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Sci Adv ; 6(48)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388431


Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a robust inflammatory response that damages the vascular endothelium, impairing gas exchange. While restoration of microcapillaries is critical to avoid mortality, therapeutic targeting of this process requires a greater understanding of endothelial repair mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelium possesses substantial regenerative capacity and lineage tracing reveals that native endothelium is the source of vascular repair after influenza injury. Ablation of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 2 (COUP-TF2) (Nr2f2), a transcription factor implicated in developmental angiogenesis, reduced endothelial proliferation, exacerbating viral lung injury in vivo. In vitro, COUP-TF2 regulates proliferation and migration through activation of cyclin D1 and neuropilin 1. Upon influenza injury, nuclear factor κB suppresses COUP-TF2, but surviving endothelial cells ultimately reestablish vascular homeostasis dependent on restoration of COUP-TF2. Therefore, stabilization of COUP-TF2 may represent a therapeutic strategy to enhance recovery from pathogens, including H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2.

COUP Transcription Factor II/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Lung/cytology , Lung/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/metabolism , Regeneration/genetics , Animals , COUP Transcription Factor II/genetics , Cell Movement/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Transfection
Stem Cell Reports ; 15(5): 1015-1025, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-864993


Despite the central importance of the respiratory system, the exact mechanisms governing lung repair after severe injury remain unclear. The notion that alveolar type 2 cells (AT2s) self-renew and differentiate into alveolar type 1 cells (AT1s) does not fully encompass scenarios where these progenitors are severely affected by disease, e.g., H1N1 influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Intrapulmonary p63+ progenitor cells, a rare cell type in mice but potentially encompassing more numerous classic basal cells in humans, are activated in such severe injury settings, proliferating and migrating into the injured alveolar parenchyma, providing a short-term "emergency" benefit. While the fate of these cells is controversial, most studies indicate that they represent a maladaptive repair pathway with a fate restriction toward airway cell types, rarely differentiating into AT2 or AT1 cells. Here, we discuss the role of intrapulmonary basal-like p63+ cells in alveolar regeneration and suggest a unified model to guide future studies.

Lung/physiology , Regeneration , Stem Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Lung Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology