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1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While hate crimes rose during the COVID-19 pandemic, few studies examined whether this pandemic-time racial discrimination has led to negative health consequences at the population level. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether experienced and perceived racial discrimination were associated with mental or behavioral health outcomes during the pandemic. DESIGN: In October 2020, we conducted a national survey with minorities oversampled that covered respondents' sociodemographic background and health-related information. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2709 participants responded to the survey (response rate: 4.2%). MAIN MEASURES: The exposure variables included (1) experienced and encountered racial discrimination, (2) experienced racial and ethnic cyberbullying, and (3) perceived racial bias. Mental health outcomes were measured by psychological distress and self-rated happiness. Measures for behavioral health included sleep quality, change in cigarette smoking, and change in alcohol consumption. Weighted logistic regressions were performed to estimate the associations between the exposure variables and the outcomes, controlling for age, gender, race and ethnicity, educational attainment, household income, eligibility to vote, political party, COVID-19 infection, and geographic region. Separate regressions were performed in the six racial and ethnic subgroups: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast Asian respondents. KEY RESULTS: Experienced racial discrimination was associated with higher likelihood of psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.34-3.55). Experienced racial discrimination (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.34-3.99) and perceived racial bias (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.09) were both associated with increased cigarette smoking. The associations between racial discrimination and mental distress and substance use were most salient among Black, East Asian, South Asian, and Hispanic respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination may be associated with higher likelihood of distress, and cigarette smoking among racial and ethnic minorities. Addressing racial discrimination is important for mitigating negative mental and behavioral health ramifications of the pandemic.

2.
Am J Public Health ; 112(4): 646-649, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760046

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To illustrate the spatiotemporal distribution of geolocated tweets that contain anti-Asian hate language in the contiguous United States during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We used a data set of geolocated tweets that match with keywords reflecting COVID-19 and anti-Asian hate and identified geographical clusters using the space-time scan statistic with Bernoulli model. Results. Anti-Asian hate language surged between January and March 2020. We found clusters of hate across the contiguous United States. The strongest cluster consisted of a single county (Ross County, Ohio), where the proportion of hateful tweets was 312.13 times higher than for the rest of the country. Conclusions. Anti-Asian hate on Twitter exhibits a significantly clustered spatiotemporal distribution. Clusters vary in size, duration, strength, and location and are scattered across the entire contiguous United States. Public Health Implications. Our results can inform decision-makers in public health and safety for allocating resources for place-based preparedness and response for pandemic-induced racism as a public health threat. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(4):646-649. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306653.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asian Americans , Hate , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323927

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 was an unprecedented health emergency, which affected everyone, including the medical students. We aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 on professional identity and career planning of clinical medical undergraduates, and propose strategies. Method: A cross-section survey was conducted via online questionnaire from January to March 2021 on clinical medical undergraduates in Hebei province. We collected the demographic information, the understanding status of the epidemic, the change of the attitude to professional identity and career planning after the epidemic. McNemar Tests were used to evaluate corresponding information. Findings: In 2754 respondents, over 80% students were aware about the transmission, incubation period, source, and first consultation department of COVID-19;however, the number of students knowing the name of the pathogen and therapy of this disease relatively fewer. Overall, the pandemic had a positive impact on their professional identity and career planning (all P <0·05, compared with the status before the epidemic). And the number of students who chose the department of infectious disease and respiration as the favorite after COVID-19 increased (184 (6·68%), vs 99 (3·59%), P <0·001). The number of students being willing to choose the above two departments after COVID-19 increased (956 (34·72%), vs 773 (28·07%), P <0·001). Interpretation: Overall, the pandemic had a positive impact on the professional identity and career planning of the students, but the number of students being willing to choose the department of infectious disease and respiration was still extremely low. In the future education, further attention should be paid to the cultivation of interest in above departments and the spirit of dedication.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: All authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University. (Number: K 2021 -002-1)

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315575

ABSTRACT

Despite the increasing popularity of robo-advisors (RAs), empirical evidence on their performance, especially during market downturns, is highly limited. We study the impact of using RAs on investment performance during the 2020 financial crisis caused by the COVID-19 global pandemic. We obtain daily portfolio and transaction data of investors on an online investment platform. Besides making investment decisions by themselves, investors can also leverage an RA system offered by the platform. We match RA users with other investors who did not use the RA with similar characteristics before the market crash, then compare their portfolio returns within four weeks after the crash. We find that RA users experienced significantly fewer losses during the market downturn. Moreover, our analyses of trading strategies show that RA users held less risky portfolios, whereas other investors stayed with their status quo and did not reduce the risk of their portfolios, which partly accounted for the performance discrepancy. During the subsequent period of market recovery, we observe that RA users were able to maintain their performance advantage. Overall, by trading adaptively to adjust the portfolio risk levels in response to market movements, the RA system mitigated losses and benefited its users. Further analyses of effect heterogeneity show that younger users or users with less investment experience benefited more from the RA, because they delegated a larger proportion of their assets to be managed by the RA. Our work offers a direct empirical assessment of RAs’ performance during a severe market downturn, and advances the understanding of algorithmic decision-making in the financial markets.

5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(11): 931-937, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of negative employment changes during the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health in a national sample of U.S. workers, and whether the associations differed by race. METHODS: Data were from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, a cross-sectional survey. The effects of negative employment changes on psychological distress in 1510 workers were examined via linear regression, and stratified analyses were conducted across racial subgroups. RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates, compared to workers with no change in employment, those who experienced permanent job loss had the highest psychological distress (ß and 95% CI = 3.27 [1.89, 4.65]). Permanent job loss had the greatest effect on psychological distress in Blacks and Asians. CONCLUSION: Negative employment changes related to the pandemic may have deleterious impacts on workers' mental health, with disproportionate effects on racial minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X211051677, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463096

ABSTRACT

Telehealth is an important source of health care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence is scarce regarding disparities in telehealth utilization in the United States. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with telehealth utilization among US adults. Our data came from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, a nationally representative survey conducted in October 2020, with 2554 adults ≥ 18 and an oversample of racial/ethnic minorities. Telehealth utilization was measured as self-reported teleconsultation with providers via email, text message, phone, video, and remote patient monitoring during the pandemic. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the association between telehealth use and factors at the individual, household, and community levels. Overall, 43% of the sample reported having used telehealth, representing 114.5 million adults in the nation. East and Southeast Asians used telehealth less than non-Hispanic Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8). Being uninsured (compared with private insurance: OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8), and those with limited broadband coverage in the community (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) were less likely to use telehealth. There is a need to develop and implement more equitable policies and interventions at both the individual and community levels to improve access to telehealth services and reduce related disparities.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , /statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(11): 931-937, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315712

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of negative employment changes during the COVID-19 pandemic with mental health in a national sample of U.S. workers, and whether the associations differed by race. METHODS: Data were from the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic Study, a cross-sectional survey. The effects of negative employment changes on psychological distress in 1510 workers were examined via linear regression, and stratified analyses were conducted across racial subgroups. RESULTS: After adjustment for covariates, compared to workers with no change in employment, those who experienced permanent job loss had the highest psychological distress (ß and 95% CI = 3.27 [1.89, 4.65]). Permanent job loss had the greatest effect on psychological distress in Blacks and Asians. CONCLUSION: Negative employment changes related to the pandemic may have deleterious impacts on workers' mental health, with disproportionate effects on racial minorities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5198

ABSTRACT

This report discussed the treatment of COVID-19 patient with traditional Chinese medicine.

10.
Zool Res ; 41(6): 705-708, 2020 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982981

ABSTRACT

Since the first reported severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, spreading to more than 200 countries and regions worldwide. With continued research progress and virus detection, SARS-CoV-2 genomes and sequencing data have been reported and accumulated at an unprecedented rate. To meet the need for fast analysis of these genome sequences, the National Genomics Data Center (NGDC) of the China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB) has established an online coronavirus analysis platform, which includes de novoassembly, BLAST alignment, genome annotation, variant identification, and variant annotation modules. The online analysis platform can be freely accessed at the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Resource (2019nCoVR) (https://bigd.big.ac.cn/ncov/online/tools).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China , Computational Biology/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Internet , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(24): 24552-24569, 2020 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940614

ABSTRACT

Estimating the case-fatality rate and clinical outcomes for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucial because health care systems must adequately prepare for outbreaks and design appropriate policies. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Medline+Journal (via OVID) were conducted for relevant journal publications from database inception to May 4, 2020. Articles that reported the fatality rates and clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection were included. Nine clinical reports (four SARS reports and five COVID-19 reports) with a total of 851 patients (367 and 484 patients with SARS and COVID-19, respectively) were analyzed. A greater proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 had bilateral pneumonia (90.0% [76.3%-96.2%] vs. 35.9% [21.4%-53.6%], p < 0.001) and required ventilators (23.8% [18.8%-29.6%] vs. 15.3% [11.9%-19.4%], p = 0.010) compared with hospitalized patients with SARS. The case-fatality rate was 9.5% (6.5%-13.7%) and 6.1% (3.5%-10.3%) among patients with COVID-19 and SARS, respectively (p = 0.186). The case-fatality rate among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was comparable to that during the 2003 SARS outbreak. A higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia and increased ventilator usage were noted among patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with SARS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Outcome Assessment , Prevalence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
13.
Cell Rep ; 33(5): 108345, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898566

ABSTRACT

Bat cells and tissue have elevated basal expression levels of antiviral genes commonly associated with interferon alpha (IFNα) signaling. Here, we show Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1), 3, and 7 levels are elevated in most bat tissues and that, basally, IRFs contribute to the expression of type I IFN ligands and high expression of interferon regulated genes (IRGs). CRISPR knockout (KO) of IRF 1/3/7 in cells reveals distinct subsets of genes affected by each IRF in an IFN-ligand signaling-dependent and largely independent manner. As the master regulators of innate immunity, the IRFs control the kinetics and maintenance of the IRG response and play essential roles in response to influenza A virus (IAV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), Melaka virus/Pteropine orthoreovirus 3 Melaka (PRV3M), and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. With its differential expression in bats compared to that in humans, this highlights a critical role for basal IRF expression in viral responses and potentially immune cell development in bats with relevance for IRF function in human biology.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-7/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Herpesvirus 1, Human/immunology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Orthoreovirus/immunology
14.
Digital Chinese Medicine ; 3(1):50-54, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-824862

ABSTRACT

Based on the characteristics of the epidemic situation and the authors’ understanding of the related ancient books and documents, this paper explores the etiology and pathogenesis of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) from 5 aspects: abnormal climate in “warm winter”, unique geographical location, pathogenesis evolution of cold and dampness mixed with insidious dryness, transmission and change of “triple energizer” of toxic pathogens, and game between healthy Qi and toxic pathogens. Combined with the special treatment of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the purpose is to make a modest contribution to curbing the epidemic situation with TCM.

16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 555-559, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics in patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complicated with liver injury, to explore the relationship between COVID-19 clinical classification and liver injury, and to elucidate whether COVID-19 complicated with hepatitis B virus can aggravate liver injury. METHODS: The abnormal liver function in 110 patients in the First Hospital of Changsha, who were confirmed COVID-19 and admitted to the designated hospital from January 17, 2020 to February 20, 2020, wereretrospectively analyzed. The detection indexes included serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), and total bilirubin (TBIL). RESULTS: A total of 49.1% of the COVID-19 patients had liver injury. There were significant difference in the ALT, AST, ALB (all P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the TBIL (P>0.05) between the severe (critical) patients and the general (light) patients. There was also no significant difference in the liver function injury between the HBsAg-positive COVID-19 patients and HBsAg-negative COVID-19 patients (P>0.05). Acute liver injury was not found to be a direct cause of death in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 patients, the incidence of liver injury is high with the increase of ALT and AST and the decrease of ALB. Severe and critical patients have obvious liver injury, and those patients complicated with hepatitis B virus infection don't show aggravated liver injury.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19 , Humans , Liver/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(2): 240.e1-240.e9, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On January 20, 2020, a new coronavirus epidemic with human-to-human transmission was officially declared by the Chinese government, which caused significant public panic in China. In light of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, pregnant women may be particularly vulnerable and in special need for preventive mental health strategies. Thus far, no reports exist to investigate the mental health response of pregnant women to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the corresponding risk factors among pregnant women across China. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was initiated in early December 2019 to identify mental health concerns in pregnancy using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. This study provided a unique opportunity to compare the mental status of pregnant women before and after the declaration of the coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. A total of 4124 pregnant women during their third trimester from 25 hospitals in 10 provinces across China were examined in this cross-sectional study from January 1, 2020, to February 9, 2020. Of these women, 1285 were assessed after January 20, 2020, when the coronavirus epidemic was publicly declared and 2839 were assessed before this pivotal time point. The internationally recommended Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Prevalence rates and risk factors were compared between the pre- and poststudy groups. RESULTS: Pregnant women assessed after the declaration of coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic had significantly higher rates of depressive symptoms (26.0% vs 29.6%, P=.02) than women assessed before the epidemic declaration. These women were also more likely to have thoughts of self-harm (P=.005). The depressive rates were positively associated with the number of newly confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (P=.003), suspected infections (P=.004), and deaths per day (P=.001). Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy, primiparous, younger than 35 years, employed full time, in middle income category, and had appropriate living space were at increased risk for developing depressive and anxiety symptoms during the outbreak. CONCLUSION: Major life-threatening public health events such as the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak may increase the risk for mental illness among pregnant women, including thoughts of self-harm. Strategies targeting maternal stress and isolation such as effective risk communication and the provision of psychological first aid may be particularly useful to prevent negative outcomes for women and their fetuses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Yi Chuan ; 42(2): 212-221, 2020 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3031

ABSTRACT

An ongoing outbreak of a novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China since December 2019 has led to 31,516 infected persons and 638 deaths across 25 countries (till 16:00 on February 7, 2020). The virus causing this pneumonia was then named as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by the World Health Organization. To promote the data sharing and make all relevant information of 2019-nCoV publicly available, we construct the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Resource (2019nCoVR, https://bigd.big.ac.cn/ncov). 2019nCoVR features comprehensive integration of genomic and proteomic sequences as well as their metadata information from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data, National Center for Biotechnology Information, China National GeneBank, National Microbiology Data Center and China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB)/National Genomics Data Center (NGDC). It also incorporates a wide range of relevant information including scientific literatures, news, and popular articles for science dissemination, and provides visualization functionalities for genome variation analysis results based on all collected 2019-nCoV strains. Moreover, by linking seamlessly with related databases in CNCB/NGDC, 2019nCoVR offers virus data submission and sharing services for raw sequence reads and assembled sequences. In this report, we provide comprehensive descriptions on data deposition, management, release and utility in 2019nCoVR, laying important foundations in aid of studies on virus classification and origin, genome variation and evolution, fast detection, drug development and pneumonia precision prevention and therapy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Genetic , Information Dissemination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
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