Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306700

ABSTRACT

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has beneficial effects on overall morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. These effects have been linked to a heterologous increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by innate immune cells. It is unknown if BCG induces similar responses in older individuals. In Guinea-Bissau, we randomized 40 adults over 50 years of age to BCG-Japan or placebo. Two months after vaccination, BCG-Japan recipients had higher production of IFN-γ to M. tuberculosis stimulation and increased release of the pro-inflammatory innate cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α to non-specific stimuli. These effects were more pronounced among those with a positive QuantiFERON at baseline. Thus, BCG-Japan can induce a ‘trained immunity’ phenotype in older adults. These effects were boosted in previously Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposed individuals. Studies are warranted to assess whether BCG vaccination could be a tool to provide partial protection against infectious diseases in the elderly, including the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524035

ABSTRACT

Follow-up studies of COVID-19 survivors have been performed to characterize persistence of long-term symptoms, but data are scarce on one year of follow-up. This study provides data from 48 weeks of follow-up after discharge. All patients discharged from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark between 1 March and 1 July 2020 were followed for 48 weeks. In total, 45 of 66 eligible patients were interviewed after 48 weeks. The median age was 57 (IQR 51-70) years, the majority were female (53%) and Caucasian (87%). Median BMI was 28.1 (IQR 24.8-32.6) kg/m2. One or more comorbidities were registered among 62% of the patients. In total, 39 out of 45 (87%) interviewed patients reported persistence of at least one symptom 48 weeks after hospitalization with COVID-19. Most frequently reported symptoms were fatigue, dyspnea, and concentration difficulties. This study provides new long-term data following COVID-19, contributing to the accumulating data of COVID-19 sequelae. Many patients suffer long-term sequelae and further research is urgently needed to gain further knowledge of the duration and therapeutic options.

6.
Semin Nucl Med ; 52(1): 4-10, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272862

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus may cause COVID-19 disease, which causes mild-to-moderate disease in 80% of laboratory-confirmed cases which may be community-managed. A considerable age-dependent mortality is seen among elderly and other at-risk populations but among young and healthy individuals it is < 0.5%. Long-term health issues have been reported following severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization as well as after cases of mild COVID-19 without hospitalization. Upon receiving COVID-19 suspected patients at hospitals, patients should be isolated and PPE should be worn by all health staff when in contact with the patients. Additionally, patients are tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR, and blood samples are drawn. Imaging is not pivotal for the diagnosis, but chest X-ray is a relevant examination for all and is used to determine severity and treatment need Abnormal findings on CT scans are found in most patients, most frequently peripheral ground-glass opacity and bilateral patchy shadowing are present. Patients are, according to their needs and risks, treated with oxygen therapy, anticoagulation therapy, steroids, antivirals, or immunosupressive drugs on special indications. Convalescent plasma therapy and monoclonal antibodies have a limited role in the treatment, mostly in severely immunocompromised patients. Patients with long-term sequelae should be evaluated in a post-COVID outpatient clinic. The most frequent reported symptoms include cognitive impairment, dyspnea, loss of smell and taste, and mental and physical fatigue although a wide spectrum of symptoms from other organ systems are also reported. The current treatment is based on symptom relief and rehabilitation as there is no documented specific medical treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Dan Med J ; 67(12)2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955060

