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1.
Leukemia ; 36(7): 1720-1748, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972568

ABSTRACT

We herein present an overview of the upcoming 5th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Haematolymphoid Tumours focussing on lymphoid neoplasms. Myeloid and histiocytic neoplasms will be presented in a separate accompanying article. Besides listing the entities of the classification, we highlight and explain changes from the revised 4th edition. These include reorganization of entities by a hierarchical system as is adopted throughout the 5th edition of the WHO classification of tumours of all organ systems, modification of nomenclature for some entities, revision of diagnostic criteria or subtypes, deletion of certain entities, and introduction of new entities, as well as inclusion of tumour-like lesions, mesenchymal lesions specific to lymph node and spleen, and germline predisposition syndromes associated with the lymphoid neoplasms.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Neoplasms , Lymphoma , Humans , Lymphoma/pathology , World Health Organization
2.
IEEE Trans Artif Intell ; 2(6): 608-617, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948840

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has brought about a plethora of unforeseen changes to the world as we know it. Despite our ceaseless fight against it, COVID-19 has claimed millions of lives, and the death toll exacerbated due to its extremely contagious and fast-spreading nature. To control the spread of this highly contagious disease, a rapid and accurate diagnosis can play a very crucial part. Motivated by this context, a parallelly concatenated convolutional block-based capsule network is proposed in this article as an efficient tool to diagnose the COVID-19 patients from multimodal medical images. Concatenation of deep convolutional blocks of different filter sizes allows us to integrate discriminative spatial features by simultaneously changing the receptive field and enhances the scalability of the model. Moreover, concatenation of capsule layers strengthens the model to learn more complex representation by presenting the information in a fine to coarser manner. The proposed model is evaluated on three benchmark datasets, in which two of them are chest radiograph datasets and the rest is an ultrasound imaging dataset. The architecture that we have proposed through extensive analysis and reasoning achieved outstanding performance in COVID-19 detection task, which signifies the potentiality of the proposed model.

3.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911615

ABSTRACT

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an esterase with specifically paraoxonase activity, has been proven to be involved in inflammation and infection. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is still a major concern in pigs and causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, the role of PON1 was investigated in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during PRRSV infection. The results showed that PRRSV replication downregulated PON1, and the knockdown of PON1 significantly decreased PRRSV replication. Similarly, PON1 overexpression could enhance PRRSV replication. Interestingly, we observed that PON1 interacted with PRRSV nonstructural protein 9 (Nsp9), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the knockdown of PON1 lowered the RNA binding ability of Nsp9, suggesting that PON1 can facilitate Nsp9 function in viral replication. In addition, the knockdown of PON1 expression led to the amplification of type I interferon (IFN) genes and vice versa. In summary, our data demonstrate that PON1 facilitates PRRSV replication by interacting with Nsp9 and inhibiting the type I IFN signaling pathway. Hence, PON1 may be an additional component of the anti-PRRSV defenses.


Subject(s)
Interferon Type I , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Animals , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Aryldialkylphosphatase/metabolism , Cell Line , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/metabolism , Protein Binding , Swine , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 693196, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809431

