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1.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966022

ABSTRACT

The mass inoculation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines to induce herd immunity is one of the most effective measures we can deploy in the fight against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pregnant women are prone to a higher risk of COVID-19, and maternal infection is a risk factor for a range of neurological disorders leading to abnormal behavior in adulthood. However, there are limited clinical data to support whether vaccination or infection post-immunization in pregnant women can affect the behavioral cognition of fetuses in adulthood. In this study, human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 pregnant mice (F0 generation) were immunized with CoronaVac and then infected with SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently, we analyzed the behavioral cognition of their adult offspring (F1 generation) using the open-field test and Morris water maze test. The adult F1 generation did not exhibit any impairments in spontaneous locomotor activity or spatial reference memory.

2.
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open ; 10(6), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1898075

ABSTRACT

Summary: Up to 36.7% of symptomatic COVID-19 patients will have telogen effluvium (TE), which refers to diffuse scalp alopecia. With the continuing global pandemic, a review of literature reports unpredictable and incomplete recovery with conventional treatment like minoxidil. The pathogenesis of COVID-19-induced TE may be more severe than that of conventional TE as the hair follicles are proposed to be directly damaged by cytokines and thromboembolism. There is no current standardized treatment for COVID-19-induced TE. We present a patient with severe chronic TE, with no spontaneous recovery after 6 months of hair loss and minimal response to minoxidil. We commenced monthly applications of stem cell serum (Calecim). We present the results of five treatments spaced monthly, after which he experienced effective regrowth of scalp hair. We propose stem cell serum for patients who have failed conventional treatment or as an adjunct to conventional therapy in COVID-19-induced TE.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4609-4616, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882618

ABSTRACT

The mass inoculation of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine to induce herd immunity is one of the most effective measures to fight COVID-19. The vaccination of pregnant women cannot only avoid or reduce the probability of infectious diseases, but also offers the most effective and direct protection for neonates by means of passive immunization. However, there is no randomized clinical data to ascertain whether the inactivated vaccination of pregnant women or women of childbearing age can affect conception and the fetus. We found that human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice that were vaccinated with two doses of CoronaVac (an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine) before and during pregnancy exhibited normal weight changes and reproductive performance indices; the physical development of their offspring was also normal. Following intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, pregnant mice in the immunization group all survived; reproductive performance indices and the physical development of offspring were all normal. In contrast, mice in the non-immunization group all died before delivery. Analyses showed that inoculation of CoronaVac was safe and did not exert any significant effects on pregnancy, lactation, or the growth of offspring in hACE2 mice. Vaccination effectively protected the pregnant mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection and had no adverse effects on the growth and development of the offspring, thus suggesting that inoculation with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may be an effective strategy to prevent infection in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lactation , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
Biosaf Health ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866923

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19, it is essential to share pathogens and their data information safely, transparently, and timely. At the same time, it is also worth exploring how to share the benefits of using the provided pathogenic microorganisms fairly and equitably. There are some mechanisms for the management and sharing of pathogenic microbial resources in the world, such as the World Health Organization, the United States, the European, and China. This paper studies these mechanisms and puts forward "PICC" principles, including public welfare principle, interests principle, classified principle, and category principle, to strengthen cooperation, improve efficiency and maintain biosafety.

5.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(5)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862876

ABSTRACT

In recent years, various viral diseases have suddenly erupted, resulting in widespread infection and death. A variety of biological activities from marine natural products have gradually attracted the attention of people. Seaweeds have a wide range of sources, huge output, and high economic benefits. This is very promising in the pharmaceutical industry. In particular, sulfated polysaccharides derived from seaweeds, considered a potential source of bioactive compounds for drug development, have shown antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses, mainly including common DNA viruses and RNA viruses. In addition, sulfated polysaccharides can also improve the body's immunity. This review focuses on recent advances in antiviral research on the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds, including carrageenan, galactan, fucoidan, alginate, ulvan, p-KG03, naviculan, and calcium spirulan. We hope that this review will provide new ideas for the development of COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines.

