Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320926

ABSTRACT

Background: In the absence of PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is challenging. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) detects pulmonary infiltrates with high sensitivity, but findings may be non-specific. This study assesses the diagnostic value of SARS-CoV-2 serology for patients with distinct CT features but negative PCR. Methods: : IgM/IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay was performed for 107 patients with confirmed (group A: PCR+;CT±) and 46 patients with suspected (group B: repetitive PCR-;CT+) COVID-19, admitted to a German university hospital during the pandemic’s first wave. A standardized, in-house CT classification of radiological signs of a viral pneumonia was used to assess the probability of COVID-19. Results: : Seroconversion rates (SR) determined on day 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 after symptom onset (SO) were 8%, 25%, 65%, 76% and 91% for group A, and 0%, 10%, 19%, 37% and 46% for group B, respectively;(p<0.01). Compared to hospitalized patients with a non-complicated course, seroconversion tended to occur at lower frequency and delayed in patients on intensive care units. SR of patients with CT findings classified as high certainty for COVID-19 were 8%, 22%, 68%, 79% and 93% in group A, compared with 0%, 15%, 28%, 50% and 50% in group B (p<0.01). SARS-CoV-2 serology established a definite diagnosis in 12/46 group B patients. In 88% (8/9) of patients with negative serology >14 days after symptom onset (group B), clinico-radiological consensus reassessment revealed probable diagnoses other than COVID-19. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 serology was superior to PCR >17d after symptom onset. Conclusions: : Approximately one-third of patients with distinct COVID-19 CT findings are tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR rendering correct diagnosis difficult. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing alongside current CT/PCR-based diagnostic algorithms improves discrimination between COVID-19-related and non-related pulmonary infiltrates in PCR negative patients. However, sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 serology strongly depends on the time of testing and becomes superior to PCR after the 2 nd week following symptom onset.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322922

ABSTRACT

Background: Symptoms of primary HIV infection, including fever, rash, and headache, are nonspecific and are often described as flu-like. COVID-19 vaccination side effects, such as fever, which occur in up to 10% of people following COVID-19 vaccination, can make the diagnosis of acute HIV infection even more challenging.Case PresentationA 26-year-old man presented with fever and headache following COVID-19 vaccination. The symptoms were initially thought to be vaccine side effects. A diagnostic workup was conducted due to persisting fever and headache > 72 hours following vaccination, and he was diagnosed with Fiebig stage II acute HIV infection, 3 weeks after having unprotected anal intercourse with another man.ConclusionThorough anamnesis is key to estimating the individual risk of primary HIV infection, in patients presenting with flu-like symptoms. Early diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with better prognosis and limits transmission of the disease.

3.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(1): e32564, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large-scale, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based SARS-CoV-2 testing is expensive, resource intensive, and time consuming. A self-collection approach is a probable alternative; however, its feasibility, cost, and ability to prevent infections need to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare an innovative self-collection approach with a regular SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy in a large European industrial manufacturing site. METHODS: The feasibility of a telemedicine-guided PCR-based self-collection approach was assessed for 150 employees (intervention group) and compared with a regular SARS-CoV-2 testing approach used for 143 employees (control group). Acceptance, ergonomics, and efficacy were evaluated using a software application. A simulation model was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness. An interactive R shiny app was created to enable customized simulations. RESULTS: The test results were successfully communicated to and interpreted without uncertainty by 76% (114/150) and 76.9% (110/143) of the participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P=.96). The ratings for acceptability, ergonomics, and efficacy among intervention group participants were noninferior when compared to those among control group participants (acceptability: 71.6% vs 37.6%; ergonomics: 88.1% vs 74.5%; efficacy: 86.4% vs 77.5%). The self-collection approach was found to be less time consuming (23 min vs 38 min; P<.001). The simulation model indicated that both testing approaches reduce the risk of infection, and the self-collection approach tends to be slightly less effective owing to its lower sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The self-collection approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was found to be technically feasible and well rated in terms of acceptance, ergonomics, and efficacy. The simulation model facilitates the evaluation of test effectiveness; nonetheless, considering context specificity, appropriate adaptation by companies is required.