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) virus (IBV) causes considerable economic losses to poultry production. The data on transmission dynamics of IBV in China are limited. The complete genome sequences of 212 IBV isolates in China during 1985-2020 were analyzed as well as the characteristics of the phylogenetic tree, recombination events, dN/dS ratios, temporal dynamics, and phylogeographic relationships. The LX4 type (GI-19) was found to have the highest dN/dS ratios and has been the most dominant genotype since 1999, and the Taiwan-I type (GI-7) and New type (GVI-1) showed an increasing trend. A total of 59 recombinants were identified, multiple recombination events between the field and vaccine strains were found in 24 isolates, and the 4/91-type (GI-13) isolates were found to be more prone to being involved in the recombination. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicated that the Chinese IBVs originated from Liaoning province in the early 1900s. The LX4-type viruses were traced back to Liaoning province in the late 1950s and had multiple transmission routes in China and two major transmission routes in the world. Viral phylogeography identified three spread regions for IBVs (including LX4 type) in China: Northeastern China (Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Jilin), north and central China (Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong, and Jiangsu), and Southern China (Guangxi and Guangdong). Shandong has been the epidemiological center of IBVs (including LX4 type) in China. Overall, our study highlighted the reasons why the LX4-type viruses had become the dominant genotype and its origin and transmission routes, providing more targeted strategies for the prevention and control of IB in China.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 108, 2022 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical treatment of patients suspected of pulmonary infections often rely on empirical antibiotics. However, preliminary diagnoses were based on clinical manifestations and conventional microbiological tests, which could later be proved wrong. In this case, we presented a patient whose initial diagnosis was lung abscess, but antibiotic treatments had no effect, and metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) indicated presence of neoplasm. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with lung abscess at three different health facilities. However, mNGS of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid did not support pulmonary infections. Rather, the copy number variation analysis using host DNA sequences suggested neoplasm. Using H&E staining and immunohistochemistry of lung biopsy, the patient was eventually diagnosed with lung squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: mNGS not only detects pathogens and helps diagnose infectious diseases, but also has potential in detecting neoplasm via host chromosomal copy number analysis. This might be beneficial for febrile patients with unknown or complex etiology, especially when infectious diseases were initially suspected but empirical antibiotic regimen failed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329015

ABSTRACT

Background: it is necessary to evaluate real-time fluorescent reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods to detect the nucleic acids of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: : considering lack of positive specimens in some particular locations in China, the specimens from healthy individuals were used to perform the methodology evaluations, in which the indexes were the differences of quantification cycle values (Δ C q) between human-derived internal reference control (IRC) genes of a specimen and quality control gene (QC). A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate various factors that might affect the results, such as types of virus transport media, methods of specimen pretreatment and template preparation, specimen vortex strength, specimen storage temperature, and duration. Results: : it was better to store specimens in normal saline (NS) transport medium, release more virus particles from swabs by vortex mixing, extract nucleic acids with centrifugation methods, and perform amplification assays timely. The above-mentioned options and optimum conditions were further confirmed using SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses and positive clinical specimens. Conclusions: : this study provides a solution for the accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, this study also indicates that the routine specimens from healthy individuals could be used to methodological evaluation of real-time fluorescent RT-PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2, of which the indexes were the Δ C q values.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315409

ABSTRACT

Background: To the best of our knowledge, muscle soreness is a common manifestation for the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients, but the mechanism of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) injury to skeletal muscle remains unclear, there has been no publication focused on muscle involvement in COVID-19 patients. Case presentation We present the case of two Chinese men with COVID-19, whose common symptoms were fatigue and muscle soreness. They went through different treatments, patient 1, 81-year-old, eventually died of multi-organ failure, and patient 2, 53-year-old, underwent amputation of the mid-lower section of left thigh. Laboratory tests in both patients showed abnormal biochemical parameters associated with skeletal muscle injury. We obtained skeletal muscle samples from these two patients, one from postmortem biopsy of gastrocnemius muscle and the other from a resected left lower limb due to thrombosis. The pathological findings in patient 1 were mainly scattered atrophic muscles, while fiber necrosis and minor inflammation were identified in patient 2, and the mild infiltrations were confirmed by CD68 and LCA staining to be predominantly macrophages and lymphocytes. Conclusions: We report the clinical and laboratory features together with histopathological findings in skeletal muscle tissues from two COVID-19 cases and speculate that the SARS-CoV-2 may cause skeletal muscle injury. Due to the particularity of individual differences in case reports, the background of chronic neuromuscular disease in patient 1 and a minimal compartment syndrome caused by thrombosis in patient 2 need to be excluded prior to the conclusion that the skeletal muscles have been involved in COVID-19.