6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 359, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840964

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The redeployment of mentors and restrictions on in-person face-to-face mentoring meetings during the COVID-19 pandemic has compromised mentoring efforts in Palliative Medicine (PM). Seeking to address these gaps, we evaluate the notion of a combined novice, peer-, near-peer and e-mentoring (CNEP) and interprofessional team-based mentoring (IPT) program. METHODS: A Systematic Evidence Based Approach (SEBA) guided systematic scoping review was carried out to study accounts of CNEP and IPT from articles published between 1st January 2000 and 28th February 2021. To enhance trustworthiness, concurrent thematic and content analysis of articles identified from structured database search using terms relating to interprofessional, virtual and peer or near-peer mentoring in medical education were employed to bring together the key elements within included articles. RESULTS: Fifteen thousand one hundred twenty one abstracts were reviewed, 557 full text articles were evaluated, and 92 articles were included. Four themes and categories were identified and combined using the SEBA's Jigsaw and Funnelling Process to reveal 4 domains - characteristics, mentoring stages, assessment methods, and host organizations. These domains suggest that CNEP's structured virtual and near-peer mentoring process complement IPT's accessible and non-hierarchical approach under the oversight of the host organizations to create a robust mentoring program. CONCLUSION: This systematic scoping review forwards an evidence-based framework to guide a CNEP-IPT program. At the same time, more research into the training and assessment methods of mentors, near peers and mentees, the dynamics of mentoring interactions and the longitudinal support of the mentoring relationships and programs should be carried out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mentoring , Palliative Medicine , Humans , Mentoring/methods , Mentors/education , Palliative Medicine/education , Pandemics
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 124, 2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795804

ABSTRACT

Variants of concern (VOCs) like Delta and Omicron, harbor a high number of mutations, which aid these viruses in escaping a majority of known SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In this study, Rhesus macaques immunized with 2-dose inactivated vaccines (Coronavac) were boosted with an additional dose of homologous vaccine or an RBD-subunit vaccine, or a bivalent inactivated vaccine (Beta and Delta) to determine the effectiveness of sequential immunization. The booster vaccination significantly enhanced the duration and levels of neutralizing antibody titers against wild-type, Beta, Delta, and Omicron. Animals administered with an indicated booster dose and subsequently challenged with Delta or Omicron variants showed markedly reduced viral loads and improved histopathological profiles compared to control animals, indicating that sequential immunization could protect primates against Omicron. These results suggest that sequential immunization of inactivated vaccines or polyvalent vaccines could be a potentially effective countermeasure against newly emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/genetics
9.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695767

ABSTRACT

It is widely accepted that the zinc element is crucial in human beings. Zinc has gained more attention during the COVID-19 pandemic due to its utilization for the treatment and prevention of respiratory tract infections. However, some studies also pointed out that zinc intake might cause unwanted side effects and even be dangerous when overdosed. To reveal the relationship between zinc intake and health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review from human studies. In total, the umbrella review included 43 articles and identified 11 outcomes for dietary zinc intake and 86 outcomes for supplementary zinc intake. Dietary zinc intake in the highest dose would decrease the risk of overall and specific digestive tract cancers, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. Supplementary zinc consumption in adults was linked to an improvement of depression, antioxidant capacity and sperm quality, higher serum zinc concentration, and lower concentration of inflammatory markers. Zinc supplementation in children would reduce the incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia, improve zinc deficiency and boost growth. However, zinc might not decrease all-cause mortality in adults or the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. And better maternal and neonatal outcomes may not derive from pregnant women who consumed higher or lower doses of zinc supplementation (>20 mg/day and <20 mg/day, respectively). Dose-response analyses revealed that a daily 5 mg increment of zinc would lower the risk of colorectal and esophageal cancer, whereas a large dose of zinc supplementation (daily 100 mg) showed no benefit in reducing prostate cancer risk.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308262

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 could be transmitted through aerosols, and aerosol can be produced by atomization inhalation. Preventative aerosol inhalation is prohibited in our hospital during COVID-19, however the number of cases of fever after surgery has not increased significantly. We want to know whether wearing surgical masks coupled with restricting the flow of people in patient wards has same effect with preventive atomization inhalation in preventing fever after surgery, and we wonder whether preventive atomization inhalation is unnecessary during COVID-19, as long as strictly wearing surgical masks and restricting the flow of people in patient wards have been met. Methods: : Eight kinds of common surgery were covered in this retrospective analysis, including total thyroidectomy (for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma), total adrenalectomy (adrenal tumor), radical gastrectomy (gastric cancer), radical nephrectomy (renal cell carcinoma), radical prostatectomy (prostate cancer), radical resection for sigmoid colon cancer, radical resection for rectal cancer and appendectomy (appendicitis). Cases in Group A underwent preventive atomization inhalation whilst cases in group B wore surgical masks and restricted the flow of people in patient wards. Occurrence of fever, occurrence of fever recurrence and the maximum temperature in the first week after surgery were analyzed in this study. Results: : No significant differences can be seen between group A and group B in terms of occurrence of fever, occurrence of fever recurrence and the maximum temperature after surgery in the first week. Conclusion: Wearing surgical masks combined with restricting the flow of people in patient wards has same effect with preventive atomization inhalation in preventing fever after general anesthesia surgery, which means, during COVID-19, preventive atomization inhalation might not be necessary as long as strictly wearing surgical masks and restricting the flow of people in patient wards have been met.