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The deadly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic affecting the whole world. Lower health literacy and higher mortality rates in the homeless and vulnerable population compared with the background population potentially leaves this group or people more exposed to COVID-19. This study assessed the vulnerable population of Aarhus in relation to COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Participants were tested during a six-day period in April and a four-day period in June at drop-in centres, injection rooms and homeless shelters in Aarhus. Oropharyngeal swab tests were performed and analysed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Test days in June were supplemented with lateral flow tests for immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM. Prevalence and corresponding Wilson 95% confidence intervals were computed. RESULTS: We tested 295 individuals in April and 141 individuals in June. All oropharyngeal swabs were COVID-19 negative. The lateral flow tests were IgM-positive in six of 129 individuals (4.7%) and IgG-positive less than five of 129 (less than 3.9%) individuals. On the day of testing, COVID-19 symptoms such as fever, coughing and/or sore throat were found in 63 of 240 (26.3%) of the participants in April and in 26 of 123 (21.1%) in June. In the April testing round, 175 of 291 (59.9%) reported to be born in Denmark. The corresponding number for the June testing round was 84 of 138 (60.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite their vulnerable profile, the vulnerable citizens tested in Aarhus were not infected with COVID-19 at the testing day and very few participants carried antibodies. FUNDING: Testing was funded by Aarhus University Hospital. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Trials ; 21(1): 799, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis is associated with non- specific protective effects against other infections, and significant reductions in all-cause morbidity and mortality have been reported. We aim to test whether BCG vaccination may reduce susceptibility to and/or the severity of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in health care workers (HCW) and thus prevent work absenteeism.The primary objective is to reduce absenteeism due to illness among HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary objectives are to reduce the number of HCW that are infected with SARS-CoV-2, and to reduce the number of hospital admissions among HCW during the COVID-19 pandemic. HYPOTHESIS: BCG vaccination of HCW will reduce absenteeism by 20% over a period of 6 months. TRIAL DESIGN: Placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial, recruiting study participants at several geographic locations. The BCG vaccine is used in this study on a different indication than the one it has been approved for by the Danish Medicines Agency, therefore this is classified as a phase III study. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will recruit 1,500 HCW at Danish hospitals.To be eligible for participation, a subject must meet the following criteria: Adult (≥18 years); Hospital personnel working at a participating hospital for more than 22 hours per week.A potential subject who meets any of the following criteria will be excluded from participation in this study: Known allergy to components of the BCG vaccine or serious adverse events to prior BCG administration Known prior active or latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) or other mycobacterial species Previous confirmed COVID-19 Fever (>38 C) within the past 24 hours Suspicion of active viral or bacterial infection Pregnancy Breastfeeding Vaccination with other live attenuated vaccine within the last 4 weeks Severely immunocompromised subjects. This exclusion category comprises: a) subjects with known infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) b) subjects with solid organ transplantation c) subjects with bone marrow transplantation d) subjects under chemotherapy e) subjects with primary immunodeficiency f) subjects under treatment with any anti-cytokine therapy within the last year g) subjects under treatment with oral or intravenous steroids defined as daily doses of 10 mg prednisone or equivalent for longer than 3 months h) Active solid or non-solid malignancy or lymphoma within the prior two years Direct involvement in the design or the execution of the BCG-DENMARK-COVID trial Intervention and comparator: Participants will be randomised to BCG vaccine (BCG-Denmark, AJ Vaccines, Copenhagen, Denmark) or placebo (saline). An adult dose of 0.1 ml of resuspended BCG vaccine (intervention) or 0.1 ml of sterile 0.9% NaCl solution (control) is administered intradermally in the upper deltoid area of the right arm. All participants will receive one injection at inclusion, and no further treatment of study participants will take place. MAIN OUTCOMES: Main study endpoint: Days of unplanned absenteeism due to illness within 180 days of randomisation.Secondary study endpoints: The cumulative incidence of documented COVID-19 and the cumulative incidence of hospital admission for any reason within 180 days of randomisation.Randomisation: Randomisation will be done centrally using the REDCap tool with stratification by hospital, sex and age groups (+/- 45 years of age) in random blocks of 4 and 6. The allocation ratio is 1:1.Blinding (masking): Participants will be blinded to treatment. The participant will be asked to leave the room while the allocated treatment is prepared. Once ready for injection, vaccine and placebo will look similar, and the participant will not be able to tell the difference.The physicians administering the treatment are not blinded.Numbers to be randomised (sample size): Sample size: N=1,500. The 1,500 participants will be randomised 1:1 to BCG or placebo with 750 participants in each group.Trial Status: Current protocol version 5.1, from July 6, 2020.Recruitment of study participants started on May 18, 2020 and we anticipate having finished recruiting by the end of December 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with EudraCT on April 16, 2020, EudraCT number: 2020-001888-90, and with ClinicalTrials.gov on May 1, 2020, registration number NCT04373291.Full protocol: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trialswebsite (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination , Absenteeism , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Denmark , Female , Humans , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sick Leave , Single-Blind Method , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL