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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):5459, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2036822

##### ABSTRACT

The recently emerged Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has rapidly surpassed Delta to become the predominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant, given the higher transmissibility rate and immune escape ability, resulting in breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. A new generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines targeting the Omicron variant are urgently needed. Here, we developed a subunit vaccine named RBD-HR/trimer by directly linking the sequence of RBD derived from the Delta variant (containing L452R and T478K) and HR1 and HR2 in SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit in a tandem manner, which can self-assemble into a trimer. In multiple animal models, vaccination of RBD-HR/trimer formulated with MF59-like oil-in-water adjuvant elicited sustained humoral immune response with high levels of broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against Omicron variants, also inducing a strong T cell immune response in vivo. In addition, our RBD-HR/trimer vaccine showed a strong boosting effect against Omicron variants after two doses of mRNA vaccines, featuring its capacity to be used in a prime-boost regimen. In mice and non-human primates, RBD-HR/trimer vaccination could confer a complete protection against live virus challenge of Omicron and Delta variants. The results qualified RBD-HR/trimer vaccine as a promising next-generation vaccine candidate for prevention of SARS-CoV-2, which deserved further evaluation in clinical trials.

2.
Acs Nano ; 08:08, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016546

##### ABSTRACT

Natural ligand-receptor interactions that play pivotal roles in biological events are ideal models for design and assembly of artificial recognition molecules. Herein, aiming at the structural characteristics of the spike trimer and infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, we have designed a DNA framework-guided spatial-patterned neutralizing aptamer trimer for SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. The ~5.8 nm tetrahedral DNA framework affords precise spatial organization and matched valence as four neutralizing aptamers (MATCH-4), which matches with nanometer precision the topmost surface of SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer, enhancing the interaction between MATCH-4 and spike trimer. Moreover, the DNA framework provides a dimensionally complementary nanoscale barrier to prevent the spike trimer-ACE2 interaction and the conformational transition, thereby inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-host cell fusion and infection. As a result, the spatial- and valence-matched MATCH-4 ensures improved binding affinity and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its varied mutant strains, particularly the current Omicron variant, that are evasive of the majority of existing neutralizing antibodies. In addition, because neutralizing aptamers specific to other targets can be evolved and assembled, the present design has the potential to inhibit other wide-range and emerging pathogens.

3.
Atmospheric Environment ; 289, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2014913

##### ABSTRACT

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important target for monitoring atmospheric quality. Deriving ground-level NO2 concentrations with much finer resolution, it requires high-resolution satellite tropospheric NO2 column as input and a reliable estimation algorithm. This paper aims to estimate the daily ground-level NO2 concentrations over China based on machine learning models and the TROPOMI NO2 data with high spatial resolution. In this study, four tree-based algorithm machine learning models, decision trees (DT), gradient boost decision tree (GBDT), random forest (RF) and extra-trees (ET), were used to estimate ground-level NO2 concentrations. In addition to considering many influencing factors of the ground-level NO2 concentrations, we especially introduced simplified temporal and spatial information into the estimation models. The results show that the extra-trees with spatial and temporal information (ST-ET) model has great performance in estimating ground-level NO2 concentrations with a cross-validation R-2 of 0.81 and RMSE of 3.45 mu g/m(3) in test datasets. The estimated results for 2019 based on the ST-ET model achieves a satisfactory accuracy with a cross-validation R-2 of 0.86 compared with the other models. Through time-space analysis and comparison, it was found that the estimated high-resolution results were consistent with the ground observed NO2 concentrations. Using data from January 2020 to test the prediction power of the models, the results indicate that the ST-ET model has a good performance in predicting ground-level NO2 concentrations. Taking four ground-level NO2 concentrations hotspots as examples, the estimated ground-level NO2 concentrations and ground-based observation data during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic were lower compared with the same period in 2019. The findings offer a solid solution for accurately and efficiently estimating ground-level NO2 concentrations by using satellite observations, and provide useful information for improving our understanding of the regional atmospheric environment.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013631