4.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 78, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of primary HIV infection, including fever, rash, and headache, are nonspecific and are often described as flu-like. COVID-19 vaccination side effects, such as fever, which occur in up to 10% of people following COVID-19 vaccination, can make the diagnosis of acute HIV infection even more challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man presented with fever and headache following COVID-19 vaccination. The symptoms were initially thought to be vaccine side effects. A diagnostic workup was conducted due to persisting fever and headache > 72 h following vaccination, and he was diagnosed with Fiebig stage II acute HIV infection, 3 weeks after having unprotected anal intercourse with another man. CONCLUSION: Thorough anamnesis is key to estimating the individual risk of primary HIV infection, in patients presenting with flu-like symptoms. Early diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with better prognosis and limits transmission of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
5.
Infection ; 49(5): 927-934, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic reliability and practicability of self-collected oropharyngeal swab samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection as self-sampling could enable broader testing availability and reduce both personal protective equipment and potential exposure. METHODS: Hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were asked to collect two oropharyngeal swabs (SC-OPS1/2), and an additional oropharyngeal swab was collected by a health care professional (HCP-OPS). SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing for samples from 58 participants was performed, with a 48-h delay in half of the self-collected samples (SC-OPS2). The sensitivity, probability of concordance, and interrater reliability were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess predictive factors. Practicability was evaluated through a questionnaire. RESULTS: The test sensitivity for HCP-OPS, SC-OPS1, and SC-OPS2 was 88%, 78%, and 77%, respectively. Combining both SC-OPS results increased the estimated sensitivity to 88%. The concordance probability between HCP-OPS and SC-OPS1 was 77.6% and 82.5% between SC-OPS1 and SC-OPS2, respectively. Of the participants, 69% affirmed performing future self-sampling at home, and 34% preferred self-sampling over HCP-guided testing. Participants with both positive HCP-OPS1 and SC-OPS1 indicating no challenges during self-sampling had more differences in viral load levels between HCP-OPS1 and SC-OPS1 than those who indicated challenges. Increasing disease duration and the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG correlated with negative test results in self-collected samples of previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals. CONCLUSION: Oropharyngeal self-sampling is an applicable testing approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. Self-sampling tends to be more effective in early versus late infection and symptom onset, and the collection of two distinct samples is recommended to maintain high test sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356596

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces a coagulopathy characterized by platelet activation and a hypercoagulable state with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The viral spike protein S has been reported to enhance thrombosis formation, stimulate platelets to release procoagulant factors, and promote the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates even in absence of the virus. Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccines induce spike protein overexpression to trigger SARS-CoV-2-specific immune protection, thrombocyte activity has not been investigated in this context. Here, we provide the first phenotypic platelet characterization of healthy human subjects undergoing BNT162b2 vaccination. Using mass cytometry, we analyzed the expression of constitutive transmembrane receptors, adhesion proteins, and platelet activation markers in 12 healthy donors before and at five different time points within 4 weeks after the first BNT162b2 administration. We measured platelet reactivity by stimulating thrombocyte activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Activation marker expression (P-selectin, LAMP-3, LAMP-1, CD40L, and PAC-1) did not change after vaccination. All investigated constitutive transmembrane proteins showed similar expressions over time. Platelet reactivity was not altered after BNT162b2 administration. Activation marker expression was significantly lower compared with an independent cohort of mild symptomatic COVID-19 patients analyzed with the same platform. This study reveals that BNT162b2 administration does not alter platelet protein expression and reactivity.

7.
Infection ; 49(6): 1313-1318, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303394

ABSTRACT

Additional treatment options for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed, particularly for populations at high risk of severe disease. This cross-sectional, retrospective study characterized the outcomes of 43 patients with nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with and without treatment using monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (bamlanivimab or casirivimab/imdevimab). Our results indicate that treatment with monoclonal antibodies results in a significant decrease in disease progression and mortality when used for asymptomatic patients with early SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 119, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the absence of PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, accurate diagnosis of COVID-19 is challenging. Low-dose computed tomography (CT) detects pulmonary infiltrates with high sensitivity, but findings may be non-specific. This study assesses the diagnostic value of SARS-CoV-2 serology for patients with distinct CT features but negative PCR. METHODS: IgM/IgG chemiluminescent immunoassay was performed for 107 patients with confirmed (group A: PCR + ; CT ±) and 46 patients with suspected (group B: repetitive PCR-; CT +) COVID-19, admitted to a German university hospital during the pandemic's first wave. A standardized, in-house CT classification of radiological signs of a viral pneumonia was used to assess the probability of COVID-19. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates (SR) determined on day 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 after symptom onset (SO) were 8%, 25%, 65%, 76% and 91% for group A, and 0%, 10%, 19%, 37% and 46% for group B, respectively; (p < 0.01). Compared to hospitalized patients with a non-complicated course (non-ICU patients), seroconversion tended to occur at lower frequency and delayed in patients on intensive care units. SR of patients with CT findings classified as high certainty for COVID-19 were 8%, 22%, 68%, 79% and 93% in group A, compared with 0%, 15%, 28%, 50% and 50% in group B (p < 0.01). SARS-CoV-2 serology established a definite diagnosis in 12/46 group B patients. In 88% (8/9) of patients with negative serology > 14 days after symptom onset (group B), clinico-radiological consensus reassessment revealed probable diagnoses other than COVID-19. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 serology was superior to PCR > 17d after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of patients with distinct COVID-19 CT findings are tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR rendering correct diagnosis difficult. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 serology testing alongside current CT/PCR-based diagnostic algorithms improves discrimination between COVID-19-related and non-related pulmonary infiltrates in PCR negative patients. However, sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 serology strongly depends on the time of testing and becomes superior to PCR after the 2nd week following symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
9.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(1): 50, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015003

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a hypercoagulable state, characterized by abnormal coagulation parameters and by increased incidence of cardiovascular complications. With this study, we aimed to investigate the activation state and the expression of transmembrane proteins in platelets of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We investigated transmembrane proteins expression with a customized mass cytometry panel of 21 antibodies. Platelets of 8 hospitalized COVID-19 patients not requiring intensive care support and without pre-existing conditions were compared to platelets of healthy controls (11 donors) with and without in vitro stimulation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP). Mass cytometry of non-stimulated platelets detected an increased surface expression of activation markers P-Selectin (0.67 vs. 1.87 median signal intensity for controls vs. patients, p = 0.0015) and LAMP-3 (CD63, 0.37 vs. 0.81, p = 0.0004), the GPIIb/IIIa complex (4.58 vs. 5.03, p < 0.0001) and other adhesion molecules involved in platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte interactions. Upon TRAP stimulation, mass cytometry detected a higher expression of P-selectin in COVID-19 samples compared to controls (p < 0.0001). However, we observed a significantly reduced capacity of COVID-19 platelets to increase the expression of activation markers LAMP-3 and P-Selectin upon stimulation with TRAP. We detected a hyperactivated phenotype in platelets during SARS-CoV-2 infection, consisting of highly expressed platelet activation markers, which might contribute to the hypercoagulopathy observed in COVID-19. In addition, several transmembrane proteins were more highly expressed compared to healthy controls. These findings support research projects investigating antithrombotic and antiplatelet treatment regimes in COVID-19 patients, and provide new insights on the phenotypical platelet expression during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Leukocytes/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Leukocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , P-Selectin/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenotype , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism , Thrombosis/virology
10.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 1029-1040, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932521

ABSTRACT

AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Here, we analyzed whether specific biomarkers predict the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 2147 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection which were included in the Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV­2 (LEOSS)-registry from March to June 2020. Clinical data and laboratory values were collected and compared between patients with and without cardiovascular comorbidities in different clinical stages of the disease. Predictors for mortality were calculated using multivariate regression analysis. We show that patients with cardiovascular comorbidities display significantly higher markers of myocardial injury and thrombo-inflammatory activation already in the uncomplicated phase of COVID-19. In multivariate analysis, elevated levels of troponin [OR 1.54; (95% CI 1.22-1.96), p < 0.001)], IL-6 [OR 1.69 (95% CI 1.26-2.27), p < 0.013)], and CRP [OR 1.32; (95% CI 1.1-1.58), p < 0.003)] were predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities show elevated markers of thrombo-inflammatory activation and myocardial injury, which predict mortality, already in the uncomplicated phase of COVID-19. Starting targeted anti-inflammatory therapy and aggressive anticoagulation already in the uncomplicated phase of the disease might improve outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities. Elevated markers of thrombo-inflammatory activation predict outcome in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and COVID-19 disease: insights from the LEOSS registry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL