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1.
Comput Biol Med ; 162: 107053, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328348

ABSTRACT

Raman spectroscopy (RS) optical technology promises non-destructive and fast application in medical disease diagnosis in a single step. However, achieving clinically relevant performance levels remains challenging due to the inability to search for significant Raman signals at different scales. Here we propose a multi-scale sequential feature selection method that can capture global sequential features and local peak features for disease classification using RS data. Specifically, we utilize the Long short-term memory network (LSTM) module to extract global sequential features in the Raman spectra, as it can capture long-term dependencies present in the Raman spectral sequences. Meanwhile, the attention mechanism is employed to select local peak features that were ignored before and are the key to distinguishing different diseases. Experimental results on three public and in-house datasets demonstrate the superiority of our model compared with state-of-the-art methods for RS classification. In particular, our model achieves an accuracy of 97.9 ± 0.2% on the COVID-19 dataset, 76.3 ± 0.4% on the H-IV dataset, and 96.8 ± 1.9% on the H-V dataset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
2.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(6): 403-413, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorder have a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent poor outcomes. Few studies have evaluated COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness among people with substance use disorder. We aimed to estimate the vaccine effectiveness of BNT162b2 (Fosun-BioNTech) and CoronaVac (Sinovac) against SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) infection and related hospital admission in this population. METHODS: We did a matched case-control study using electronic health databases in Hong Kong. Individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder between Jan 1, 2016, and Jan 1, 2022, were identified. People aged 18 years and older with SARS-CoV-2 infection from Jan 1 to May 31, 2022, and people with COVID-19-related hospital admission from Feb 16 to May 31, 2022, were included as cases and were matched by age, sex, and previous clinical history with controls from all individuals diagnosed with substance use disorder who attended the Hospital Authority health services: up to three controls for SARS-CoV-2 infection and up to ten controls for hospital admission. Conditional logistical regression was used to evaluate the association between vaccination status (ie, one, two, or three doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac) and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related hospital admission, adjusted for baseline comorbidities and medication use. FINDINGS: Among 57 674 individuals with substance use disorder, 9523 people with SARS-CoV-2 infections (mean age 61·00 years, SD 14·90; 8075 [84·8%] males and 1448 [15·2%] females) were identified and matched to 28 217 controls (mean age 60·99 years, 14·67; 24 006 [85·1%] males and 4211 [14·9%] females), and 843 people with COVID-19-related hospital admissions (mean age 70·48 years, SD 14·68; 754 [89·4%] males and 89 [10·6%] females) were identified and matched to 7459 controls (mean age 70·24 years, 13·87; 6837 [91·7%] males and 622 [8·3%] females). Data on ethnicity were not available. We observed significant vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection for two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination (20·7%, 95% CI 14·0-27·0, p<0·0001) and three-dose vaccination (all BNT162b2 41·5%, 34·4-47·8, p<0·0001; all CoronaVac 13·6%, 5·4-21·0, p=0·0015; BNT162b2 booster after two-dose CoronaVac 31·3%, 19·8-41·1, p<0·0001), but not for one dose of either vaccine or two doses of CoronaVac. Significant vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospital admission was detected after one dose of BNT162b2 vaccination (35·7%, 3·8-57·1, p=0·032), two-dose vaccination (both BNT162b2 73·3%, 64·3 to 80·0, p<0·0001; both CoronaVac 59·9%, 50·2-67·7, p<0·0001), and three-dose vaccination (all BNT162b2 86·3%, 75·6-92·3, p<0·0001; all CoronaVac 73·5% 61·0-81·9, p<0·0001; BNT162b2 booster after two-dose CoronaVac 83·7%, 64·6-92·5, p<0·0001), but not after one dose of CoronaVac. INTERPRETATION: For both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, two-dose or three-dose vaccination was protective against COVID-19-related hospital admission and the booster dose provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with substance use disorder. Our findings confirm the importance of booster doses in this population during the period dominated by the omicron variant. FUNDING: Health Bureau, the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Hospitals
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1096655, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234615

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes has become a serious global public health problem. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the incidence of complications of T2DM is also on the rise. Sitagliptin, as a targeted drug of DPP4, has good therapeutic effect for T2DM. It is well known that sitagliptin can specifically inhibit the activity of DPP4 to promote insulin secretion, inhibit islet ß cell apoptosis and reduce blood glucose levels, while other pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear, such as improving insulin resistance, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-fibrosis. The aim of this study was to explore novel targets and potential signaling pathways of sitagliptin for T2DM. Methods: Firstly, network pharmacology was applied to find the novel target most closely related to DPP4. Semi-flexible molecular docking was performed to confirm the binding ability between sitagliptin and the novel target, and molecular dynamics simulation (MD) was carried to verify the stability of the complex formed by sitagliptin and the novel target. Furthermore, surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to explored the affinity and kinetic characteristics of sitagliptin with the novel target. Finally, the molecular mechanism of sitagliptin for T2DM was predicted by the enrichment analysis of GO function and KEGG pathway. Results: In this study, we found the cell surface receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) most closely related to DPP4. Then, we confirmed that sitagliptin had strong binding ability with ACE2 from a static perspective, and the stability of sitagliptin-ACE2 complex had better stability and longer binding time than BAR708-ACE2 in simulated aqueous solution within 50 ns. Significantly, we have demonstrated a strong affinity between sitagliptin and ACE2 on SPR biosensor, and their kinetic characteristics were "fast binding/fast dissociation". The guiding significance of clinical administration: low dose can reach saturation, but repeated administration was needed. Finally, there was certain relationship between COVID-19 and T2DM, and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor (MasR) axis may be the important pathway of sitagliptin targeting ACE2 for T2DM. Conclusion: This study used different methods to prove that ACE2 may be another novel target of sitagliptin for T2DM, which extended the application of ACE2 in improving diabetes mellitus.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sitagliptin Phosphate , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Sitagliptin Phosphate/therapeutic use , Surface Plasmon Resonance
4.
The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific ; : 100630, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095737

ABSTRACT

Summary Background COVID-19 vaccines are important for patients with heart failure (HF) to prevent severe outcomes but the safety concerns could lead to vaccine hesitancy. This study aimed to investigate the safety of two COVID-19 vaccines, BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, in patients with HF. Methods We conducted a self-controlled case series analysis using the data from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority and the Department of Health. The primary outcome was hospitalization for HF and the secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and all hospitalization. We identified patients with a history of HF before February 23, 2021 and developed the outcome event between February 23, 2021 and March 31, 2022 in Hong Kong. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using conditional Poisson regression to evaluate the risks following the first three doses of BNT162b2 or CoronaVac. Findings We identified 32,490 patients with HF, of which 3035 were vaccinated and had a hospitalization for HF during the observation period (BNT162b2 = 755;CoronaVac = 2280). There were no increased risks during the 0–13 days (IRR 0.64 [95% confidence interval 0.33–1.26];0.94 [0.50–1.78];0.82 [0.17–3.98]) and 14–27 days (0.73 [0.35–1.52];0.95 [0.49–1.84];0.60 [0.06–5.76]) after the first, second and third doses of BNT162b2. No increased risks were observed for CoronaVac during the 0–13 days (IRR 0.60 [0.41–0.88];0.71 [0.45–1.12];1.64 [0.40–6.77]) and 14–27 days (0.91 [0.63–1.32];0.79 [0.46–1.35];1.71 [0.44–6.62]) after the first, second and third doses. We also found no increased risk of MACE or all hospitalization after vaccination. Interpretation Our results showed no increased risk of hospitalization for HF, MACE or all hospitalization after receiving BNT162b2 or CoronaVac vaccines in patients with HF. Funding The project was funded by a Research Grant from the Food and Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Ref. No. COVID19F01). F.T.T.L. (Francisco T.T. Lai) and I.C.K.W. (Ian C.K. Wong)'s posts were partly funded by the D24H;hence this work was partly supported by AIR@InnoHK administered by Innovation and Technology Commission.

5.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047056

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to investigate burnout situation of social workers (SWs) who experienced the COVID-19 pandemic-related community lockdown 1 year before, and to assess the protective value of trait mindfulness (TM) in states of burnout. Method We surveyed the burnout, trait mindfulness, negative emotions (NEs) and wellbeing (WB) of 182 social workers provided services to Wuhan lockdowns community by COVID-19 one year before. Burnout were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey;TM using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale;NEs using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21;and WB using the General Wellbeing Schedule. We also performed correlation regression analysis and mediation test for burnout, TM, NEs, and WB. Results Among the 182 respondents, 75 (41.2%) still suffered from severe burnout. TM was negatively correlated with burnout (r = −0.623), negatively correlated with NEs (r = −0.560), and positively correlated with WB (r = 0.617). Burnout had a significantly positive correlation with NEs (r = 0.544) and a significantly negative correlation with WB (r = −0.666). Further, WB had significantly negative correlation with NEs (r = −0.758). After controlling for age, gender, marital status, educational level, and years of employment, burnout had a significantly positive predictive effect on NEs (β = 0.509), whereas TM had a significantly negative predictive effect on NEs (β = −0.334). TM played a partial mediating role in the effect of burnout on NEs, with a mediating effect and effect ratio of 0.088 and 39.7%, respectively. Burnout had a significantly negative predictive effect on WB (β = −0.598), whereas TM had a significantly positive predictive effect on WB (β = 0.299). TM played a partial mediating role in the effect of burnout on NEs, with a mediating effect and effect ratio of −0.164 and 30.3%, respectively. WB had a significantly negative predictive effect on NEs (β = −0.711), and it played a partial mediating role in the effect of burnout on NEs, with a mediating effect and effect ratio of 0.185 and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion The current levels of burnout among local SWs remained high 1 year after the community lockdowns. TM played a mediating role in the relationship between burnout, NEs, and WB. Concomitantly, WB played a mediating role in the relationship between burnout and NEs. Therefore, in the context of burnout, TM is a protective factor for reducing emotional stress and risks of developing psychiatric disorders through the enhancement of WB.