8.
People Nat (Hoboken) ; 4(2): 505-518, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680525

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has heightened the dependence of urban dwellers on cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green spaces (UGS), specifically in regard to the provision of recreational opportunities, and psychological and physical health benefits arising from their use.As different types and levels of cultural ecosystem services are provided by different types of UGS, people may seek out different UGS to satisfy personal needs over various phases of COVID-19 mobility restrictions imposed by cities. We report on a study that took advantage of the different phases of COVID-19 mobility restrictions to assess the demand for and perception of different types of UGS in Singapore.The study utilised four datasets to compare demand for and visitorship patterns of UGS before the pandemic (Pre-Circuit Breaker), the duration of the strictest mobility restrictions (Circuit Breaker), and after the measures were relaxed (Post-Circuit Breaker). We used Google Search trends as a proxy for UGS demand, Google mobility data for an overview of population visitorship trends, visitor counts for granular insights on actual visitorship trends, and qualitative data on perception of parks by park visitors after restrictions eased. Parks were categorised as manicured and less manicured UGS for analysis.Search interest for UGS overall fell by more than 50% from during Circuit Breaker but the post-Circuit Breaker levels exceeded pre-Circuit Breaker, with a 70.9% increase for less manicured UGS compared to 20.8% for manicured UGS. This corroborated with Google mobility and visitor counts, which showed a steep decrease in park use followed by a rapid increase in the same periods, and with increased visitorship in the less manicured UGS. The perception study also showed that more than 50% of respondents reported visiting parks that they have never visited before, and there was a greater appreciation and use of UGS after the pandemic and preference for less manicured and more naturalistic landscapes.The pandemic has heightened the demand for cultural ecosystem services provided by UGS. Our study showed that this demand is not uniform across different types of UGS, with an increase visitorship and preference for less manicured green spaces. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.

9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(12): 976-983, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to present a major challenge to public health. Vaccine development requires an understanding of the kinetics of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In total, 605 serum samples from 125 COVID-19 patients (from January 1 to March 14, 2020) varying in age, sex, severity of symptoms, and presence of underlying diseases were collected, and antibody titers were measured using a micro-neutralization assay with wild-type SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: NAbs were detectable approximately 10 days post-onset (dpo) of symptoms and peaked at approximately 20 dpo. The NAb levels were slightly higher in young males and severe cases, while no significant difference was observed for the other classifications. In follow-up cases, the NAb titer had increased or stabilized in 18 cases, whereas it had decreased in 26 cases, and in one case NAbs were undetectable at the end of our observation. Although a decreasing trend in NAb titer was observed in many cases, the NAb level was generally still protective. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that NAb levels vary among all categories of COVID-19 patients. Long-term studies are needed to determine the longevity and protective efficiency of NAbs induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 335-345, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375670

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has led to adverse short-term outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It is unknown if this translates to poorer long-term outcomes. In Singapore, the escalation of the outbreak response on February 7, 2020 demanded adaptation of STEMI care to stringent infection control measures. A total of 321 patients presenting with STEMI and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention at a tertiary hospital were enrolled and followed up over 1-year. They were allocated into three groups based on admission date-(1) Before outbreak response (BOR): December 1, 2019-February 6, 2020, (2) During outbreak response (DOR): February 7-March 31, 2020, and (3) control group: November 1-December 31, 2018. The incidence of cardiac-related mortality, cardiac-related readmissions, and recurrent coronary events were examined. Although in-hospital outcomes were worse in BOR and DOR groups compared to the control group, there were no differences in the 1-year cardiac-related mortality (BOR 8.7%, DOR 7.1%, control 4.8%, p = 0.563), cardiac-related readmissions (BOR 15.1%, DOR 11.6%, control 12.0%, p = 0.693), and recurrent coronary events (BOR 3.2%, DOR 1.8%, control 1.2%, p = 0.596). There were higher rates of additional PCI during the index admission in DOR, compared to BOR and control groups (p = 0.027). While patients admitted for STEMI during the pandemic may have poorer in-hospital outcomes, their long-term outcomes remain comparable to the pre-pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Singapore/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
11.
Washington International Law Journal ; 30(3):545-597, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1279078

