Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765948

ABSTRACT

The toxicity of mRNA-lipid nanoparticle (LNP) vaccines depends on the total mRNA-LNP dose. We established that the maximum tolerated dose of our trivalent mRNA-LNP genital herpes vaccine was 10 µg/immunization in mice. We then evaluated one of the mRNAs, gD2 mRNA-LNP, to determine how much of the 10 µg total dose to assign to this immunogen. We immunized mice with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10 µg of gD2 mRNA-LNP and measured serum IgG ELISA, neutralizing antibodies, and antibodies to six crucial gD2 epitopes involved in virus entry and spread. Antibodies to crucial gD2 epitopes peaked at 1 µg, while ELISA and neutralizing titers continued to increase at higher doses. The epitope results suggested no immunologic benefit above 1 µg of gD2 mRNA-LNP, while ELISA and neutralizing titers indicated higher doses may be useful. We challenged the gD2 mRNA-immunized mice intravaginally with HSV-2. The 1-µg dose provided total protection, confirming the epitope studies, and supported assigning less than one-third of the trivalent vaccine maximum dose of 10 µg to gD2 mRNA-LNP. Epitope mapping as performed in mice can also be accomplished in phase 1 human trials to help select the optimum dose of each immunogen in a multivalent vaccine.


Subject(s)
Herpes Genitalis , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Herpes Genitalis/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 2, Human/genetics , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
2.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110514, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739598

ABSTRACT

The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared with trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next-generation sequencing demonstrates acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralize heterologous HIV-1 isolates are isolated. Thus, mRNA-LNP can encode complex immunogens and may be of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(11): 4746-4753, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735188

ABSTRACT

Viral and synthetic vectors for delivery of nucleic acids impacted genetic nanomedicine by aiding the rapid development of the extraordinarily efficient Covid-19 vaccines. Access to targeted delivery of nucleic acids is expected to expand the field of nanomedicine beyond most expectations. Both viral and synthetic vectors have advantages and disadvantages. The major advantage of the synthetic vectors is their unlimited synthetic capability. The four-component lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the leading nonviral vector for mRNA used by Pfizer and Moderna in Covid-19 vaccines. Their synthetic capacity inspired us to develop a one-component multifunctional sequence-defined ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) delivery system for mRNA. The first experiments on IAJDs provided, through a rational-library design combined with orthogonal-modular accelerated synthesis and sequence control in their hydrophilic part, some of the most active synthetic vectors for the delivery of mRNA to lung. The second experiments employed a similar strategy, generating, by a less complex hydrophilic structure, a library of IAJDs targeting spleen, liver, and lung. Here, we report preliminary studies designing the hydrophobic region of IAJDs by using dissimilar alkyl lengths and demonstrate the unexpectedly important role of the primary structure of the hydrophobic part of IAJDs by increasing up to 90.2-fold the activity of targeted delivery of mRNA to spleen, lymph nodes, liver, and lung. The principles of the design strategy reported here and in previous publications indicate that IAJDs could have a profound impact on the future of genetic nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dendrimers , Nanoparticles , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dendrimers/chemistry , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305293

ABSTRACT

Concerns with current mRNA Lipid Nanoparticle (LNP) systems include dose-limiting reactogenicity, adverse events that may be partly due to systemic off target expression of the immunogen, and a very limited understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the frozen storage requirement. We applied a new rational design process to identify a novel multiprotic ionizable lipid, called C24, as the key component of the mRNA LNP delivery system. We show that the resulting C24 LNP has a multistage protonation behavior resulting in greater endosomal protonation and greater translation of an mRNA-encoded luciferase reporter after intramuscular (IM) administration compared to the standard reference MC3 LNP. Off-target expression in liver after IM administration was reduced 6 fold for the C24 LNP compared to MC3. Neutralizing titers in immunogenicity studies delivering a nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding for the diproline stabilized spike protein immunogen were 10 fold higher for the C24 LNP versus MC3, and protection against viral challenge in a SARS-CoV-2 mouse model occurred at a very low 0.25 µg prime/boost dose of the same immunogen in the C24 LNP. Injection site inflammation was notably reduced for C24 compared to MC3. In addition, we found the C24 LNP to be entirely stable in bioactivity and mRNA integrity when stored at 4 ºC for at least 19 days. Storage at higher temperatures reduced both bioactivity and mRNA integrity, but less so for C24 than MC3, and in a manner consistent with the phosphodiester transesterification reaction mechanism of mRNA cleavage. The higher potency, lower injection site inflammation, and higher stability of the C24 LNP present important advancements in the evolution mRNA vaccine delivery.

