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1.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877138

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) aggravates anxiety in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), but it is still unclear how long this adverse effect will last. This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the elevated anxiety symptoms of MHD patients 1 year after the outbreak. Assessment of elevated anxiety symptoms was performed on patients with MHD during early COVID-19 (February 17-February 29, 2020) and 1-year follow-up (March 1-March 13, 2021), and a total of 100 patients had completed face-to-face questionnaires at the first and 1-year follow-up. At the beginning of the outbreak, 40% of the patients with MHD had anxiety symptoms [self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score ≥ 50], and 11% (SAS score: 60–69) and 2% (SAS score ≥ 70) of the patients had moderate and severe anxiety symptoms, respectively. Multivariate analysis shows that possibility of unaccompanied transfer, possibility of family members or themselves being infected in a hospital, added body temperature monitoring during dialysis, and increased medical procedures are the risk factors in elevated anxiety symptoms during early COVID-19. At the 1-year follow-up, the incidence of anxiety symptoms in the same group of patients declined to 28%, and all the patients had mild anxiety symptoms (SAS score: 50–59), which is significantly lower than that of the early COVID-19 pandemic with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). Increased protective measures taken by the medical staves were the only risk factor in elevated anxiety symptoms during the 1-year follow-up. This study shows that COVID-19 has a direct impact on the deterioration of anxiety symptoms in patients with MHD. With the changes of the requirements for COVID-19 prevention and control, as well as the enhancement of propaganda and education of the pandemic and psychological care, the severity and risk factors of anxiety symptoms in the patients with MHD are changing. Thus, targeted interventions are suggested to improve the psychological endurance of the patients with MHD.

3.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 25(3): 147-155, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the research progress of targeted therapy for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutations in lung adenocarcinoma is very rapid, which brings new hope for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, the specific imaging and pathological features of EGFR and ALK gene mutations in adenocarcinoma are still controversial. This study will further explore the correlation between EGFR, ALK gene mutations and imaging and pathological features in invasive lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 525 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery in our center from January 2018 to December 2019 were included. According to the results of postoperative gene detection, the patients were divided into EGFR gene mutation group, ALK gene mutation group and wild group, and the EGFR gene mutation group was divided into exon 19 and exon 21 subtypes. The pathological features of the mutation group and wild group, such as histological subtype, lymph node metastasis, visceral pleural invasion (VPI) and imaging features such as tumor diameter, consolidation tumor ratio (CTR), lobulation sign, spiculation sign, pleural retraction sign, air bronchus sign and vacuole sign were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis to explore whether the gene mutation group had specific manifestations. RESULTS: EGFR gene mutation group was common in women (OR=2.041, P=0.001), with more pleural traction sign (OR=1.506, P=0.042), and had little correlation with lymph node metastasis and VPI (P>0.05). Among them, exon 21 subtype was more common in older (OR=1.022, P=0.036), women (OR=2.010, P=0.007), and was associated with larger tumor diameter (OR=1.360, P=0.039) and pleural traction sign (OR=1.754, P=0.029). Exon 19 subtype was common in women (OR=2.230, P=0.009), with a high proportion of solid components (OR=1.589, P=0.047) and more lobulation sign (OR=2.762, P=0.026). ALK gene mutations were likely to occur in younger patients (OR=2.950, P=0.045), with somking history (OR=1.070, P=0.002), and there were more micropapillary components (OR=4.184, P=0.019) and VPI (OR=2.986, P=0.034) in pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The EGFR and ALK genes mutated adenocarcinomas have specific imaging and clinicopathological features, and the mutations in exon 19 or exon 21 subtype have different imaging features, which is of great significance in guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary nodules.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Lung Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Aged , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Female , Genes, erbB-1 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114182, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734212

ABSTRACT

As an important component of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, liposomes play a key role in the efficient protection and delivery of mRNA to cells. Herein, due to the controllable release amplification strategy of liposomes, a reliable and robust single-particle collision electrochemical (SPCE) biosensor was constructed for H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2 AIV) detection by combining liposome encapsulation-release strategy with immunomagnetic separation. The liposomes modified with biotin and loaded with platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) were used as signal probes for the first time. Biotin facilitated the coupling of biomolecules (DNA or antibodies) through the specific reaction of biotin-streptavidin. Each liposome can encapsulate multiple Pt NPs, which were ruptured under the presence of 1 × PBST (phosphate buffer saline with 0.05% Tween-20) within 2 min, and the encapsulated Pt NPs were released for SPCE experiment. The combination of immunomagnetic separation not only improved the anti-interference capabilities but also avoided the agglomeration of Pt NPs, enabling the SPCE biosensor to realize ultrasensitive detection of 18.1 fg/mL H9N2 AIV. Furthermore, the reliable SPCE biosensor was successfully applied in specific detection of H9N2 AIV in complex samples (chicken serum, chicken liver and chicken lung), which promoted the universality of SPCE biosensor and its application prospect in early diagnosis of diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Metal Nanoparticles , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Chickens , Liposomes/chemistry , Platinum
5.
J Environ Manage ; 309: 114728, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683294