11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 29, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655546

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted on mink farms between minks and humans in many countries. However, the systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2-infected minks are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that minks were largely permissive to SARS-CoV-2, characterized by severe and diffuse alveolar damage, and lasted at least 14 days post inoculation (dpi). We first reported that infected minks displayed multiple organ-system lesions accompanied by an increased inflammatory response and widespread viral distribution in the cardiovascular, hepatobiliary, urinary, endocrine, digestive, and immune systems. The viral protein partially co-localized with activated Mac-2+ macrophages throughout the body. Moreover, we first found that the alterations in lipids and metabolites were correlated with the histological lesions in infected minks, especially at 6 dpi, and were similar to that of patients with severe and fatal COVID-19. Particularly, altered metabolic pathways, abnormal digestion, and absorption of vitamins, lipids, cholesterol, steroids, amino acids, and proteins, consistent with hepatic dysfunction, highlight metabolic and immune dysregulation. Enriched kynurenine in infected minks contributed to significant activation of the kynurenine pathway and was related to macrophage activation. Melatonin, which has significant anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effects, was significantly downregulated at 6 dpi and displayed potential as a targeted medicine. Our data first illustrate systematic analyses of infected minks to recapitulate those observations in severe and fetal COVID-19 patients, delineating a useful animal model to mimic SARS-CoV-2-induced systematic and severe pathophysiological features and provide a reliable tool for the development of effective and targeted treatment strategies, vaccine research, and potential biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Metabolome , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Melatonin/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sterols/metabolism , Virulence , Virus Replication/genetics
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 337, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402050

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to show a capacity for invading the brains of humans and model animals. However, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was occasionally detected in the vascular wall and perivascular space, as well as in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in the infected K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Moreover, the permeability of the infected vessel was increased. Furthermore, disintegrity of BBB was discovered in the infected hamsters by administration of Evans blue. Interestingly, the expression of claudin5, ZO-1, occludin and the ultrastructure of tight junctions (TJs) showed unchanged, whereas, the basement membrane was disrupted in the infected animals. Using an in vitro BBB model that comprises primary BMECs with astrocytes, SARS-CoV-2 was found to infect and cross through the BMECs. Consistent with in vivo experiments, the expression of MMP9 was increased and collagen IV was decreased while the markers for TJs were not altered in the SARS-CoV-2-infected BMECs. Besides, inflammatory responses including vasculitis, glial activation, and upregulated inflammatory factors occurred after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, our results provide evidence supporting that SARS-CoV-2 can cross the BBB in a transcellular pathway accompanied with basement membrane disrupted without obvious alteration of TJs.


Subject(s)
Basement Membrane/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tight Junctions/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Basement Membrane/pathology , Basement Membrane/virology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tight Junctions/genetics , Tight Junctions/pathology , Tight Junctions/virology , Vero Cells
15.
Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; 11(2):87-90, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1318573

ABSTRACT

As the original source of the SARS-CoV-2 and the pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019. SARS-CoV-2 samples are important basic materials for clinical treatment, scientific research, drug screening, and vaccine research and development. They are important national strategic resources and should be preserved. In order to do a good job in the management of the collection of SARS-CoV-2 samples and provide technical support for relevant institutions, China CDC took the lead in formulationg and issuing the group standard of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, the Requirements for preservation of SARS-CoV-2 samples (T/CPMA 019-2020). Under the framework of the basic requirements, the standard includes two parts: the preservation information and preservation conditions of SARS-CoV-2 samples. The preservation information describes the necessary and non-essential information items required for the preservation of SARS-CoV-2 samples in the form of a table. The preservation conditions describes the safety and other requirements of SARS-CoV-2 samples container, and also show the optimal preservation conditions and requirements of SARS-CoV-2 samples in the form of a table. It is very important to do a good job in the management of SARS-CoV-2 strains and samples, regulate the preservation of strains and samples, and ensure biosafety and resource securirty.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8492-8501, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315575

ABSTRACT

Waste paper, an essential substitute for wood and other plant-based fibers in paper making, is an indispensable part of the circular economy; yet, the impacts of China's ban on global waste paper cycles have not been well understood. We modeled the evolution of the global waste paper trade network during 1995-2019. We found that the cumulative trade volume of global waste paper reached 1010 million tons in the last 25 years and showed a downward trend since 2015. The global import center of waste paper experienced a transfer from Europe to East Asia and then to Southeast Asia. The ban has stimulated some developed countries to reduce the exports of unsorted waste paper since 2017, but for many major importers their changes in waste paper trade patterns were related to waste paperboard, which was not banned by China, suggesting that this import change trend may be inevitable and irrespective of China's ban. Besides, India has replaced China to become a new import hub of unsorted waste paper. Our results lay a foundation for exploring the evolution of the future global solid waste cycle under the background of zero import of solid waste increasingly implemented by China and many other developing countries.