5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327171

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination induces robust humoral and cellular immunity in the circulation;however, it is currently unknown whether it elicits effective immune responses in the respiratory tract, particularly against variants of concern (VOCs), including Omicron. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 S-specific total and neutralizing antibody (Ab) responses, and B and T cell immunity, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and blood of COVID-19 vaccinated individuals and hospitalized patients. Vaccinated individuals had significantly lower levels of neutralizing Ab against D614G, Delta and Omicron in the BAL compared to COVID-19 convalescents, despite robust S-specific Ab responses in the blood. Further, mRNA vaccination induced significant circulating S-specific B and T cell immunity, but in contrast to COVID-19 convalescents, these responses were absent in the BAL of vaccinated individuals. Using an animal immunization model, we demonstrate that systemic mRNA vaccination alone induced weak respiratory mucosal neutralizing Ab responses, especially against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron;however, a combination of systemic mRNA vaccination plus mucosal adenovirus-S immunization induced strong neutralizing Ab response, not only against the ancestral virus but also the Omicron variant. Together, our study supports the contention that the current COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective against severe disease development, likely through recruiting circulating B and T cell responses during re-infection, but offer limited protection against breakthrough infection, especially by Omicron. Hence, mucosal booster vaccination is needed to establish robust sterilizing immunity in the respiratory tract against SARS-CoV-2, including infection by Omicron and future variants.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327163

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus vaccines that are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed to control the current pandemic. We previously reported a receptor-binding domain (RBD) sortase A-conjugated ferritin nanoparticle (RBD-scNP) vaccine that induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and pre-emergent sarbecoviruses and protected monkeys from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1 infection. Here, we demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 RBD-scNP immunization induces potent neutralizing antibodies against all eight SARS-CoV-2 variants tested including the Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants in non-human primates (NHPs). The Omicron variant was neutralized by RBD-scNP-induced serum antibodies with a mean of 4.3-fold reduction of ID50 titers compared to SARS-CoV-2 D614G. Immunization with RBD-scNPs protected NHPs from SARS-CoV-2 WA-1, Beta, and Delta variant challenge, and protected mice from challenges of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant and two other heterologous sarbecoviruses. These results demonstrate the ability of RBD-scNPs to induce broad neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and to protect NHPs and mice from multiple different SARS-related viruses. Such a vaccine could provide the needed immunity to slow the spread of and reduce disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Delta and Omicron.

7.
Pathog Immun ; 6(2): 149-152, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662940

ABSTRACT

On September 10, 2021, a special tribunal established by the French government launched an inquiry into the activities of former health minister Dr. Agnes Buzyn who was charged with "endangering the lives of others". It is surprising to learn of this accusation and inquiry into the actions of a public health official whose response to the epidemic was, to all appearances, exemplary.

8.
J Control Release ; 344: 50-61, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587321

ABSTRACT

Current nucleoside-modified RNA lipid nanoparticle (modmRNA-LNP) technology has successfully paved the way for the highest clinical efficacy data from next-generation vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, such modmRNA-LNP technology has not been characterized in common pre-existing inflammatory or immune-challenged conditions, raising the risk of adverse clinical effects when administering modmRNA-LNPs in such cases. Herein, we induce an acute-inflammation model in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheally (IT), 1 mg kg-1, or intravenously (IV), 2 mg kg-1, and then IV administer modmRNA-LNP, 0.32 mg kg-1, after 4 h, and screen for inflammatory markers, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines. ModmRNA-LNP at this dose caused no significant elevation of cytokine levels in naive mice. In contrast, shortly after LPS immune stimulation, modmRNA-LNP enhanced inflammatory cytokine responses, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 2 (MIP-2) in liver significantly. Our report identifies this phenomenon as inflammation exacerbation (IE), which was proven to be specific to the LNP, acting independent of mRNA cargo, and was demonstrated to be time- and dose-dependent. Macrophage depletion as well as TLR3 -/- and TLR4-/- knockout mouse studies revealed macrophages were the immune cells involved or responsible for IE. Finally, we show that pretreatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, can partially alleviate IE response in mice. Our findings characterize the importance of LNP-mediated IE phenomena in gram negative bacterial inflammation, however, the generalizability of modmRNA-LNP in other forms of chronic or acute inflammatory and immune contexts needs to be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Humans , Inflammation , Lipopolysaccharides , Liposomes , Mice , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296703