ABSTRACT

Governments and private sector players have hopped on the open data train in the past few years. Both the governments and civil society in Taiwan are exploring the opportunities provided by the data stored in public and private sectors. While they have been enjoying the benefits of the sharing and flowing of data among various databases, the government and some players in the private sectors have also posed tremendous privacy challenges by inappropriately gathering and processing personal data. The amended Personal Data Protection Act was originally enacted as a regulatory mechanism to protect personal data and create economic benefits via enhancing the uses of public and private sector data. In reality, the Act has instead resulted in harm to Taiwan's data privacy situation in this big data era. This article begins with an overview of the Taiwan's open data policy history and its current practices. Next, the article analyzes cases in which the data sharing practices between different sectors have given rise to privacy controversies, with a particular focus on 2020, when Taiwan used data surveillance in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, this article flags problems related to an open data system, including the protection of sensitive data, de-identification, the right to consent and opt-out, and the ambiguity of "public interest," and concludes by proposing a feasible architecture for the implementation of a more sensible open data system with privacy-enhancing characteristics. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Washington International Law Journal is the property of Pacific Rim Law & Policy Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 786: 147419, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220198

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 has been used for the early warning of transmission or objective trending of the population-level disease prevalence. Here, we describe a new use-case of conducting targeted wastewater surveillance to complement clinical testing for case identification in a small community at risk of COVID-19 transmission. On 2 July 2020, a cluster of COVID-19 cases in two unrelated households residing on different floors in the same stack of an apartment building was reported in Singapore. After cases were conveyed to healthcare facilities and six healthy household contacts were quarantined in their respective apartments, wastewater surveillance was implemented for the entire residential block. SARS-CoV-2 was subsequently detected in wastewaters in an increasing frequency and concentration, despite the absence of confirmed COVID-19 cases, suggesting the presence of fresh case/s in the building. Phone interviews of six residents in quarantine revealed that no one was symptomatic (fever/respiratory illness). However, when nasopharyngeal swabs from six quarantined residents were tested by PCR tests, one was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The positive case reported episodes of diarrhea and the case's stool sample was also positive for SARS-CoV-2, explaining the SARS-CoV-2 spikes observed in wastewaters. After the case was conveyed to a healthcare facility, wastewaters continued to yield positive signals for five days, though with a decreasing intensity. This was attributed to the return of recovered cases, who had continued to shed the virus. Our findings demonstrate the utility of wastewater surveillance as a non-intrusive tool to monitor high-risk COVID-19 premises, which is able to trigger individual tests for case detection, highlighting a new use-case for wastewater testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Waste Water
14.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(3): 213, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of the interval between disease onset and hospital admission (O-A interval) was undetermined in patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 205 laboratory-confirmed inpatients admitted to Hankou hospital of Wuhan from January 11 to March 8, 2020 were consecutively included in this retrospective observational study. Demographic data, medical history, laboratory testing results were collected from medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect of the O-A interval (≤7 versus >7 days) on disease progression in mild-to-moderate patients. For severe-to-critical patients, the in-hospital mortality and the length of hospital stay were compared between the O-A interval subgroups using log-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively. RESULTS: Mild-to-moderate patients with a short O-A interval (≤7 days) are more likely to deteriorate to severe-to-critical stage compared to those with a long O-A interval (>7 days) [unadjusted odds ratio =2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-6.55; adjusted odds ratio =3.44, 95% CI, 1.20-9.83]. No association was identified between the O-A interval and the mortality or the length of hospital stay of severe-to-critical patients. CONCLUSIONS: The O-A interval has predictive values for the disease progression in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. Under circumstances of the specific health system in Wuhan, China, the spontaneous healthcare-seeking behavior is usually determined by patients' own heath conditions. Hence, the O-A interval can be reflective of the natural course of COVID-19 to some extent. However, our findings should be validated further in other cohorts and in other health systems.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077468

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses massive economic losses in the global poultry industry. Here, we firstly report the construction and immunogenicity comparison of virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the S, M and E proteins (SME-VLPs); VLPs carrying the S and M proteins (SM-VLPs); and VLPs carrying the M and E proteins (ME-VLPs) from the dominant serotype representative strain GX-YL5 in China. The neutralizing antibody response induced by the SME-VLPs was similar to that induced by the inactivated oil vaccine (OEV) of GX-YL5, and higher than those induced by the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and commercial live vaccine H120. More importantly, the SME-VLPs elicited higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes than the SM-VLPs, ME-VLPs and OEV of GX-YL5. Compared with the OEV of GX-YL5, higher levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ were also induced by the SME-VLPs. Moreover, the mucosal immune response (sIgA) induced by the SME-VLPs in the tear and oral swabs was comparable to that induced by the H120 vaccine and higher than that induced by the OEV of GX-YL5. In the challenge experiment, the SME-VLPs resulted in significantly lower viral RNA levels in the trachea and higher protection scores than the OEV of GX-YL5 and H120 vaccines, and induced comparable viral RNA levels in the kidneys, and tear and oral swabs to the OEV of GX-YL5. In summary, among the three VLPs, the SME-VLPs carrying the S, M and E proteins of IBV could stimulate the strongest humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses and provide effective protection, indicating that it would be an attractive vaccine candidate for IB.

