, some confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients required life-saving emergent surgeries. METHODS: To facilitate emergent surgical interventions for these patients, we have reviewed the current literature and established an algorithm of precautions to be taken by operating room team members during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The initial algorithm of preparation for surgical intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic was relatively simple. However, the abrupt increase of confirmed COVID-19 cases due to returned overseas travelers since mid-March 2020 disrupted the routine hospital clinical service. Due to the large number of febrile patients, the algorithm was therefore revised according to travel history, occupation, contact and cluster history (TOCC), unexplained fever/symptoms, and emergent/nonemergent surgery. TOCC (+) patients presenting with otherwise unexplained fever/symptoms would be regarded as belonging to the fifth category of "severe special infectious pneumonia." If the patient requires emergent surgery to relieve the non-life-threatening disorders, two times of negative COVID-19 tests are necessary before the operation is approved. For life-threatening situations without two negative results of COVID-19 tests, the operation schedule should be approved by the Chairman of Surgery Management Committee. CONCLUSION: The application of a clear and integrated algorithm for operating room team members aids in effective personal protective equipment facilitation to keep both healthcare providers and patients safe as well as to prevent hospital-based transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Operating Rooms , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110825, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to almost every corner of the world. In theory, tocilizumab and favipiravir are considered to be reliable drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 with elevated IL-6. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab combined with favipiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a multicenter trial in adults with COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned (3:1:1) to a 14-day combination of favipiravir combined with tocilizumab (combination group), favipiravir, and tocilizumab. The primary outcome was the cumulative lung lesion remission rate (lung CT examination indicated absorption of lung inflammation). RESULTS: Between Feb 2 and March 15, 2020, 26 patients were recruited; 14 were randomly assigned to the combination group, 7 were assigned to the favipiravir group and 5 were assigned to the tocilizumab group. The cumulative lung lesion remission rate at day 14 was significantly higher in combination group as compared with favipiravir group (P = 0.019, HR 2.66 95 % CI [1.08-6.53]). And there was also a significant difference between tocilizumab and favipivavir (P = 0.034, HR 3.16, 95 % CI 0.62-16.10). In addition, there was no significant difference between the combination group and the tocilizumab group (P = 0.575, HR 1.28 95 %CI 0.39-4.23). Furthermore, combined therapy can also significantly relieve clinical symptoms and help blood routine to return to normal. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab combined with or without favipiravir can effectively improve the pulmonary inflammation of COVID-19 patients and inhibit the deterioration of the disease.


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Sample Size , Treatment Outcome
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