6.
Frontiers in genetics ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034383

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has so far damaged the health of millions and has made the treatment of cancer patients more complicated, and so did acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The current problem is the lack of understanding of their interactions and suggestions of evidence-based guidelines or historical experience for the treatment of such patients. Here, we first identified the COVID-19-related differentially expressed genes (C-DEGs) in AML patients by analyzing RNA-seq from public databases and explored their enrichment pathways and candidate drugs. A total of 76 C-DEGs associated with the progress of AML and COVID-19 infection were ultimately identified, and the functional analysis suggested that there are some shared links between them. Their protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–drug interactions were then recognized by multiple bioinformatics algorithms. Moreover, a COVID-19 gene-associated prognostic model (C-GPM) with riskScore was constructed, patients with a high riskScore had poor survival and apparently immune-activated phenotypes, such as stronger monocyte and neutrophil cell infiltrations and higher immunosuppressants targeting expressions, meaning which may be one of the common denominators between COVID-19 and AML and the reason what complicates the treatment of the latter. Among the study’s drawbacks is that these results relied heavily on publicly available datasets rather than being clinically confirmed. Yet, these findings visualized those C-DEGs’ enrichment pathways and inner associations, and the C-GPM based on them could accurately predict survival outcomes in AML patients, which will be helpful for further optimizing therapies for AML patients with COVID-19 infections.

7.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(23): 499-503, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893720

ABSTRACT

Current progress in measuring the effect of the pandemic on mortality is limited. Few studies have comprehensively and systematically elucidated the mechanism through which the pandemic affects mortality and what indicators are valid to capture such an effect. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis regarding the multifaceted effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mortality and its measurements [i.e., confirmed deaths per million people (CDPMP), case fatality rate (CFR), infection fatality risk (IFR), excess mortality P-score (EMPS), and life expectancy (LE)]. It was revealed that both data collection efforts and measurements on mortality due to COVID-19 were far from perfect and discussed the importance of accurate, prompt, and accessible data by any government over the course of fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. It is believed that the biggest challenge in measuring the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on mortality lies not in the construction of indicators at the academic level, but in the collection of data at the practical level. Thus, it is suggested to take measures to better monitor the development of the pandemic and mitigate the increasing burdens borne by the public health systems by improving the tracking system of mortality, standardizing the diagnosis of COVID-19's deaths, and disclosing mortality data.

8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010357, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus (ST) is a life-threatening infectious disease if appropriate treatment is unavailable. Large discrepancy of clinical severity of ST patients was reported among age groups, and the underlying risk factors for severe disease are unclear. METHODS: Clinical and epidemiological data of ST patients were collected in 55 surveillance hospitals located in Guangzhou City, China, from 2012 to 2018. Severe prognosis and related factors were determined and compared between pediatric and elderly patients. RESULTS: A total of 2,074 ST patients including 209 pediatric patients and 1,865 elderly patients were included, with a comparable disease severity rate of 11.0% (95% CI 7.1%-16.1%) and 10.3% (95% CI 9.0%-11.8%). Different frequencies of clinical characteristics including lymphadenopathy, skin rash, enlarged tonsils, etc. were observed between pediatric and elderly patients. Presence of peripheral edema and decreased hemoglobin were the most important predictors of severe illness in pediatric patients with adjusted ORs by 38.99 (9.96-152.67, p<0.001) and 13.22 (1.54-113.50, p = 0.019), respectively, while presence of dyspnea and increased total bilirubin were the potential determinants of severe disease in elderly patients with adjusted ORs by 11.69 (7.33-18.64, p<0.001) and 3.17 (1.97-5.11, p<0.001), respectively. Compared with pediatric patients, elderly patients were more likely to receive doxycycline (64.8% v.s 9.9%, p<0.001), while less likely to receive azithromycin therapy (5.0% v.s 41.1%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The disease severity rate is comparable between pediatric and elderly ST patients, while different clinical features and laboratory indicators were associated with development of severe complications for pediatric and elderly patients, which is helpful for diagnosis and progress assessment of disease for ST patients.