ABSTRACT

Real-time evaluation of the fighting activities during a sudden unknown disaster like the COVID-19 pandemic is a critical challenge for control. This study demonstrates that the temporal variations of effluents from hospital sewage treatment facilities can be used as an effective indicator for such evaluation. Taking a typical infection-suffering city in China as an example, we found that there was an obvious decrease in effluent ammonia and COD concentrations in line with the start of city lockdown, and its temporal variations well indicated the major events happened during the pandemic control. Notably, the lagging period between the change point of effluent residual chlorine and the change points of COD and ammonia concentration coincided with a period in which there was a deficiency in local medical resources. In addition, the diurnal behavior of effluents from designated hospitals has varied significantly at different stages of the pandemic development. The effluent ammonia peaks shifted from daytime to nighttime after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, suggesting a high workload of the designated hospitals in fighting the rapidly emerging pandemic. This work well demonstrates the necessary for data integration at the wastewater-medical service nexus and highlights an unusual role of the effluents from hospital sewage treatment facilities in revealing the status of fighting the pandemic, which helps to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 791660, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599571

ABSTRACT

The appearance and magnitude of the immune response and the related factors correlated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination need to be defined. Here, we enrolled a prospective cohort of 52 participants who received two doses of inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV). Their serial plasma samples (n = 260) over 2 months were collected at five timepoints. We measured antibody responses (NAb, S-IgG and S-IgM) and routine blood parameter. NAb seroconversion occurred in 90.7% of vaccinated individuals and four typical NAb kinetic curves were observed. All of the participants who seroconverted after the first dose were females and had relatively high prevaccine estradiol levels. Moreover, those without seroconversion tended to have lower lymphocyte counts and higher serum SAA levels than those who experienced seroconversion. The NAb titers in young vaccine recipients had a significantly higher peak than those in elderly recipients. S-IgG and S-IgM dynamics were accompanied by similar trends in NAb. Here, we gained insight into the dynamic changes in NAbs and preliminarily explored the prevaccine blood parameters related to the kinetic subclasses, providing a reference for vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8112783, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378089

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to participate in regulating many biological processes, including immune response to influenza A virus (IAV). However, the association between lncRNA expression profiles and influenza infection susceptibility has not been well elucidated. Here, we analyzed the expression profiles of lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs among IAV-infected adult rat (IAR), normal adult rat (AR), IAV-infected junior rat (IJR), and normal junior rat (JR) by RNA sequencing. Compared with differently expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) between AR and IAR, 24 specific DElncRNAs were found between IJR and JR. Then, based on the fold changes and P value, the top 5 DElncRNAs, including 3 upregulated and 2 downregulated lncRNAs, were chosen to establish a ceRNA network for further disclosing their regulatory mechanisms. To visualize the differentially expressed genes in the ceRNA network, GO and KEGG pathway analysis was performed to further explore their roles in influenza infection of junior rats. The results showed that the downregulated DElncRNA-target genes were mostly enriched in the IL-17 signaling pathway. It indicated that the downregulated lncRNAs conferred the susceptibility of junior rats to IAV via mediating the IL-17 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , MicroRNAs/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(5): e25733, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245442

