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J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 810-819, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722486


The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not completely understood. SARS-CoV-2 infection frequently causes significant immune function consequences including reduced T cell numbers and enhanced T cell exhaustion that contribute to disease severity. The extent to which T cell effects are directly mediated through infection or indirectly result from infection of respiratory-associated cells is unclear. We show that primary human T cells express sufficient levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, to mediate viral binding and entry into T cells. We further show that T cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 particles demonstrate reduced proliferation and apoptosis compared to uninfected controls, indicating that direct interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with T cells may alter T cell growth, activation, and survival. Regulation of T cell activation and/or turnover by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to impaired T cell function observed in patients with severe disease.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 214-218, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638018


Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity, although mechanistic studies are lacking. We tested whether airway surface liquid (ASL) from primary human airway epithelial cells is antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and human alphacoronavirus 229E (CoV-229E) (responsible for common colds), and whether PM (urban, indoor air pollution [IAP], volcanic ash) affected ASL antiviral activity. ASL inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E. Independently, urban PM also decreased SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E infection, and IAP PM decreased CoV-229E infection. However, in combination, urban PM impaired ASL's antiviral activity against both viruses, and the same effect occurred for IAP PM and ash against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that PM may enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection.

COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Immunity, Innate , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Urban Population , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(3): 253-260, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009986


BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a critical need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Alternative sources of surgical masks, including 3-dimensionally (3D) printed approaches that may be reused, are urgently needed to prevent PPE shortages. Few data exist identifying decontamination strategies to inactivate viral pathogens and retain 3D-printing material integrity. OBJECTIVE: To test viral disinfection methods on 3D-printing materials. METHODS: The viricidal activity of common disinfectants (10% bleach, quaternary ammonium sanitizer, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 70% isopropanol and exposure to heat (50°C, and 70°C) were tested on four 3D-printed materials used in the healthcare setting, including a surgical mask design developed by the Veterans' Health Administration. Inactivation was assessed for several clinically relevant RNA and DNA pathogenic viruses, including severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 and all viruses tested were completely inactivated by a single application of bleach, ammonium quaternary compounds, or hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, exposure to dry heat (70°C) for 30 minutes completely inactivated all viruses tested. In contrast, 70% isopropanol reduced viral titers significantly less well following a single application. Inactivation did not interfere with material integrity of the 3D-printed materials. CONCLUSIONS: Several standard decontamination approaches effectively disinfected 3D-printed materials. These approaches were effective in the inactivation SARS-CoV-2, its surrogates, and other clinically relevant viral pathogens. The decontamination of 3D-printed surgical mask materials may be useful during crisis situations in which surgical mask supplies are limited.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation , 2-Propanol , DNA, Viral/drug effects , Decontamination/methods , HIV-1/drug effects , Healthy Volunteers , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Personal Protective Equipment , Printing, Three-Dimensional , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control