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1.
Cell Reports Medicine ; : 100898, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165956

ABSTRACT

Summary Multiple SARS-CoV-2 exposures, from infection or vaccination, can potently boost spike antibody responses. Less is known about the impact of repeated exposures on T cell responses. Here, we compare the prevalence and frequency of peripheral SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell and IgG responses in 190 individuals with complex SARS-CoV-2 exposure histories. As expected, an increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 spike exposures significantly enhances the magnitude of IgG responses, while repeated exposures improve the number of T cell responders but have less impact on SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cell frequencies in the circulation. Moreover, we find that the number and nature of exposures (rather than the order of infection and vaccination) shape the spike immune response, with spike-specific CD4 T cells displaying a greater polyfunctional potential following hybrid immunity compared to vaccination only. Characterizing adaptive immunity from an evolving viral and immunological landscape may inform vaccine strategies to elicit optimal immunity as the pandemic progresses.

3.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences ; : 120510, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122629

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a heightened inflammatory state, including activated T cells. However, it is unclear whether these PD T cell responses are antigen specific or more indicative of generalized hyperresponsiveness. Our objective was to measure and compare antigen-specific T cell responses directed towards antigens derived from commonly encountered human pathogens/vaccines in patients with PD and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 PD patients and 19 age-matched HCs were screened. Antigen specific T cell responses were measured by flow cytometry using a combination of the activation induced marker (AIM) assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Results Here we show that both PD patients and HCs show similar T cell activation levels to several antigens derived from commonly encountered human pathogens/vaccines in the general population. Similarly, we also observed no difference between HC and PD in the levels of CD4 and CD8 T cell derived cytokines produced in response to any of the common antigens tested. These antigens encompassed both viral (coronavirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, cytomegalovirus) and bacterial (pertussis, tetanus) targets. Conclusions These results suggest the T cell dysfunction observed in PD may not extend itself to abnormal responses to commonly encountered or vaccine-target antigens. Our study supports the notion that the targets of inflammatory T cell responses in PD may be more directed towards autoantigens like α-synuclein (α-syn) rather than common foreign antigens.

5.
Sci Immunol ; : eadf1421, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116491

ABSTRACT

Numerous safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed worldwide that utilize various delivery technologies and engineering strategies. We show here that vaccines containing prefusion-stabilizing S mutations elicit antibody responses in humans with enhanced recognition of S and the S1 subunit relative to postfusion S, as compared to vaccines lacking these mutations or natural infection. Prefusion S and S1 antibody binding titers positively and equivalently correlated with neutralizing activity and depletion of S1-directed antibodies completely abrogated plasma neutralizing activity. We show that neutralizing activity is almost entirely directed to the S1 subunit and that variant cross-neutralization is mediated solely by RBD-specific antibodies. Our data provide a quantitative framework for guiding future S engineering efforts to develop vaccines with higher resilience to the emergence of variants than current technologies.

6.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117617

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread use of SARS-CoV-2-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for the treatment of acute COVID-19, the impact of this therapy on the development of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses has been unknown, resulting in uncertainty as to whether anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb administration may result in failure to generate immune memory. Alternatively, it has been suggested that SARS-CoV-2-specific mAb may enhance adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 via a "vaccinal effect." Bamlanivimab (Eli Lilly) is a recombinant human IgG1 that was granted FDA emergency use authorization for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in those at high risk for progression to severe disease. Here, we compared SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of 95 individuals from the ACTIV-2/A5401 clinical trial 28 days after treatment with 700 mg bamlanivimab versus placebo. SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were evaluated using activation induced marker (AIM) assays in conjunction with intracellular cytokine staining. We demonstrate that most individuals with acute COVID-19 develop SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Overall, our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory was robust in individuals who received bamlanivimab for acute COVID-19. Receipt of bamlanivimab during acute COVID-19 neither diminished nor enhanced SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immunity.