ABSTRACT

Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), including the highly transmissible delta strain, has posed challenges to current COVID-19 vaccines that principally target the viral spike protein (S). Here, we report a nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine that expresses the more conserved viral nucleoprotein (mRNA-N). We show that mRNA-N alone was able to induce a modest but significant control of SARS-CoV-2 in mice and hamsters. Critically, by combining mRNA-N with the clinically approved S-expressing mRNA vaccine (mRNA-S-2P), we found that combinatorial mRNA vaccination (mRNA-S+N) led to markedly enhanced protection against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant compared to mRNA-S. In a hamster model, we demonstrated that while mRNA-S alone elicited significant control of the delta strain in the lungs (~45-fold reduction in viral loads compared to un-vaccinated control), its effectiveness in the upper respiratory tract was weak, whereas combinatorial mRNA-S+N vaccination induced markedly more robust control of the delta variant infection in the lungs (~450-fold reduction) as well as in the upper respiratory tract (~20-fold reduction). Immune analyses indicated that induction of N-specific immunity as well as augmented S-specific T-cell response and neutralizing antibody activity were collectively associated the enhanced protection against SARS-CoV-2 delta strain by combinatorial mRNA vaccination. These findings suggest that the combined effects of protection in the lungs and upper respiratory tract could both reduce the risk of severe disease as well as of infection and transmission.

10.
J Clin Invest ; 131(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571525

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines have gained global attention because of COVID-19. We evaluated a similar vaccine approach for preventing a chronic, latent genital infection rather than an acute respiratory infection. We used animal models to compare an HSV-2 trivalent nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine with the same antigens prepared as proteins, with an emphasis on antigen-specific memory B cell responses and immune correlates of protection. In guinea pigs, serum neutralizing-antibody titers were higher at 1 month and declined far less by 8 months in mRNA- compared with protein-immunized animals. Both vaccines protected against death and genital lesions when infected 1 month after immunization; however, protection was more durable in the mRNA group compared with the protein group when infected after 8 months, an interval representing greater than 15% of the animal's lifespan. Serum and vaginal neutralizing-antibody titers correlated with protection against infection, as measured by genital lesions and vaginal virus titers 2 days after infection. In mice, the mRNA vaccine generated more antigen-specific memory B cells than the protein vaccine at early times after immunization that persisted for up to 1 year. High neutralizing titers and robust B cell immune memory likely explain the more durable protection by the HSV-2 mRNA vaccine.


Subject(s)
Herpes Genitalis , Herpesvirus 2, Human/immunology , Immunologic Memory , RNA, Viral/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Guinea Pigs , Herpes Genitalis/immunology , Herpes Genitalis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295545

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared to trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next generation sequencing demonstrated acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralized heterologous HIV-1 isolates were isolated. Thus, mRNA- LNP can encode complex immunogens and are of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.

12.
Transl Res ; 242: 38-55, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550105

ABSTRACT

The remarkable success of SARS CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines and the ensuing interest in mRNA vaccines and therapeutics have highlighted the need for a scalable clinical-enabling manufacturing process to produce such products, and robust analytical methods to demonstrate safety, potency, and purity. To date, production processes have either not been disclosed or are bench-scale in nature and cannot be readily adapted to clinical and commercial scale production. To address these needs, we have advanced an aqueous-based scalable process that is readily adaptable to GMP-compliant manufacturing, and developed the required analytical methods for product characterization, quality control release, and stability testing. We also have demonstrated the products produced at manufacturing scale under such approaches display good potency and protection in relevant animal models with mRNA products encoding both vaccine immunogens and antibodies. Finally, we discuss continued challenges in raw material identification, sourcing and supply, and the cold chain requirements for mRNA therapeutic and vaccine products. While ultimate solutions have yet to be elucidated, we discuss approaches that can be taken that are aligned with regulatory guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Immunity ; 54(12): 2877-2892.e7, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499988

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are critical for improving the quality and magnitude of adaptive immune responses to vaccination. Lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines have shown great efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the mechanism of action of this vaccine platform is not well-characterized. Using influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and protein subunit vaccines, we demonstrated that our LNP formulation has intrinsic adjuvant activity that promotes induction of strong T follicular helper cell, germinal center B cell, long-lived plasma cell, and memory B cell responses that are associated with durable and protective antibodies in mice. Comparative experiments demonstrated that this LNP formulation outperformed a widely used MF59-like adjuvant, AddaVax. The adjuvant activity of the LNP relies on the ionizable lipid component and on IL-6 cytokine induction but not on MyD88- or MAVS-dependent sensing of LNPs. Our study identified LNPs as a versatile adjuvant that enhances the efficacy of traditional and next-generation vaccine platforms.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , /immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liposomes/administration & dosage , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Protein Subunits/genetics , /genetics
14.
Bio Protoc ; 11(19): e4184, 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486838