##### ABSTRACT

Observational studies have reported high comorbidity between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and severe COVID-19. However, the causality between T2D and COVID-19 has yet to be validated. We performed genetic correlation and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess genetic relationships and potential causal associations between T2D and three COVID-19 outcomes (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection, COVID-19 hospitalization, and critical COVID-19). Molecular pathways connecting SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 were reconstructed to extract insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the connection. We identified a high genetic overlap between T2D and each COVID-19 outcome (genetic correlations 0.21-0.28). The MR analyses indicated that genetic liability to T2D confers a causal effect on hospitalized COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.12) and critical COVID-19 (1.09, 1.03-1.16), while genetic liability to SARS-CoV-2 infection exerts a causal effect on T2D (1.25, 1.00-1.56). There was suggestive evidence that T2D was associated with an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection (1.02, 1.00-1.03), while critical COVID-19 (1.06, 1.00-1.13) and hospitalized COVID-19 (1.09, 0.99-1.19) were associated with an increased risk for T2D. Pathway analysis identified a panel of immunity-related genes that may mediate the links between T2D and COVID-19 at the molecular level. Our study provides robust support for the bidirectional causal associations between T2D and COVID-19. T2D may contribute to amplifying the severity of COVID-19, while the liability to COVID-19 may increase the risk for T2D.

5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007188

##### ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, Shenyang implemented strict household isolation measures, resulting in a sharp reduction in anthropogenic emission sources, providing an opportunity to explore the impact of human activities on air pollution. The period from January to April of 2020 was divided into normal period, blockade period and resumption period. Combined with meteorological and pollutant data, mathematical statistics and spatial analysis methods were used to compare with the same period of 2015–2019. The results showed that PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and O3 increased by 32.6%, 13.2%, 4.65% and 22.7% in the normal period, among which the western area changed significantly. During the blockade period, the concentration of pollutants decreased by 35.79%, 35.87%, 32.45% and -4.84%, of which the central area changed significantly. During the resumption period, the concentration of pollutants increased by 21.8%, 8.7%, 5.7% and -6.3%, and the area with the largest change was located in the western. During the blockade period, a heavy pollution occurred with PM2.5 as the main pollutant. The WRF-Chem model and the HYSPLIT model were used to reproduce the pollution occurrence process. The result showed that winds circulated as zonal winds during the pollution process at high altitudes. These winds were controlled by straight westerly and weak northwesterly airflows in front of the high pressure, and the ground was located behind the warm low pressure. Weather conditions were relatively stable. Thus, high temperatures (average > 10 ℃), high humidity (40%-60%) and slow wind (2 m/s) conditions prevailed for a long time in the Shenyang area. The unfavorable meteorological conditions lead to the occurrence of pollution. The backward trajectory showed that the potential source areas were concentrated in the urban agglomeration around Shenyang, and sporadic contributions came from North Korea.

6.
China Biotechnology ; 42(5):146-153, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934650

##### ABSTRACT

With the increasing exhaustion of global resources, various countries have explored bioeconomy as an economic model that can cope with environmental, climate，resource problems and food security crisis. China recently released the " 14th Five-Year Plan for Bioeconomy Development", raising the bioeconomy to the level of national strategic development for the first time. Based on the innovation of life science and biotechnology, emerging industries have come into being in bioeconomy including biomedicine, bioagriculture, biomanufacturing and bioenergy. Bioeconomy is an economic development model with great potential for sustainable development in the future. This paper summarizes the evolution law of the global bioeconomy, the development of the bioeconomy worldwide and the industrial development of Chinese bioeconomy. Moreover, under the complex situation in a time of unprecedented global changes in a century and the COVID-19 epidemic, the relevant countermeasures to cope with challenges and suggestions on Chinese future are put forward. © 2022, China Biotechnology Press. All rights reserved.