7.
mBio ; : e0131122, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119438

ABSTRACT

Multiple vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been evaluated in clinical trials. However, trials addressing the immune response in the pediatric population are scarce. The inactivated vaccine CoronaVac has been shown to be safe and immunogenic in a phase 1/2 clinical trial in a pediatric cohort in China. Here, we report interim safety and immunogenicity results of a phase 3 clinical trial for CoronaVac in healthy children and adolescents in Chile. Participants 3 to 17 years old received two doses of CoronaVac in a 4-week interval until 31 December 2021. Local and systemic adverse reactions were registered for volunteers who received one or two doses of CoronaVac. Whole-blood samples were collected from a subgroup of 148 participants for humoral and cellular immunity analyses. The main adverse reaction reported after the first and second doses was pain at the injection site. Four weeks after the second dose, an increase in neutralizing antibody titer was observed in subjects relative to their baseline visit. Similar results were found for activation of specific CD4+ T cells. Neutralizing antibodies were identified against the Delta and Omicron variants. However, these titers were lower than those for the D614G strain. Importantly, comparable CD4+ T cell responses were detected against these variants of concern. Therefore, CoronaVac is safe and immunogenic in subjects 3 to 17 years old, inducing neutralizing antibody secretion and activating CD4+ T cells against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under no. NCT04992260.) IMPORTANCE This work evaluated the immune response induced by two doses of CoronaVac separated by 4 weeks in healthy children and adolescents in Chile. To date, few studies have described the effects of CoronaVac in the pediatric population. Therefore, it is essential to generate knowledge regarding the protection of vaccines in this population. Along these lines, we reported the anti-S humoral response and cellular immune response to several SARS-CoV-2 proteins that have been published and recently studied. Here, we show that a vaccination schedule consisting of two doses separated by 4 weeks induces the secretion of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, CoronaVac induces the activation of CD4+ T cells upon stimulation with peptides from the proteome of SARS-CoV-2. These results indicate that, even though the neutralizing antibody response induced by vaccination decreases against the Delta and Omicron variants, the cellular response against these variants is comparable to the response against the ancestral strain D614G, even being significantly higher against Omicron.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1032411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109771

ABSTRACT

Coronavac is a widely used SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, but its long-term immune response assessment is still lacking. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses, including T cell activation markers, antigen-specific cytokine production and antibody response following vaccination in 53 adult and elderly individuals participating in a phase 3 clinical trial. Activated follicular helper T (Tfh), non-Tfh and memory CD4+ T cells were detected in almost all subjects early after the first vaccine dose. Activated memory CD4+ T cells were predominantly of central and effector memory T cell phenotypes and were sustained for at least 6 months. We also detected a balanced Th1-, Th2- and Th17/Th22-type cytokine production that was associated with response over time, together with particular cytokine profile linked to poor responses in older vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked 14 days after the second dose and were mostly stable over one year. CoronaVac was able to induce a potent and durable antiviral antigen-specific cellular response and the cytokine profiles related to the response over time and impacted by the senescence were defined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Elife ; 112022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067163

ABSTRACT

Background: The development of vaccines to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progression is a worldwide priority. CoronaVac is an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine approved for emergency use with robust efficacy and immunogenicity data reported in trials in China, Brazil, Indonesia, Turkey, and Chile. Methods: This study is a randomized, multicenter, and controlled phase 3 trial in healthy Chilean adults aged ≥18 years. Volunteers received two doses of CoronaVac separated by 2 (0-14 schedule) or 4 weeks (0-28 schedule); 2302 volunteers were enrolled, 440 were part of the immunogenicity arm, and blood samples were obtained at different times. Samples from a single center are reported. Humoral immune responses were evaluated by measuring the neutralizing capacities of circulating antibodies. Cellular immune responses were assessed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. Correlation matrixes were performed to evaluate correlations in the data measured. Results: Both schedules exhibited robust neutralizing capacities with the response induced by the 0-28 schedule being better. No differences were found in the concentration of antibodies against the virus and different variants of concern (VOCs) between schedules. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with Mega pools of Peptides (MPs) induced the secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ and the expression of activation induced markers in CD4+ T cells for both schedules. Correlation matrixes showed strong correlations between neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ secretion. Conclusions: Immunization with CoronaVac in Chilean adults promotes robust cellular and humoral immune responses. The 0-28 schedule induced a stronger humoral immune response than the 0-14 schedule. Funding: Ministry of Health, Government of Chile, Confederation of Production and Commerce & Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Chile. Clinical trial number: NCT04651790.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Schedule , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunity, Humoral , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057579