ABSTRACT

With the recent availability of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccines, public attention has been drawn to this new technology and how it may be applied to other indications. Temporal activation of key hepatic regenerative pathways can induce liver regeneration, overcoming the lack of donor organs for liver transplantation and ineffectiveness of alternative treatments. Recombinant protein therapies and genetic therapies that target these pathways require frequent and repeated injections or, when integrated into the genome, may lead to deleterious effects. In contrast, nucleoside-modified mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) are non-integrative and induce transient yet robust expression of proteins that could serve as an ideal therapeutic tool to treat specific liver diseases. For instance, our recent publication in Nature Communications used mRNA-LNP to express hepatic mitogens, hepatocyte growth factor, and epidermal growth factor to induce liver regeneration following both acute and chronic liver injuries. Initial testing with firefly luciferase mRNA-LNP transfection and in vivo imaging confirmed specific hepatotropic delivery. In this protocol, we describe in detail the necessary steps to deliver mRNA-LNP to the murine liver and, following intravenous injection of eGFP mRNA-LNP, verify transfection efficiency using flow cytometry and liver cell specificity using immunofluorescence analyses. This procedure presents an unprecedented tool that can be customized with mRNA-LNP encoding any protein of interest to be expressed by virtually all hepatocytes, ~70% endothelial cells, and ~40% Kupffer cells for promoting liver function and/or regeneration. Graphic abstract: Experimental Design of mRNA-LNP IV Injection and Analysis of Liver Cell Specificity and Efficiency of Transfection (Created with BioRender.com).

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17975-17982, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483092

ABSTRACT

Targeted and efficient delivery of nucleic acids with viral and synthetic vectors is the key step of genetic nanomedicine. The four-component lipid nanoparticle synthetic delivery systems consisting of ionizable lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and a PEG-conjugated lipid, assembled by microfluidic or T-tube technology, have been extraordinarily successful for delivery of mRNA to provide Covid-19 vaccines. Recently, we reported a one-component multifunctional sequence-defined ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) synthetic delivery system for mRNA relying on amphiphilic Janus dendrimers and glycodendrimers developed in our laboratory. Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers consist of functional hydrophilic dendrons conjugated to hydrophobic dendrons. Co-assembly of IAJDs with mRNA into dendrimersome nanoparticles (DNPs) occurs by simple injection in acetate buffer, rather than by microfluidic devices, and provides a very efficient system for delivery of mRNA to lung. Here we report the replacement of most of the hydrophilic fragment of the dendron from IAJDs, maintaining only its ionizable amine, while changing its interconnecting group to the hydrophobic dendron from amide to ester. The resulting IAJDs demonstrated that protonated ionizable amines play dual roles of hydrophilic fragment and binding ligand for mRNA, changing delivery from lung to spleen and/or liver. Replacing the interconnecting ester with the amide switched the delivery back to lung. Delivery predominantly to liver is favored by pairs of odd and even alkyl groups in the hydrophobic dendron. This simple structural change transformed the targeted delivery of mRNA mediated with IAJDs, from lung to liver and spleen, and expands the utility of DNPs from therapeutics to vaccines.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Esters/chemistry , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Ions/chemistry , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/metabolism
16.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 20(11): 817-838, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371218

ABSTRACT

Over the past several decades, messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have progressed from a scepticism-inducing idea to clinical reality. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic catalysed the most rapid vaccine development in history, with mRNA vaccines at the forefront of those efforts. Although it is now clear that mRNA vaccines can rapidly and safely protect patients from infectious disease, additional research is required to optimize mRNA design, intracellular delivery and applications beyond SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis. In this Review, we describe the technologies that underlie mRNA vaccines, with an emphasis on lipid nanoparticles and other non-viral delivery vehicles. We also overview the pipeline of mRNA vaccines against various infectious disease pathogens and discuss key questions for the future application of this breakthrough vaccine platform.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Vaccines, Synthetic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Drug Design , Drug Development/methods , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/classification , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology
17.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 50, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387358

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective AIDS vaccine remains a challenge. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs formulated in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) have proved to be a potent mode of immunization against infectious diseases in preclinical studies, and are being tested for SARS-CoV-2 in humans. A critical question is how mRNA-LNP vaccine immunogenicity compares to that of traditional adjuvanted protein vaccines in primates. Here, we show that mRNA-LNP immunization compared to protein immunization elicits either the same or superior magnitude and breadth of HIV-1 Env-specific polyfunctional antibodies. Immunization with mRNA-LNP encoding Zika premembrane and envelope or HIV-1 Env gp160 induces durable neutralizing antibodies for at least 41 weeks. Doses of mRNA-LNP as low as 5 µg are immunogenic in macaques. Thus, mRNA-LNP can be used to rapidly generate single or multi-component vaccines, such as sequential vaccines needed to protect against HIV-1 infection. Such vaccines would be as or more immunogenic than adjuvanted recombinant protein vaccines in primates.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389566

ABSTRACT

The recent success of mRNA vaccines in SARS-CoV-2 clinical trials is in part due to the development of lipid nanoparticle delivery systems that not only efficiently express the mRNA-encoded immunogen after intramuscular injection, but also play roles as adjuvants and in vaccine reactogenicity. We present an overview of mRNA delivery systems and then focus on the lipid nanoparticles used in the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials. The review concludes with an analysis of the determinants of the performance of lipid nanoparticles in mRNA vaccines.

19.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 956, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354120

ABSTRACT

Lipid Nanoparticles (LNPs) are used to deliver siRNA and COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. The main factor known to determine their delivery efficiency is the pKa of the LNP containing an ionizable lipid. Herein, we report a method that can predict the LNP pKa from the structure of the ionizable lipid. We used theoretical, NMR, fluorescent-dye binding, and electrophoretic mobility methods to comprehensively measure protonation of both the ionizable lipid and the formulated LNP. The pKa of the ionizable lipid was 2-3 units higher than the pKa of the LNP primarily due to proton solvation energy differences between the LNP and aqueous medium. We exploited these results to explain a wide range of delivery efficiencies in vitro and in vivo for intramuscular (IM) and intravascular (IV) administration of different ionizable lipids at escalating ionizable lipid-to-mRNA ratios in the LNP. In addition, we determined that more negatively charged LNPs exhibit higher off-target systemic expression of mRNA in the liver following IM administration. This undesirable systemic off-target expression of mRNA-LNP vaccines could be minimized through appropriate design of the ionizable lipid and LNP.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Ions/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Administration, Intravenous , Animals , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Injections, Intramuscular , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/pharmacokinetics , Spectrum Analysis , Tissue Distribution , Transfection
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(31): 12315-12327, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331364

ABSTRACT

Efficient viral or nonviral delivery of nucleic acids is the key step of genetic nanomedicine. Both viral and synthetic vectors have been successfully employed for genetic delivery with recent examples being DNA, adenoviral, and mRNA-based Covid-19 vaccines. Viral vectors can be target specific and very efficient but can also mediate severe immune response, cell toxicity, and mutations. Four-component lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing ionizable lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol for mechanical properties, and PEG-conjugated lipid for stability represent the current leading nonviral vectors for mRNA. However, the segregation of the neutral ionizable lipid as droplets in the core of the LNP, the "PEG dilemma", and the stability at only very low temperatures limit their efficiency. Here, we report the development of a one-component multifunctional ionizable amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (IAJD) delivery system for mRNA that exhibits high activity at a low concentration of ionizable amines organized in a sequence-defined arrangement. Six libraries containing 54 sequence-defined IAJDs were synthesized by an accelerated modular-orthogonal methodology and coassembled with mRNA into dendrimersome nanoparticles (DNPs) by a simple injection method rather than by the complex microfluidic technology often used for LNPs. Forty four (81%) showed activity in vitro and 31 (57%) in vivo. Some, exhibiting organ specificity, are stable at 5 °C and demonstrated higher transfection efficiency than positive control experiments in vitro and in vivo. Aside from practical applications, this proof of concept will help elucidate the mechanisms of packaging and release of mRNA from DNPs as a function of ionizable amine concentration, their sequence, and constitutional isomerism of IAJDs.


Subject(s)
Dendrimers/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Animals , Dendrimers/chemical synthesis , Drug Carriers/chemical synthesis , Drug Liberation , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Proof of Concept Study , Surface-Active Agents/chemical synthesis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL