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EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14167, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299730


A deeper understanding of COVID-19 on human molecular pathophysiology is urgently needed as a foundation for the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here we applied mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to measure serum proteomes of COVID-19 patients and symptomatic, but PCR-negative controls, in a time-resolved manner. In 262 controls and 458 longitudinal samples of 31 patients, hospitalized for COVID-19, a remarkable 26% of proteins changed significantly. Bioinformatics analyses revealed co-regulated groups and shared biological functions. Proteins of the innate immune system such as CRP, SAA1, CD14, LBP, and LGALS3BP decreased early in the time course. Regulators of coagulation (APOH, FN1, HRG, KNG1, PLG) and lipid homeostasis (APOA1, APOC1, APOC2, APOC3, PON1) increased over the course of the disease. A global correlation map provides a system-wide functional association between proteins, biological processes, and clinical chemistry parameters. Importantly, five SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays against antibodies revealed excellent correlations with an extensive range of immunoglobulin regions, which were quantified by MS-based proteomics. The high-resolution profile of all immunoglobulin regions showed individual-specific differences and commonalities of potential pathophysiological relevance.

COVID-19 , Proteome , Antibodies, Viral , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226901


OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing has been suggested for (1) screening populations for disease prevalence, (2) diagnostics, and (3) guiding therapeutic applications. Here, we conducted a detailed clinical evaluation of four Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays in samples from acutely ill COVID-19 patients and in two negative cohorts. METHODS: 443 serum specimens from serial sampling of 29 COVID-19 patients were used to determine clinical sensitivities. Patients were stratified for the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Individual serum specimens from a pre-COVID-19 cohort of 238 healthy subjects and from a PCR-negative clinical cohort of 257 patients were used to determine clinical specificities. All samples were measured side-by-side with the Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgG), Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgA) and Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NCP-ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun AG, Lübeck, Germany) and the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ECLIA (Roche Diagnostics International, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). RESULTS: Median seroconversion occurred earlier in ARDS patients (8-9 days) than in non-ARDS patients (11-17 days), except for EUR N-IgG. Rates of positivity and mean signal ratios in the ARDS group were significantly higher than in the non-ARDS group. Sensitivities between the four tested immunoassays were equivalent. In the set of negative samples, the specificity of the Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgA) was lower (93.9%) compared to all other assays (≥98.8%) and the specificity of Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NCP-ELISA (IgG) was lower (98.8%) than that of Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (100%). CONCLUSIONS: Serial sampling in COVID-19 patients revealed earlier seroconversion and higher signal ratios of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as a potential risk marker for the development of ARDS, suggesting a utility for antibody testing in acutely diseased patients.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Circulation ; 142(12): 1176-1189, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696368


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 infection causes severe pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), but the mechanisms of subsequent respiratory failure and complicating renal and myocardial involvement are poorly understood. In addition, a systemic prothrombotic phenotype has been reported in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 62 subjects were included in our study (n=38 patients with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and n=24 non-COVID-19 controls). We performed histopathologic assessment of autopsy cases, surface marker-based phenotyping of neutrophils and platelets, and functional assays for platelet, neutrophil functions, and coagulation tests, as well. RESULTS: We provide evidence that organ involvement and prothrombotic features in COVID-19 are linked by immunothrombosis. We show that, in COVID-19, inflammatory microvascular thrombi are present in the lung, kidney, and heart, containing neutrophil extracellular traps associated with platelets and fibrin. Patients with COVID-19 also present with neutrophil-platelet aggregates and a distinct neutrophil and platelet activation pattern in blood, which changes with disease severity. Whereas cases of intermediate severity show an exhausted platelet and hyporeactive neutrophil phenotype, patients severely affected with COVID-19 are characterized by excessive platelet and neutrophil activation in comparison with healthy controls and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Dysregulated immunothrombosis in severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 pneumonia is linked to both acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic hypercoagulability. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data point to immunothrombotic dysregulation as a key marker of disease severity in COVID-19. Further work is necessary to determine the role of immunothrombosis in COVID-19.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/cytology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Lung/pathology , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pandemics , Phenotype , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/diagnosis