16.
Circ J ; 85(2): 139-149, 2021 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the outbreak response measures on door-to-balloon time (D2B). This study examined both D2B and clinical outcomes of patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).Methods and Results:This was a retrospective study of 303 STEMI patients who presented directly or were transferred to a tertiary hospital in Singapore for PPCI from October 2019 to March 2020. We compared the clinical outcomes of patients admitted before (BOR) and during (DOR) the COVID-19 outbreak response. The study outcomes were in-hospital death, D2B, cardiogenic shock and 30-day readmission. For direct presentations, fewer patients in the DOR group achieved D2B time <90 min compared with the BOR group (71.4% vs. 80.9%, P=0.042). This was more apparent after exclusion of non-system delay cases (DOR 81.6% vs. BOR 95.9%, P=0.006). Prevalence of both out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (9.5% vs. 1.9%, P=0.003) and acute mitral regurgitation (31.6% vs. 17.5%, P=0.006) was higher in the DOR group. Mortality was similar between groups. Multivariable regression showed that longer D2B time was an independent predictor of death (odds ratio 1.005, 95% confidence interval 1.000-1.011, P=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and the outbreak response have had an adverse effect on PPCI service efficiency. The study reinforces the need to focus efforts on shortening D2B time, while maintaining infection control measures.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , COVID-19/epidemiology , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Time-to-Treatment , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Singapore/epidemiology
17.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4441

ABSTRACT

A review on suggestions on the prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia in different populations

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2020 12 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006966

ABSTRACT

Fomite-mediated transmission has been identified as a possible route for the spread of COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. In healthcare settings, environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 has been found in patients' rooms and toilets. Here, we investigated environmental presence of SARS-CoV-2 in non-healthcare settings and assessed the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection in removing virus contamination. A total of 428 environmental swabs and six air samples was taken from accommodation rooms, toilets and elevators that have been used by COVID-19 cases. By using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, we detected two SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive samples in a room where a COVID-19 patient stayed prior to diagnosis. The present study highlights the risk of fomite-mediated transmission in non-healthcare settings and the importance of surface disinfection in spaces occupied by cases. Of note, neither air-borne transmission nor surface contamination of elevators, which were transiently exposed to infected individuals, was evident among samples analyzed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution , Hospitals , Humans
19.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 18(1):117, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984945

ABSTRACT

Fomite-mediated transmission has been identified as a possible route for the spread of COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. In healthcare settings, environmental contamination by SARS-CoV-2 has been found in patients’rooms and toilets. Here, we investigated environmental presence of SARS-CoV-2 in non-healthcare settings and assessed the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection in removing virus contamination. A total of 428 environmental swabs and six air samples was taken from accommodation rooms, toilets and elevators that have been used by COVID-19 cases. By using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, we detected two SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive samples in a room where a COVID-19 patient stayed prior to diagnosis. The present study highlights the risk of fomite-mediated transmission in non-healthcare settings and the importance of surface disinfection in spaces occupied by cases. Of note, neither air-borne transmission nor surface contamination of elevators, which were transiently exposed to infected individuals, was evident among samples analyzed.

20.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977736

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has significant impact on global health care delivery, occurs amid the ongoing global health crisis of antimicrobial resistance. Early data demonstrated that bacterial and fungal co-infection with COVID-19 remain low and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials during the pandemic may worsen antimicrobial resistance It is, therefore, essential to maintain the ongoing effort of antimicrobial stewardship activities in all sectors globally.

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