Subject(s)
Scrub Typhus , Aged , Child , China/epidemiology , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Humans , Risk Factors , Scrub Typhus/complications , Scrub Typhus/drug therapy , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2212681, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843827

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has required universities to rapidly develop vaccination policies for students and staff, yet little is known about the preferences of these individuals toward vaccination. Objective: To quantify student and staff preferences for COVID-19 vaccination at a university in Hong Kong. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted from July 20 to September 21, 2021, before the announcement of a campus-wide vaccine mandate. A survey of 42 451 eligible university students and staff used discrete-choice experiment methods to quantify 7 attributes of COVID-19 vaccination: risk of a mild or moderate adverse event after vaccination, risk of a severe adverse event after vaccination, efficacy against COVID-19 infection, efficacy against severe manifestation of COVID-19 infection, duration of protection after vaccination, incentive for completing vaccination, and out-of-pocket costs. Main Outcomes and Measures: A mixed logit regression model was used to estimate the preferences of attributes for COVID-19 vaccines and marginal willingness to pay (mWTP) adjusted for background characteristics, role, vaccination, and COVID-19 infection status of family or friends, adverse event status after vaccination among family and friends of participants, and scenario block. Results: Among 42 451 eligible university students and staff invited, 3423 individuals completed the survey (mean [SD] age, 27.1 [9.9] years; 2053 [60.0%] women). Participants included 2506 students (73.2%) and 917 staff (26.8%), with a response rate of 8.1%. Quarantine-free travel was preferred (ß = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99; mWTP: $235.9; 95% CI, $190.3-$294.2), followed by efficacy against any COVID-19 infection (ß = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.29-0.32; mWTP: $84.1; 95% CI, $71.8-$100.8), against severe manifestation of COVID-19 infection (ß = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.24-0.27; mWTP: $69.7; 95% CI, $465-$653), and risk of severe adverse events following vaccination (ß = -0.24; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.21; mWTP: -$66.8; 95% CI, -$81.5 to -$55.3). Participants were less concerned about protection duration (ß = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.15-0.18; mWTP: $46.0; 95% CI, $38.6-$56.2) and risk of mild to moderate adverse events (ß = -0.12; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.10; mWTP: -$32.7; 95% CI, -$41.2 to -$26.4). Conclusions and Relevance: Preference of all attributes were significant and were considered important by the participants for vaccine decision-making. Insights drawn could assist policy makers in future vaccination decisions, such as campus vaccine mandate and requirement of a third dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccination , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Students , Universities , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
10.
Psychiatry research ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1498756

ABSTRACT

Several recent publications have revealed that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients were adversely affected during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);however, how long this negative impact will last is unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on OCD patients after one year. Online questionnaires were administered, and clinical interviews were conducted to assess OCD symptoms, depression, anxiety, information about COVID-19 and mental resilience at baseline (1 December 2019–1 January 2020), during early COVID-19 (26 February–25 March 2020) and at the one-year follow-up (26 February–25 March 2021). A total of 110 OCD patients were enrolled. Our findings showed that OCD, depressive and anxiety symptoms worsened during early COVID-19, and the negative impact persisted at the one-year follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, concern about COVID-19 and OCD symptom severity at baseline were risk factors for exacerbation of OCD symptoms during early COVID-19, while optimism, as one composite factor of resilience, was a protective factor against exacerbation of OCD symptoms both during early COVID-19 and at follow-up. Our study showed that COVID-19 had immediate and long-term impacts on the exacerbation of OCD symptoms, and interventions targeted at improving resilience are recommended.

11.
Environment & Planning A ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1476925

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 has damaged the economy in the United States. To understand the resilience capacities of local businesses, we visualized the spatiotemporal patterns of permanently closed Points of Interest (POIs) after the outbreak of the pandemic. The results show that the counties with more business closures are also the counties with a larger population. The permanent closures of most local businesses occurred immediately after the lift of stay-at-home order. We also found that those business owners, who permanently shut down their businesses, may not open new ones elsewhere. In addition, the permanent closures of entertainment and recreation businesses are significantly less than that of retail and trade businesses and food services. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Environment & Planning A is the property of Sage Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

13.
preprints.org; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202002.0132.v2

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of 2019-2020 Wuhan seafood market pneumonia currently posed a major public health concern in China. Genome sequencing identified a novel beta-coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV, named 2019-nCoV by WHO, as the cause of this pandemic disease. Viruses with single stranded RNA genome are prone to evolve quickly by accumulation of mutations, such as SNV, INDEL and cross viral recombination, aiding fast transmission among hosts and cross species. Here we collected related genome sequences and investigated variations shared by different strains of 2019-nCoV, identified reoccurrence of SNV mutations in clusters of patients, an indication of rapid evolution of 2019-nCoV at the transmission from animal host to human. The information collected herein would help to understand the dynamics of current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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