7.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-337980

##### ABSTRACT

Network medicine has been pursued for Covid-19 drug repurposing. One such approach adopts structural controllability, a theory for controlling a network (the cell). Motivated to protect the cell from viral infections, we extended this theory to total controllability and introduced a new concept of control hubs. Perturbation to any control hub renders the cell uncontrollable by exogenous stimuli, e.g., viral infections, so control hubs are ideal drug targets. We developed an efficient algorithm for finding all control hubs and applied it to the largest homogenous human protein-protein interaction network. Our new method outperforms several popular gene-selection methods, including that based on structural controllability. The final 65 druggable control hubs are enriched with functions of cell proliferation, regulation of apoptosis, and responses to cellular stress and nutrient levels, revealing critical pathways induced by SARS-CoV-2. These druggable control hubs led to drugs in 4 major categories: antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents, drugs on central nerve systems, and dietary supplements and hormones that boost immunity. Their functions also provided deep insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of the drugs for Covid-19 therapy, making the new approach an explainable drug repurposing method. A remarkable example is Fostamatinib that has been shown to lower mortality, shorten the length of ICU stay, and reduce disease severity of hospitalized Covid-19 patients. The drug targets 10 control hubs, 9 of which are kinases that play key roles in cell differentiation and programmed death. One such kinase is RIPK1 that directly interacts with viral protein nsp12, the RdRp of the virus. The study produced many control hubs that were not targets of existing drugs but were enriched with proteins on membranes and the NF-$\kappa$B pathway, so are excellent candidate targets for new drugs.

8.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; 36(11):1497-1501, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863007

##### ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 is an acute infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and has entered the state of global pandemic. Spike protein ( S protein) , a key protein that mediates SARS-CoV-2 to infect host cells, has the characteristics of specific receptor binding and membrane fusion, playing an important role in host tropism and virulence. The spontaneous closed and open conformation of S protein trimer is crucial for receptor binding and initiation of conformational changes in membrane fusion, and its unique furin recognition site may be a crucial factor leading to high infectivity. Therefore, to study the structure and function of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and its receptor has important implications for invasion mechanisms of SARS- CoV-2 and the development of relevant targeted drugs.

9.
2nd International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, CECIT 2021 ; : 427-436, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831729

##### ABSTRACT

The rapid development of artificial intelligence techniques is significantly promoting the resolution of various important decision-making issues such as material distribution, generation line optimization scheduling, and path planning. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 is raging over the world, and it is valuable to propose a vaccine distribution strategy to utilize limited vaccine resources rationally. In this paper, we aim to propose an optimal vaccine distribution strategy based on deep reinforcement learning(DRL) approaches. An End-to-End vaccine distribution model is proposed by combining the Deep Reinforcement Learning model and LinUCB algorithm to get an optimistic strategy of allocation. Experiment results demonstrated that vaccine distribution strategies based on this model show a strong capacity to control the epidemic and ensure stable government revenue compared with baseline strategies. © 2021 IEEE.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817550

##### ABSTRACT

Nigella sativa is known for the safety profile, containing a wealth of useful antiviral compounds. The main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is being considered as one of the most attractive viral target, processing the polyproteins during viral pathogenesis and replication. In the current investigation we analyzed the potency of active component, thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The structures of TQ and Mpro was retrieved from PubChem (CID10281) and Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 6MO3) respectively. The Mpro and TQ were docked and the complex was subjected to molecular dynamic (MD) simulations for a period 50ns. Protein folding effect was analyzed using radius of gyration (Rg) while stability and flexibility was measured, using root means square deviations (RMSD) and root means square fluctuation (RMSF) respectively. The simulation results shows that TQ is exhibiting good binding activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, interacting many residues, present in the active site (His41, Cys145) and also the Glu166, facilitating the pocket shape. Further, experimental approaches are needed to validate the role of TQ against virus infection. The TQ is interfering with pocket maintaining residues as well as active site of virus Mpro which may be used as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 for better management of COVID-19.

##### Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nigella sativa , Benzoquinones , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Nigella sativa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
11.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333498

##### ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) imposed a substanal health burden in mainland China and remains a global epidemic threat. Our objectives are to assess the case fatality risk (CFR) among CO VID-19 patients detected in mainland China, stratified by clinical category and age group. METHODS: We collected individual information on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases from publicly available official sources from December 29, 2019 to February 23, 2020. We explored the risk factors associated with mortality. We used methods accounting for right-censoring and survival analyses to estimatethe CFR among detected cases. RESULTS: Of 12,863 cases reported outside Hubei, we obtained individual records for 9,651 cases, including 62 deaths and 1,449 discharged cases. The deceased were significantly older than discharged cases (median age: 77 vs 39 years, p<0.001). 58% (36/62) were male. Older age (OR 1.18 per year;95% CI: 1.14 to 1.22), being male (OR 2.02;95% CI: 1.02 to 4.03), and being treated in less developed economic regions (e.g., West and Northeast vs. East, OR 3.93;95 %Cl:1.74 to 8.85) were mortality risk factors. The estimated CFR was 0.89-1.24% among all cases. The fatality risk among critical patients was 2-fold higher than that among severe and critical patients, and 24-fold higher than that among moderate, severe and critical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates of CFR based on laboratory-confirmed cases ascertained outside of Hubei suggest that COVID-19 is not as severe as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but more similar to the mortality risk of 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in hospitalized patients. The fatality risk of COVID-19 is higher in males and increases with age. Our study improves the severity assessment of the ongoing epidemic and can inform the COVID-19 outbreak response in China and beyond.

12.
Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ; 37(1):1-10, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1791680

##### ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV- 2.COVID-19 is now a pandemic, and is not yet fully under control.As the surface spike protein (S) mediates the recognition between the virus and cell membrane and the process of cell entry, it plays an important role in the course of disease transmission.The study on the S protein not only elucidates the structure and function of virus-related proteins and explains their cellular entry mechanism, but also provides valuable information for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVII)-19.Concentrated on the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, this review covers four aspects: (1 ) The structure of the S protein and its binding with angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) , the specific receptor of SARS-CoV-2, is introduced in detail.Compared with SARS-CoV, the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV- 2 S protein has a higher affinity with ACE2, while the affinity of the entire S protein is on the contrary.(2) Currently, the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 meditated by the S protein is proposed to include endosomal and non-endosomal pathways.With the recognition and binding between the S protein and ACE2 or after cell entry, transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2) , lysosomal cathepsin or the furin enzyme can cleave S protein at S1/S2 cleavage site, facilitating the fusion between the virus and target membrane.(3) For the progress in SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibodies, a collection of significant antibodies are introduced and compared in the fields of the target, source and type.(4) Mechanisms of therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 varied.Though the antibody and medicine treatments related to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein are of high specificity and great efficacy, the mechanism, safety, applicability and stability of some agents are still unclear and need further assessment.Therefore, to curb the pandemic, researchers in all fields need more cooperation in the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and medicines to face the great challenge. © Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition).All right reserved.

13.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) ; 125:603-615, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1783484

##### ABSTRACT

Wuhan Tianhe International Airport (WUH) was suspended to contain the spread of COVID-19, while Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (SHA) saw a tremendous flight reduction. Closure of a major international airport is extremely rare and thus represents a unique opportunity to straightforwardly observe the impact of airport emissions on local air quality. In this study, a series of statistical tools were applied to analyze the variations in air pollutant levels in the vicinity of WUH and SHA. The results of bivariate polar plots show that airport SHA and WUH are a major source of nitrogen oxides. NOx, NO2 and NO diminished by 55.8%, 44.1%, 76.9%, and 40.4%, 33.3% and 59.4% during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to those in the same period of 2018 and 2019, under a reduction in aircraft activities by 58.6% and 61.4%. The concentration of NO2, SO2 and PM2.5 decreased by 77.3%, 8.2%, 29.5%, right after the closure of airport WUH on 23 January 2020. The average concentrations of NO, NO2 and NOx scatter plots at downwind of SHA after the lockdown were 78.0%, 47.9%, 57.4% and 62.3%, 34.8%, 41.8% lower than those during the same period in 2018 and 2019. However, a significant increase in O3 levels by 50.0% and 25.9% at WUH and SHA was observed, respectively. These results evidently show decreased nitrogen oxides concentrations in the airport vicinity due to reduced aircraft activities, while amplified O3 pollution due to a lower titration by NO under strong reduction in NOx emissions. © 2022

14.
TMR Integrative Medicine ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1761773

##### ABSTRACT

Background: To examine the outcomes heterogeneity of clinical trial protocols of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to prioritize the establishment of a core outcome set. Methods: Databases of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors - accepted clinical trial registry platforms were searched on February 14, 2020 and May 31, 2020. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials of COVID-19 were considered. Patient condition was classified as common, severe, or critical. Interventions included traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. We excluded trials that involved discharged patients, psychological intervention, and complications of COVID-19. The general information and outcomes, outcome measurement instruments, and measurement times were extracted. The results were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Results: In all, 19 registry platforms were searched. A total of 97 protocols were selected from among 160 protocols for the first search. For protocols of traditional Chinese medicine clinical trials, 76 outcomes from 16 outcome domains were reported, and almost half (34/76, 44.74%) of the outcomes were reported only once;the most frequently reported outcome was time taken for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA to become negative. Twenty-seven (27/76, 35.53%) outcomes provided one or more outcome measurement instruments. Ten outcomes provided one or more measurement time frame. For protocols of Western medicine clinical trials, 126 outcomes from 17 outcome domains were reported;almost half (62/126, 49.21%) of the outcomes were reported only once;the most frequently reported outcome was proportion of patients with negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Twenty-seven outcomes provided one or more outcome measurement instruments. Forty (40/126, 31.75%) outcomes provided one or more measurement time frame. There were > 40 duplicated outcomes between the clinical trials protocols of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine protocols. All of them were included in the Delphi survey when developing core outcome set for COVID-19. A total of 1,027 protocols were selected from 2,741 protocols for the second search. Forty-two new outcomes and 47 new outcome measurement instruments were reported. Conclusion: Outcome reporting in clinical trial protocols of COVID-19 is inconsistent. Thus, establishing a core outcome set is necessary for diagnosis and management.

15.
Information Technology and Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1699827

##### ABSTRACT

16.
Xitong Gongcheng Lilun yu Shijian/System Engineering Theory and Practice ; 41(12):3282-3293, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1639018

##### ABSTRACT

Based on evolutionary game and catastrophe theory, the stability of dynamic coalition of mask production is explored. This research introduces the Gaussian White noise and a Itô stochastic differential equation to develop dynamical equation. Then, probability density function is introduced to build the catastrophe model. Finally, some numerical simulations are given to explore the influence of excess return, default cost and initial cooperation probability. The results show: 1) Catastrophic change occurs suddenly when parameters cross the borderline of bifurcation aggregation;2) The catastrophic change occurs due to external disturbance when parameters are inside the bifurcation aggregation which is easy to recover;3) The excess return affects negatively, and the default cost and the initial cooperation probability affect positively on the stability of dynamic coalition. This research integrates evolutionary game and catastrophe theory and provide a new idea for dynamic coalition research;supports the establishment of mask production dynamic coalition and implementation for unconventional control measures under the COVID-19 epidemic. © 2021, Editorial Board of Journal of Systems Engineering Society of China. All right reserved.

17.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 25(4):421-426, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1566857

##### ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the epidemic characteristics of COVID-19 in Lu’an city, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in this area. Methods All the confirmed cases of COVID-19 were selected from the Infectious Disease Reporting System from the onset of disease to 24:00 on February 18th, 2020 in Lu’an City. The general demographic, onset and medical information, and epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases were collected to describe the feature of patients. The spatial and temporal distribution of disease transmission was analyzed by SaTScan 9.6.0.0 software, and Excel 2010 software was used to draw the epidemic curves of all cases. Results A total of 69 confirmed cases were reported in Lu’an City by February 18th, 2020. There were more male cases (44) than female (25), and cases mainly aged 36-45 years old (37.68%). The proportion of workers was the highest (24.64%). The first symptom of conformed cases was fever (50, 72.46%), cough (25, 36.23%) and fatigue (12, 17.40%). The epidemic was more serious in Jinzhai County (23), Huoshan County (17) and Huoqiu County (13). The number of cases in Lu’an showed that the first epidemic peak occurred between January 25th and January 28th, and the largest number of cases occurred on January 27th, then showed a downward trend. A total of 45 aggregate cases were found. Conclusion The COVID-19 epidemic in Lu’an City is generally preventable and controllable. It will be alert to the risk of family clustering, spread of asymptomatic infections and imported cases. Future work should focus on the investigation of close contacts. © 2021, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

18.
Sci Immunol ; 6(65): eabk1741, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443345

##### ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia survivors often exhibit long-term pulmonary sequelae, but the underlying mechanisms or associated local and systemic immune correlates are not known. Here, we have performed high-dimensional characterization of the pathophysiological and immune traits of aged COVID-19 convalescents, and correlated the local and systemic immune profiles with pulmonary function and lung imaging. We found that chronic lung impairment was accompanied by persistent respiratory immune alterations. We showed that functional severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)­specific memory T and B cells were enriched at the site of infection compared with those of blood. Detailed evaluation of the lung immune compartment revealed that dysregulated respiratory CD8+ T cell responses were associated with the impaired lung function after acute COVID-19. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis identified the potential pathogenic subsets of respiratory CD8+ T cells contributing to persistent tissue conditions after COVID-19. Our results have revealed pathophysiological and immune traits that may support the development of lung sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in older individuals, with implications for the treatment of chronic COVID-19 symptoms.

##### Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Immunologic Memory , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged
19.
Ksii Transactions on Internet and Information Systems ; 15(8):2732-2748, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1399422

##### ABSTRACT

In post-COVID-19 pandemic era, students' learning effects and experience may sharply decrease when teaching is transferred from offline to online. Several tools suitable for online teaching have been developed to guarantee and promote students' learning effects. However, they cannot fully consider teacher-student interaction in online teaching. To figure out this issue, this paper proposes integrated media platform-based virtual office hours implementation for online teaching. Specifically, an integrated media platform (IMP) is first constructed. Then, virtual office hours (VOH) is implemented based on the IMP, aiming at increasing student-teacher interactions. For evaluating the effectiveness of this scheme, 140 undergraduate students using IMP are divided into one control group and three experimental groups that respectively contain text, voice and video modes. The experiment results indicate that applying VOH in the IMP can improve students' online presence and test scores. Furthermore, students' participating modes during VOH implementation can largely affect their degree of presence, which can be well classified by using principal component analysis. The implication of this work is that IMP-based VOH is an effective and sustainable tool to be continuously implemented even when the COVID-19 pandemic period ends.

20.
AHFE Conference on Human Factors in Architecture, Sustainable Urban Planning and Infrastructure, 2021 ; 272:115-124, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1359883

##### ABSTRACT

Due to the changes of lifestyles brought by COVID-19, people have spent most of their time in residential communities for the past about one year, which makes people pay more attention to their psychological feelings and emotional needs in their living environments. This study aimed to explore the relationship between multiple influencing factors and residential well-being under COVID-19. By collecting 172 valid online questionnaires, this study explored the aspects of the residential community which would cause more attention after experiencing COVID-19. Based on previous research, the paper analysed the influence of six environmental factors and five emotional factors on residential well-being by SPSS and discussed the reasons for the differences between the results of correlation analysis and attitude analysis. The results of the study contribute to propose strategies for the transformation of residential communities to improve people’s residential well-being when facing an epidemic in the future. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.