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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(3): 96-102, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639076

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has magnified longstanding health care and social inequities, resulting in disproportionately high COVID-19-associated illness and death among members of racial and ethnic minority groups (1). Equitable use of effective medications (2) could reduce disparities in these severe outcomes (3). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, initially received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2020. mAbs are typically administered in an outpatient setting via intravenous infusion or subcutaneous injection and can prevent progression of COVID-19 if given after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result or for postexposure prophylaxis in patients at high risk for severe illness.† Dexamethasone, a commonly used steroid, and remdesivir, an antiviral drug that received EUA from FDA in May 2020, are used in inpatient settings and help prevent COVID-19 progression§ (2). No large-scale studies have yet examined the use of mAb by race and ethnicity. Using COVID-19 patient electronic health record data from 41 U.S. health care systems that participated in the PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network,¶ this study assessed receipt of medications for COVID-19 treatment by race (White, Black, Asian, and Other races [including American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and multiple or Other races]) and ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). Relative disparities in mAb** treatment among all patients†† (805,276) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and in dexamethasone and remdesivir treatment among inpatients§§ (120,204) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result were calculated. Among all patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, the overall use of mAb was infrequent, with mean monthly use at 4% or less for all racial and ethnic groups. Hispanic patients received mAb 58% less often than did non-Hispanic patients, and Black, Asian, or Other race patients received mAb 22%, 48%, and 47% less often, respectively, than did White patients during November 2020-August 2021. Among inpatients, disparities were different and of lesser magnitude: Hispanic inpatients received dexamethasone 6% less often than did non-Hispanic inpatients, and Black inpatients received remdesivir 9% more often than did White inpatients. Vaccines and preventive measures are the best defense against infection; use of COVID-19 medications postexposure or postinfection can reduce morbidity and mortality and relieve strain on hospitals but are not a substitute for COVID-19 vaccination. Public health policies and programs centered around the specific needs of communities can promote health equity (4). Equitable receipt of outpatient treatments, such as mAb and antiviral medications, and implementation of prevention practices are essential to reducing existing racial and ethnic inequities in severe COVID-19-associated illness and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , /statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , United States
2.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 110, 2021 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310816

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is heterogeneous and our understanding of the biological mechanisms of host response to the viral infection remains limited. Identification of meaningful clinical subphenotypes may benefit pathophysiological study, clinical practice, and clinical trials. Here, our aim was to derive and validate COVID-19 subphenotypes using machine learning and routinely collected clinical data, assess temporal patterns of these subphenotypes during the pandemic course, and examine their interaction with social determinants of health (SDoH). We retrospectively analyzed 14418 COVID-19 patients in five major medical centers in New York City (NYC), between March 1 and June 12, 2020. Using clustering analysis, 4 biologically distinct subphenotypes were derived in the development cohort (N = 8199). Importantly, the identified subphenotypes were highly predictive of clinical outcomes (especially 60-day mortality). Sensitivity analyses in the development cohort, and rederivation and prediction in the internal (N = 3519) and external (N = 3519) validation cohorts confirmed the reproducibility and usability of the subphenotypes. Further analyses showed varying subphenotype prevalence across the peak of the outbreak in NYC. We also found that SDoH specifically influenced mortality outcome in Subphenotype IV, which is associated with older age, worse clinical manifestation, and high comorbidity burden. Our findings may lead to a better understanding of how COVID-19 causes disease in different populations and potentially benefit clinical trial development. The temporal patterns and SDoH implications of the subphenotypes may add insights to health policy to reduce social disparity in the pandemic.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117175, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306629
4.
J Biomed Inform ; 118: 103794, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209791

ABSTRACT

From early March through mid-May 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed hospitals in New York City. In anticipation of ventilator shortages and limited ICU bed capacity, hospital operations prioritized the development of prognostic tools to predict clinical deterioration. However, early experience from frontline physicians observed that some patients developed unanticipated deterioration after having relatively stable periods, attesting to the uncertainty of clinical trajectories among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Prediction tools that incorporate clinical variables at one time-point, usually on hospital presentation, are suboptimal for patients with dynamic changes and evolving clinical trajectories. Therefore, our study team developed a machine-learning algorithm to predict clinical deterioration among hospitalized COVID-19 patients by extracting clinically meaningful features from complex longitudinal laboratory and vital sign values during the early period of hospitalization with an emphasis on informative missing-ness. To incorporate the evolution of the disease and clinical practice over the course of the pandemic, we utilized a time-dependent cross-validation strategy for model development. Finally, we validated our prediction model on an external validation cohort of COVID-19 patients served in a demographically distinct population from the training cohort. The main finding of our study is the identification of risk profiles of early, late and no clinical deterioration during the course of hospitalization. While risk prediction models that include simple predictors at ED presentation and clinical judgement are able to identify any deterioration vs. no deterioration, our methodology is able to isolate a particular risk group that remain stable initially but deteriorate at a later stage of the course of hospitalization. We demonstrate the superior predictive performance with the utilization of laboratory and vital sign data during the early period of hospitalization compared to the utilization of data at presentation alone. Our results will allow efficient hospital resource allocation and will motivate research in understanding the late deterioration risk group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Computer Simulation , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , New York City , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(2): 393-401, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054313

ABSTRACT

Our goal is to summarize the collective experience of 15 organizations in dealing with uncoordinated efforts that result in unnecessary delays in understanding, predicting, preparing for, containing, and mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Response efforts involve the collection and analysis of data corresponding to healthcare organizations, public health departments, socioeconomic indicators, as well as additional signals collected directly from individuals and communities. We focused on electronic health record (EHR) data, since EHRs can be leveraged and scaled to improve clinical care, research, and to inform public health decision-making. We outline the current challenges in the data ecosystem and the technology infrastructure that are relevant to COVID-19, as witnessed in our 15 institutions. The infrastructure includes registries and clinical data networks to support population-level analyses. We propose a specific set of strategic next steps to increase interoperability, overall organization, and efficiencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Information Dissemination , Information Systems/organization & administration , Public Health Practice , Academic Medical Centers , Humans , Registries , United States
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