Subject(s)
Solid Waste , China , Europe , Far East , India
17.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0247235, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256018

ABSTRACT

Understanding sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory risk factors in patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is critically important, and requires building large and diverse COVID-19 cohorts with both retrospective information and prospective follow-up. A large Health Information Exchange (HIE) in Southeast Texas, which assembles and shares electronic health information among providers to facilitate patient care, was leveraged to identify COVID-19 patients, create a cohort, and identify risk factors for both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. The initial sample consists of 8,874 COVID-19 patients ascertained from the pandemic's onset to June 12th, 2020 and was created for the analyses shown here. We gathered demographic, lifestyle, laboratory, and clinical data from patient's encounters across the healthcare system. Tobacco use history was examined as a potential risk factor for COVID-19 fatality along with age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and number of comorbidities. Of the 8,874 patients included in the cohort, 475 died from COVID-19. Of the 5,356 patients who had information on history of tobacco use, over 26% were current or former tobacco users. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the odds of COVID-19 fatality increased among those who were older (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06, 1.08), male (1.91, 95% CI 1.58, 2.31), and had a history of tobacco use (2.45, 95% CI 1.93, 3.11). History of tobacco use remained significantly associated (1.65, 95% CI 1.27, 2.13) with COVID-19 fatality after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. This effort demonstrates the impact of having an HIE to rapidly identify a cohort, aggregate sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and laboratory data across disparate healthcare providers electronic health record (HER) systems, and follow the cohort over time. These HIE capabilities enable clinical specialists and epidemiologists to conduct outcomes analyses during the current COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Tobacco use appears to be an important risk factor for COVID-19 related death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Health Information Exchange/statistics & numerical data , Health Information Exchange/trends , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Factors , Smoking , Texas
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 200, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237988

ABSTRACT

Influenza A virus may circulate simultaneously with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, leading to more serious respiratory diseases during this winter. However, the influence of these viruses on disease outcome when both influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 are present in the host remains unclear. Using a mammalian model, sequential infection was performed in ferrets and in K18-hACE2 mice, with SARS-CoV-2 infection following H1N1. We found that co-infection with H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 extended the duration of clinical manifestation of COVID-19, and enhanced pulmonary damage, but reduced viral shedding of throat swabs and viral loads in the lungs of ferrets. Moreover, mortality was increased in sequentially infected mice compared with single-infection mice. Compared with single-vaccine inoculation, co-inoculation of PiCoVacc (a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine) and the flu vaccine showed no significant differences in neutralizing antibody titers or virus-specific immune responses. Combined immunization effectively protected K18-hACE2 mice against both H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our findings indicated the development of systematic models of co-infection of H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2, which together notably enhanced pneumonia in ferrets and mice, as well as demonstrated that simultaneous vaccination against H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 may be an effective prevention strategy for the coming winter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/pathology , Coinfection/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology
19.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 4(1): 2-15, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122088

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are top two chronic comorbidities that increase the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, how SARS-CoV-2 alters the progression of chronic diseases remain unclear. Methods: We used adenovirus to deliver h-ACE2 to lung to enable SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. SARS-CoV-2's impacts on pathogenesis of chronic diseases were studied through histopathological, virologic and molecular biology analysis. Results: Pre-existing CVDs resulted in viral invasion, ROS elevation and activation of apoptosis pathways contribute myocardial injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection increased fasting blood glucose and reduced insulin response in DM model. Bone mineral density decreased shortly after infection, which associated with impaired PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Conclusion: We established mouse models mimicked the complex pathological symptoms of COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases. Pre-existing diseases could impair the inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, which further aggravated the pre-existing diseases. This work provided valuable information to better understand the interplay between the primary diseases and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Animals , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Infect Dis ; 223(8): 1313-1321, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091239

ABSTRACT

Domestic cats, an important companion animal, can be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This has aroused concern regarding the ability of domestic cats to spread the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. We systematically demonstrated the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats. Serial passaging of the virus between cats dramatically attenuated the viral transmissibility, likely owing to variations of the amino acids in the receptor-binding domain sites of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 between humans and cats. These findings provide insight into the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in cats and information for protecting the health of humans and cats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Amino Acids/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cats , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Vero Cells
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