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Both daily and event-driven (ED) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have been demonstrated to be highly effective among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prevention-effective adherence proposes that PrEP adherence should be aligned with the risk of HIV, which could be applied to both daily and ED PrEP adherence measurement. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between the use of PrEP and sex events among the MSM PrEP users and identify factors associated with adherence among daily and ED MSM PrEP users. METHODS: A multicentre, observational, prospective cohort study was conducted at three hospital-based clinics in three urban cities of Taiwan from January 2018 to December 2019. MSM ages 18 years or older - at high risk of HIV acquisition and taking PrEP during the study period - were included in the analysis. MSM PrEP users were allowed to choose between daily and ED PrEP based on their preference. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, mental health, sexual behaviours, substance use and PrEP-taking behaviours were collected at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 374 MSM were included in the analysis with 1,054 visits. More than half (56%) of the PrEP users chose ED at the baseline and 150 regimen switches were reported by 21% of the participants. There was only one seroconversion documented during the study period. Most (84.2%) of the MSM PrEP users were able to adhere to PrEP during the most recent anal intercourse in the past one month. Among ED PrEP users with suboptimal adherence, the majority (81.9%) missed the pre-coital dose. In the multivariable analysis, we found that participants who switched from daily to an ED dosing regimen were associated with poorer adherence to PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of PrEP adherence was observed among the majority of MSM in a real-world setting. On the other hand, Taiwanese MSM switching from daily to ED dosing regimens were less likely to adhere to PrEP, suggesting that novel approaches focusing on a dosing switch would be necessary for MSM to improve their adherence to PrEP.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 252, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173942

ABSTRACT

Linfen in China's Shanxi Province suffers severe air pollution in winter. Understanding the characteristics of air pollution and providing scientific support to mitigate such pollution are urgent matters. This study investigated the variations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO in Linfen between December 1, 2019 and February 29, 2020. The mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, MDA8 (the maximum daily 8-h average) O3, and CO were 106.2, 139.4, 47.2, 41.0, 57.0 µg m-3, and 1.8 mg m-3, respectively. Large amounts of pollutants emitted by coal burning, industry, vehicles, and residents contributed to air pollution. Unfavorable meteorological conditions, such as lower temperature, weaker wind, higher relative humidity, and reduced planetary boundary layer height, made the situation worse. Fireworks and firecrackers set off to celebrate traditional Chinese festivals caused the concentration of PM pollutants to spike, with the maximum daily mean concentration of PM2.5 reached 314 µg m-3 and the peak hourly value reached 378.0 µg m-3. Suspensions of commercial and social activities due to COVID-19 reduced anthropogenic emissions, mainly from industry and transportation, which decreased the level of air pollutants other than O3. Analyses involving backward trajectory cluster, the potential source contribution function, and concentration weighted trajectory demonstrated that PM2.5 pollution mainly came from local emissions in Shanxi Province and regional transport from Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Hebei, Henan, and Gansu provinces. Shanxi and its surrounding provinces should adopt measures such as tightening environmental management standards, promoting the use of renewable energy, and adjusting the transportation structure to reduce regional emissions. This study will help policy-makers draft plans and policies to reduce air pollution in Linfen.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(3): 213, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of the interval between disease onset and hospital admission (O-A interval) was undetermined in patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 205 laboratory-confirmed inpatients admitted to Hankou hospital of Wuhan from January 11 to March 8, 2020 were consecutively included in this retrospective observational study. Demographic data, medical history, laboratory testing results were collected from medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic effect of the O-A interval (≤7 versus >7 days) on disease progression in mild-to-moderate patients. For severe-to-critical patients, the in-hospital mortality and the length of hospital stay were compared between the O-A interval subgroups using log-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively. RESULTS: Mild-to-moderate patients with a short O-A interval (≤7 days) are more likely to deteriorate to severe-to-critical stage compared to those with a long O-A interval (>7 days) [unadjusted odds ratio =2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-6.55; adjusted odds ratio =3.44, 95% CI, 1.20-9.83]. No association was identified between the O-A interval and the mortality or the length of hospital stay of severe-to-critical patients. CONCLUSIONS: The O-A interval has predictive values for the disease progression in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. Under circumstances of the specific health system in Wuhan, China, the spontaneous healthcare-seeking behavior is usually determined by patients' own heath conditions. Hence, the O-A interval can be reflective of the natural course of COVID-19 to some extent. However, our findings should be validated further in other cohorts and in other health systems.

12.
北市醫學雜誌 ; 17(4):390-401, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Airiti Library | ID: covidwho-1028215

ABSTRACT

2019年底起源於中國武漢之新型冠狀病毒COVID-19疫情,造成全球大流行。台灣經歷17年前的SARS疫情,對COVID-19及早因應並希望能防堵於境外。COVID-19風暴下,醫療體系、醫療生態及醫療行為都需快速的轉變與因應。本文簡述在台灣防疫政策下,臺北市立聯合醫院仁愛院區面對疫情四個階段的因應作為,並探討COVID-19所帶來的衝擊與創新。第一階段,經由加強入院人員監測及開設專責病房來預防COVID-19院內感染。第二階段,加強社區COVID-19監測、提升特殊單位防護、分艙分流、及非緊急醫療服務量降載來因應可能面臨之本土社區感染。第三階段因應COVID-19全球大流行,規劃重症加護病床。第四階段為如何與COVID-19長期抗戰與共舞。在目前COVID-19尚無有效藥物及疫苗之狀況下,大流行對社會及醫療體系有極大的衝擊與崩壞之可能性。仁愛院區透過各單位水平與垂直整合,根據疫情即時、滾動式調整,建立感染管制文化,守護醫院及台灣。 The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported by the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China, , and is currently causing a global pandemic. Taiwan had a SARS outbreak 17 years ago, which primed the Central Epidemic Command Center to respond to COVID-19 earlier and swiftly and keep the virus away from the country. Timely response and alteration of the healthcare systems, ecology and behaviors of daily are mandatory. This article briefly describes the four stages of Taipei City Hospital Renai Branch, Taiwan in response to the pandemic, and discusses the impact and innovation brought by COVID-19. At the first stage, nosocomial infection was prevented by strengthening of active surveillance of all admitted patients and setting up of quarantine wards for suspected COVID-19 cases. The second stage was to strengthen the community surveillance, enhance protection for health workers in special units, triage and compartmentalization, and reducing inpatient and outpatient number to respond to potential community outbreak. At the third stage, we expanded the capacity of intensive care units for isolation in response to the global pandemic. The fourth stage was to plan a long-term defense and "dance" with COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic may pound and break the society and healthcare systems with force in the absence of effective pharmaceutics and vaccines. The Renai branch adjusts the response strategy in a rolling style and establishes infection control culture to guide the hospital and the nation through horizontal and vertical integration.

13.
3 Biotech ; 10(3): 86, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827864

ABSTRACT

The development of rapid, simple, and sensitive diagnostic methods for identification of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is crucial for the effective control of avian infectious bronchitis. In the present study, a tandemly arranged multiepitope peptide (named SEMN) was designed with four antigenic regions derived from four major structural proteins of IBV. Then, we performed codon optimization of SEMN gene by changing the codon-adaptation index from 0.45 to 0.94 and expressed the optimized gene in codon bias-adjusted Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), followed by determination of the immunoreactivity of the purified protein. Bioinformatics analysis of SEMN showed a high antigenicity, surface probability and hydrophilicity. The recombinant protein rSEMN was expressed both in soluble forms and as inclusion bodies, and the molecular weight of rSEMN was about 39 kDa. The preliminary diagnostic performance of rSEMN was confirmed by Western blotting analysis using chicken anti-IBV polyclonal antibodies. Further studies are needed to evaluate the immunogenicity in animal models and to give a final assessment of the diagnostic utility of this recombinant multi-epitope antigen.

14.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(8): 626-639, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease-19, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the latest hazard facing healthcare workers (HCW) including dental care workers (DCW). It is clear that the major mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is the airborne route, through inhalation of virus-infested aerosols and droplets. Several respiratory protection equipment (RPE), including masks, face shields/visors, and respirators, are available to obviate facial and conjunctival contamination by microbes. However, as their barrier value against microbial inhalation has not been evaluated, we systematically reviewed the data on the effectiveness and efficacy of facemasks and respirators, including protective eyewear, with particular emphasis on dental healthcare. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched between 01January 1990 and 15 May 2020. RESULTS: Of 310 identified English language records, 21 were included as per eligibility criteria. In clinical terms, wearing layered, face-fitting masks/respirators and protective-eyewear can limit the spread of infection among HCWs. Specifically, combined interventions such as a face mask and a face shield, better resist bioaerosol inhalation than either alone. The prolonged and over-extended use of surgical masks compromise their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: In general, RPE is effective as a barrier protection against aerosolized microbes in healthcare settings. But their filtration efficacy is compromised by the (i) inhalant particle size, (ii) airflow dynamics, (iii) mask-fit factor, (iv) period of wear, (v) 'wetness' of the masks, and (vi) their fabrication quality. The macro-data presented here should inform policy formulation on RPE wear amongst HCWs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Protective Devices , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Dentistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci. ; 8(36): 658-659, 20200801.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-680429
16.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 7(51): 1761-1775, 20200412.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-379939

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this article was to study the potential antivirus and fever reducing mechanisms of Xiaochaihu Decoction (XCHD) on novel coronavirus pneumonia based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Methods: Firstly, the potential targets and pathways of XCHD on fever were analyzed using network pharmacology. Compounds and potential targets in XCHD were screened using TCMSP and PharmMapper databases. The targets in fever reducing were identified from OMMI and Genecards databases. The protein-protein interaction network was established by String database to analyze key targets. The gene oncology (GO) analysis and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) analysis of key targets were also conducted to generate the relative pathways based on DAVID and KOBAS 3.0 databases, respectively. The compound-target-pathway network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. In addition, we used molecular docking method to identify the crucial compounds with higher connectivity on SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 has been identified as the key target of SARS-CoV-2 entering cells. The possible binding sites of compounds on SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 were predicted. Results: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that 165 active compounds and 168 relative targets were selected. A total of 7006 targets related to fever were identified. In addition, 141 potential targets of XCH on fever were identified. Totally, 292 GO terms of XCHD on fever and 30 pathways were identified using GO and KEGG analysis. Furthermore, molecular docking indicated that main active compounds in XCHD exhibited higher affinity with both SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2. Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 3’-hydroxy-4’-O-methylglabridin were top three candidates with highest affinity. Conclusion: In summary, our study identified the potential mechanisms of XCHD on fever. Besides, Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 3’-hydroxy-4’-O-methylglabridin could be the key compounds to exert anti-viral effects against SARS-CoV-2. Our prediction also provided the research fields to further study the mechanisms of XCH on SARS-CoV-2 infection in future.

17.
Traditional Med.Res. ; 3(5): 145-159, 20200501.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-176103

ABSTRACT

Background: Chai-Ling decoction (CLD), derived from a modification of Xiao-Chai-Hu (XCH) decoction and Wu-Ling-San (WLS) decoction, has been used to treat the early-stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 remain unknown. In this study, the potential mechanisms of CLD in COVID-19 were preliminarily investigated based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Methods: Initially, the active components and targets of CLD were screened based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform and PharmMapper database. The targets of COVID-19 were obtained from GeneCards database. The protein-protein interaction network was established using STRING database to analyze the key targets. Gene Oncology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis were also conducted to evaluate the pathways related to the targets of CLD on COVID-19. Moreover, the compound-target-pathway network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Subsequently, the molecular docking method was performed to select the active compounds with high binding affinity on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the key target of SARS-CoV-2 in entering target cells. The possible binding sites were also visualized by a three-dimensional graph. Results: Network pharmacology analysis showed that there were 106 active components and 160 targets of CLD. Additionally, 251 targets related to COVID-19 were identified, and 24 candidates of CLD on COVID-19 were selected. A total of 283 GO terms of CLD on COVID-19 were identified, and 181 pathways were screened based on GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses. CLD might alleviate the inflammatory response and improve lung injury to treat COVID-19 through interleukin 17 signaling, T helper cell 17 differentiation, tumor necrosis factor signaling, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 signaling. Besides, molecular docking indicated that beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol were the top three candidates in CLD with the highest affinity to SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2. Conclusion: Our study identifies the potential mechanisms of CLD on COVID-19 and beta-sitosterol, kaempferol, and stigmasterol may be the key compounds that exert antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20034934

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTo analyze the characteristics and heterogeneity of clinical trials of Novel Coronavirus(COVID-19) registered in the China Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), and provide data bases and information references for clinical treatment MethodsStatistics of COVID-19 clinical trials registered with ChiCTR as of February 24, 2020 were collected. Descriptive analysis of registration characteristics. The chi-square test is used to compare statistical differences between different study types, intervention methods, study stage, and Primary sponsor. Results232 COVID-19 studies registered at the ChiCTR were collected. The overall number of COVID-19 registrations was increased. Hubei Province, China has the largest number of registrations. There were significant differences between the number of participants(P=0.000), study duration(P=0.008), study assignment(P=0.000), and blind method(P=0.000) for different study types. Significant differences could be seen in the dimensions of multicenter study(P=0.022), of participants numbe(P=0.000), study duration(P=0.000) and study assignment(P=0.001) for the four intervention methods. There were significant differences in study assignment(P=0.043) between the early and late studies. CMT drugs with high research frequency are chloroquine, lopinavir / ritonavir, and I-IFN; BI was Cell therapy, plasma therapy, Thymosin, and M/P-AB. ConclusionsDifferent study design characteristics have led to significant differences in some aspects of the COVID-19 clinical trial. Timely summary analysis can provide more treatment options and evidence for clinical practice.

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