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a protean disease causing different degrees of clinical severity including fatality. In addition to humoral immunity, antigen-specific T cells may play a critical role in defining the protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes this disease. As a part of a longitudinal cohort study in Bangladesh to investigate B and T cell-specific immune responses, we sought to evaluate the activation-induced marker (AIM) and the status of different immune cell subsets during a COVID-19 infection. We analyzed a total of 115 participants, which included participants with asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe clinical symptoms. We observed decreased mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell frequency on the initial days of the COVID-19 infection in symptomatic patients compared to asymptomatic patients. However, natural killer (NK) cells were found to be elevated in symptomatic patients just after the onset of the disease compared to both asymptomatic patients and healthy individuals. Moreover, we found a significant increase of AIM+ (both OX40+CD137+ and OX40+CD40L+) CD4+ T cells in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients in response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides (especially spike peptides) compared to pre-pandemic controls who are unexposed to SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we did not observe any significant difference in the CD8+ AIMs (CD137+CD69+), which indicates the exhaustion of CD8+ T cells during a COVID-19 infection. These findings suggest that patients who recovered from moderate and severe COVID-19 were able to mount a strong CD4+ T-cell response against shared viral determinants that ultimately induced T cells to mount further immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Immunity ; 55(9): 1732-1746.e5, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015472

ABSTRACT

Many immunocompromised patients mount suboptimal humoral immunity after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Here, we assessed the single-cell profile of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells post-mRNA vaccination in healthy individuals and patients with various forms of immunodeficiencies. Impaired vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity was observed in many immunocompromised patients, particularly in solid-organ transplant and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Notably, individuals with an inherited lack of mature B cells, i.e., X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) displayed highly functional spike-specific T cell responses. Single-cell RNA-sequencing further revealed that mRNA vaccination induced a broad functional spectrum of spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in healthy individuals and patients with XLA. These responses were founded on polyclonal repertoires of CD4+ T cells and robust expansions of oligoclonal effector-memory CD45RA+ CD8+ T cells with stem-like characteristics. Collectively, our data provide the functional continuum of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses post-mRNA vaccination, highlighting that cell-mediated immunity is of variable functional quality across immunodeficiency syndromes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Syndrome , Vaccination , Viral Envelope Proteins
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S24-S29, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992141

ABSTRACT

Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began 2 years ago, the scientific community has swiftly worked to understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response of this virus to implement public health policies and ultimately project an end to the pandemic. In this perspective, we present our work identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes to quantify T-cell responses and review how T cells may help protect against severe disease. We examine our prior studies which demonstrate durable humoral and cell-mediated memory in natural infection and vaccination. We discuss how SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells from either natural infection or vaccination can recognize emerging variants of concern, suggesting that the currently approved vaccines may be sufficient. We also discuss how pre-existing cross-reactive T cells promote rapid development of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2. We finally posit how identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes can help us develop a pan-coronavirus vaccine to prepare for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans
13.
J Clin Invest ; 132(19)2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986541

ABSTRACT

NVX-CoV2373 is an adjuvanted recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer protein vaccine demonstrated to be protective against COVID-19 in efficacy trials. Here we demonstrate that vaccinated individuals made CD4+ T cell responses after 1 and 2 doses of NVX-CoV2373, and a subset of individuals made CD8+ T cell responses. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD8+ T cells demonstrated IFN-γ production. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD4+ T cells revealed both circulating T follicular helper (cTfh) cells and Th1 cells (IFN-γ+, TNF-α+, and IL-2+) were detectable within 7 days of the primary immunization. Spike-specific CD4+ T cells were correlated with the magnitude of the later SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody titers, indicating that robust generation of CD4+ T cells, capable of supporting humoral immune responses, may be a key characteristic of NVX-CoV2373 that utilizes Matrix-M adjuvant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
14.
mBio ; 13(4): e0142322, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986332

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). Previous studies reported increased levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells 2 and 4 weeks after two doses of CoronaVac; these levels were significantly reduced at 6 to 8 months after the two doses. Here, we report the effect of a booster dose of CoronaVac on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response generated against the variants of concern (VOCs), Delta and Omicron, in adults participating in a phase III clinical trial in Chile. Volunteers immunized with two doses of CoronaVac in a 4-week interval received a booster dose of the same vaccine between 24 and 30 weeks after the second dose. Neutralization capacities and T cell activation against VOCs Delta and Omicron were assessed 4 weeks after the booster dose. We observed a significant increase in neutralizing antibodies 4 weeks after the booster dose. We also observed a rise in anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells over time, and these cells reached a peak 4 weeks after the booster dose. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells induced by the booster showed activity against VOCs Delta and Omicron. Our results show that a booster dose of CoronaVac increases adults' humoral and cellular anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses. In addition, immunity induced by a booster dose of CoronaVac is active against VOCs, suggesting adequate protection. IMPORTANCE CoronaVac is an inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 that has been approved by WHO for emergency use. Phase III clinical trials are in progress in several countries, including China, Brazil, Turkey, and Chile, and have shown safety and immunogenicity after two doses of the vaccine. This report characterizes immune responses induced by two doses of CoronaVac followed by a booster dose 5 months after the second dose in healthy Chilean adults. The data reported here show that a booster dose increased the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, enhancing levels of neutralizing antibodies against the ancestral strain and VOCs. Similarly, anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD4+ T cell responses were increased following the booster dose. In contrast, levels of gamma interferon secretion and T cell activation against the VOCs Delta and Omicron were not significantly different from those for the ancestral strain. Therefore, a third dose of CoronaVac in a homologous vaccination schedule improves its immunogenicity in healthy volunteers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(657): eabl9605, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986328

ABSTRACT

To prepare for future coronavirus (CoV) pandemics, it is desirable to generate vaccines capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibody responses to CoVs. Here, we show that immunization of macaques with SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein with a two-shot protocol generated potent serum receptor binding domain cross-neutralizing antibody responses to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1. Furthermore, responses were equally effective against most SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and some were highly effective against Omicron. This result contrasts with human infection or many two-shot vaccination protocols where responses were typically more SARS-CoV-2 specific and where VOCs were less well neutralized. Structural studies showed that cloned macaque neutralizing antibodies, particularly using a given heavy chain germline gene, recognized a relatively conserved region proximal to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor binding site (RBS), whereas many frequently elicited human neutralizing antibodies targeted more variable epitopes overlapping the RBS. B cell repertoire differences between humans and macaques appeared to influence the vaccine response. The macaque neutralizing antibodies identified a pan-SARS-related virus epitope region less well targeted by human antibodies that could be exploited in rational vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Epitopes , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Science ; 377(6608): 890-894, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949930

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern comprises several sublineages, with BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 having replaced the previously dominant BA.1 and with BA.4 and BA.5 increasing in prevalence worldwide. We show that the large number of Omicron sublineage spike mutations leads to enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding, reduced fusogenicity, and severe dampening of plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines relative to the ancestral virus. Administration of a homologous or heterologous booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 across all vaccines evaluated. Our data suggest that although Omicron sublineages evade polyclonal neutralizing antibody responses elicited by primary vaccine series, vaccine boosters may provide sufficient protection against Omicron-induced severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939995

ABSTRACT

We generated CD4+ T cell lines (TCLs) reactive to either SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) or membrane (M) proteins from unexposed naïve T cells from six healthy donor volunteers to understand in fine detail whether the S and M structural proteins have intrinsic differences in driving antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses. Having shown that each of the TCLs were antigen-specific and antigen-reactive, single cell mRNA analyses demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 S and M proteins drive strikingly distinct molecular signatures. Whereas the S-specific CD4+ T cell transcriptional signature showed a marked upregulation of CCL1, CD44, IL17RB, TNFRSF18 (GITR) and IGLC3 genes, in general their overall transcriptome signature was more similar to CD4+ T cell responses induced by other viral antigens (e.g. CMV). However, the M protein-specific CD4+ TCLs have a transcriptomic signature that indicate a marked suppression of interferon signaling, characterized by a downregulation of the genes encoding ISG15, IFITM1, IFI6, MX1, STAT1, OAS1, IFI35, IFIT3 and IRF7 (a molecular signature which is not dissimilar to that found in severe COVID-19). Our study suggests a potential link between the antigen specificity of the SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells and the development of specific sets of adaptive immune responses. Moreover, the balance between T cells of significantly different specificities may be the key to understand how CD4+ T cell dysregulation can determine the clinical outcomes of COVID-19.

18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(9): 1269-1278.e4, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936161

ABSTRACT

The immune memory to common cold coronaviruses (CCCs) influences SARS-CoV-2 infection outcome, and understanding its effect is crucial for pan-coronavirus vaccine development. We performed a longitudinal analysis of pre-COVID19-pandemic samples from 2016-2019 in young adults and assessed CCC-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Notably, CCC responses were commonly detected with comparable frequencies as with other common antigens and were sustained over time. CCC-specific CD4+ T cell responses were associated with low HLA-DR+CD38+ signals, and their magnitude did not correlate with yearly CCC infection prevalence. Similarly, CCC-specific and spike RBD-specific IgG responses were stable in time. Finally, high CCC-specific CD4+ T cell reactivity, but not antibody titers, was associated with pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 immunity. These results provide a valuable reference for understanding the immune response to endemic coronaviruses and suggest that steady and sustained CCC responses are likely from a stable pool of memory CD4+ T cells due to repeated earlier exposures and possibly occasional reinfections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Cold , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Common Cold/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunologic Memory , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
19.
Front Aging ; 2: 719342, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933922

ABSTRACT

Age is a major risk factor for COVID-19 severity, and T cells play a central role in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2-cross-reactive T cells have been detected in unexposed individuals, we investigated the age-related differences in pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells from young and elderly individuals were mainly detected in the central memory fraction and exhibited similar functionalities and numbers. Naïve-phenotype SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cell populations decreased markedly in the elderly, while those with terminally differentiated and senescent phenotypes increased. Furthermore, senescent SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cell populations were higher in cytomegalovirus seropositive young individuals compared to seronegative ones. Our findings suggest that age-related differences in pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD8+ T cells may explain the poor outcomes in elderly patients and that cytomegalovirus infection is a potential factor affecting CD8+ T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this study provides insights for developing effective therapeutic and vaccination strategies for the elderly.

20.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofac171, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908873

ABSTRACT

Background: Global efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including seroprevalence, risk factors, and long-term sequelae, as well as immune responses after vaccination across populations and the social dimensions of prevention and treatment strategies. Methods: In the United States, the National Cancer Institute in partnership with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, established the SARS-CoV-2 Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) as the nation's largest coordinated effort to study coronavirus disease 2019. The network comprises multidisciplinary researchers bridging gaps and fostering collaborations among immunologists, epidemiologists, virologists, clinicians and clinical laboratories, social and behavioral scientists, policymakers, data scientists, and community members. In total, 49 institutions form the SeroNet consortium to study individuals with cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, transplant recipients, as well as otherwise healthy pregnant women, children, college students, and high-risk occupational workers (including healthcare workers and first responders). Results: Several studies focus on underrepresented populations, including ethnic minorities and rural communities. To support integrative data analyses across SeroNet studies, efforts are underway to define common data elements for standardized serology measurements, cellular and molecular assays, self-reported data, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Conclusions: In this paper, we discuss the overarching framework for SeroNet epidemiology studies, critical research questions under investigation, and data accessibility for the worldwide scientific community. Lessons learned will help inform preparedness and responsiveness to future emerging diseases.

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