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1.
Transfusion ; 62(8): 1559-1570, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, widespread blood shortages were anticipated. We sought to determine how hospital blood supply and blood utilization were affected by the first wave of COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Weekly red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) inventory, transfusion, and outdate data were collected from 13 institutions in the United States, Brazil, Canada, and Denmark from March 1st to December 31st of 2020 and 2019. Data from the sites were aligned based on each site's local first peak of COVID-19 cases, and data from 2020 (pandemic year) were compared with data from the corresponding period in 2019 (pre-pandemic baseline). RESULTS: RBC inventories were 3% lower in 2020 than in 2019 (680 vs. 704, p < .001) and 5% fewer RBCs were transfused per week compared to 2019 (477 vs. 501, p < .001). However, during the first COVID-19 peak, RBC and PLT inventories were higher than normal, as reflected by deviation from par, days on hand, and percent outdated. At this time, 16% fewer inpatient beds were occupied, and 43% fewer surgeries were performed compared to 2019 (p < .001). In contrast to 2019 when there was no correlation, there was, in 2020, significant negative correlations between RBC and PLT days on hand and both percentage occupancy of inpatient beds and percentage of surgeries performed. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, RBC and PLT inventories remained adequate. During the first wave of cases, significant decreases in patient care activities were associated with excess RBC and PLT supplies and increased product outdating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Hospitals , Humans , United States
2.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 10: 100216, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740018

ABSTRACT

Background: Administration of convalescent plasma may serve as an adjunct to supportive treatment to prevent COVID-19 progression and death. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2 volumes of intravenous convalescent plasma (CP) with high antibody titers for the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a Bayesian, randomized, open-label, multicenter, controlled clinical trial in 7 Brazilian hospitals. Adults admitted to hospital with positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV2, within 10 days of the symptom onset, were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive standard of care (SoC) alone, or in combination with 200 mL (150-300 mL) of CP (Low-volume), or 400 mL (300-600 mL) of CP (High-volume); infusion had to be performed within 24 h of randomization. Randomization was centralized, stratified by center. The primary outcome was the time until clinical improvement up to day 28, measured by the WHO ten-point scale, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Interim and terminal analyses were performed in a Bayesian framework. Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04415086. Findings: Between June 2, 2020, and November 18, 2020, 129 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to SoC (n = 42), Low-volume (n = 43) or High-volume (n = 44) CP. Donors presented a median titer of neutralizing antibodies of 1:320 (interquartile range, 1:160 to 1:1088). No evidence of any benefit of convalescent plasma was observed, with Bayesian estimate of 28-day clinical improvement of 72.7% (95%CI, 58.8 to 84.7) in the SoC versus 64.1% (95%ci, 53.8 to 73.7) in the pooled experimental groups (mean difference of -8.7%, 95%CI, -24.6 to 8.2). There was one case of cutaneous mild allergic reaction related to plasma transfusion and one case of suspected transfusion-related acute lung injury but deemed not to be related to convalescent plasma infusion. Interpretation: In this prospective, randomized trial of adult hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, convalescent plasma was not associated with clinical benefits. Funding: Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.

3.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534219

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: We reviewed the logistics of the implementation of pathogen reduction (PR) using the INTERCEPT Blood System™ for platelets and the experience with routine use and clinical outcomes in the patient population at the Sírio-Libanês Hospital of São Paulo, Brazil. (2) Methods: Platelet concentrate (PC), including pathogen reduced (PR-PC) production, inventory management, discard rates, blood utilization, and clinical outcomes were analyzed over the 40 months before and after PR implementation. Age distribution and wastage rates were compared over the 10 months before and after approval for PR-PC to be stored for up to seven days. (3) Results: A 100% PR-PC inventory was achieved by increasing double apheresis collections and production of double doses using pools of two single apheresis units. Discard rates decreased from 6% to 3% after PR implementation and further decreased to 1.2% after seven-day storage extension for PR-PCs. The blood utilization remained stable, with no increase in component utilization. A significant decrease in adverse transfusion events was observed after the PR implementation. (4) Conclusion: Our experience demonstrates the feasibility for Brazilian blood centers to achieve a 100% PR-PC inventory. All patients at our hospital received PR-PC and showed no increase in blood component utilization and decreased rates of adverse transfusion reactions.

6.
Transfusion ; 61(12): 3455-3467, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 high-titer CCP selection is a concern, because neutralizing antibody (nAb) testing requires sophisticated labs and methods. Surrogate tests are an alternative for measuring nAb levels in plasma bags, including those that are pathogen-reduced. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: We studied a panel consisting of 191 samples from convalescent donors tested by nAb (CPE-VNT), obtained from 180 CCP donations (collection: March 20-January 21) and 11 negative controls, with a total of 80 and 111 serum and plasma samples (71 amotosalen/UV treated), with nAb titers ranging from negative to 10,240. Samples were blindly tested for several surrogates: one anti-RBD, two anti-spike, and four anti-nucleocapsid tests, either isolated or combined to improve their positive predictive values as predictors of the presence of high-titer nAbs, defined as those with titers ≥160. RESULTS: Except for combined and anti-IgA/M tests, all isolated surrogate tests showed excellent performance for nAb detection: sensitivity (98.3%-100%), specificity (85.7%-100%), PPV (98.9%-100%), NPV (81.3%-100%), and AUC (0.93-0.96), with a variable decrease in sensitivity and considerably lower specificity when using FDA authorization and concomitant nAb titers ≥160. All surrogates had AUCs that were statistically different from CPE-VNT if nAb≥160, including when using combined, orthogonal approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Surrogate tests (isolated or in combination) have an indirect good performance in detecting the presence of nAb, with lower sensitivity and specificity when high nAb titer samples are used, possibly accepting a considerable number of donors whose nAb titers are actually low, which should be evaluated by each laboratory responsible for CCP collection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Blood Donors , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 872-879, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lack of definitive treatment or preventative options for COVID-19 led many clinicians early on to consider convalescent plasma (CCP) as potentially therapeutic. Regulators, blood centres and hospitals worldwide worked quickly to get CCP to the bedside. Although response was admirable, several areas have been identified to help improve future pandemic management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, multinational subgroup from the ISBT Working Group on COVID-19 was tasked with drafting a manuscript that describes the lessons learned pertaining to procurement and administration of CCP, derived from a comprehensive questionnaire within the subgroup. RESULTS: While each country's responses and preparedness for the pandemic varied, there were shared challenges, spanning supply chain disruptions, staffing, impact of social distancing on the collection of regular blood and CCP products, and the availability of screening and confirmatory SARS-CoV-2 testing for donors and patients. The lack of a general framework to organize data gathering across clinical trials and the desire to provide a potentially life-saving therapeutic through compassionate use hampered the collection of much-needed safety and outcome data worldwide. Communication across all stakeholders was identified as being central to reducing confusion. CONCLUSION: The need for flexibility and adaptability remains paramount when dealing with a pandemic. As the world approaches the first anniversary of the COVID-19 pandemic with rising rates worldwide and over 115 million cases and 2·55 million deaths, respectively, it is important to reflect on how to better prepare for future pandemics as we continue to combat the current one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2295-2306, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current evidence regarding COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) transfusion practices is limited and heterogeneous. We aimed to determine the impact of the use of CCP transfusion in patients with previous circulating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective cohort including 102 patients with COVID-19 transfused with ABO compatible CCP on days 0-2 after enrollment. Clinical status of patients was assessed using the adapted World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale on days 0, 5, and 14. The nAbs titration was performed using the cytopathic effect-based virus neutralization test with SARS-CoV-2 (GenBank MT126808.1). The primary outcome was clinical improvement on day 14, defined as a reduction of at least two points on the adapted WHO ordinal scale. Secondary outcomes were the number of intensive care unit (ICU)-free days and the number of invasive mechanical ventilation-free days. RESULTS: Both nAbs of CCP units transfused (p < 0.001) and nAbs of patients before CCP transfusions (p = 0.028) were associated with clinical improvements by day 14. No significant associations between nAbs of patients or CCP units transfused were observed in the number of ICU or mechanical ventilation-free days. Administration of CCP units after 10 days of symptom onset resulted in a decrease in ICU-free days (p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation-free days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Transfusion of high titer nAbs CCP units may be a determinant in clinical strategies against COVID-19. We consider these data as useful parameters to guide future CCP transfusion practices.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Vox Sang ; 116(5): 557-563, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blood groups and anti-A isohemagglutinin may be involved in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 268 COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors and 162 COVID-19 inpatients (total 430 subjects, confirmed by RT-PCR) and 2,212 healthy volunteer first-time blood donors as a control group. These were further divided into two groups: those with anti-A (blood types O and B) and those without it (types A and AB). Titres of nucleoproteins, and neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibody were measured in the convalescent plasma donors and inpatients. Multivariate logistic regression and non-parametric tests were applied. RESULTS: Persons having types O or B showed less infection prevalence than those of types A or AB (OR = 0·62, 95% CI 0·50-0·78; P < 0·001), but there was no difference when COVID-19 inpatients were analysed. Immunoglobulins M, G and A were lower in COVID-19 subjects of types O or B group than those of A or AB (0·16 vs. 0·19; P = 0·03, 2·11 vs. 2·55; P = 0·02, 0·23 vs. 0·32; P = 0·03, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort, COVID-19 individuals were less likely to belong to blood types O and B, and also had lower SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres than A and AB individuals. COVID-19 severity did not associate with the blood groups.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hemagglutinins/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Vox Sang ; 116(5): 557-563, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blood groups and anti-A isohemagglutinin may be involved in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied 268 COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors and 162 COVID-19 inpatients (total 430 subjects, confirmed by RT-PCR) and 2,212 healthy volunteer first-time blood donors as a control group. These were further divided into two groups: those with anti-A (blood types O and B) and those without it (types A and AB). Titres of nucleoproteins, and neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibody were measured in the convalescent plasma donors and inpatients. Multivariate logistic regression and non-parametric tests were applied. RESULTS: Persons having types O or B showed less infection prevalence than those of types A or AB (OR = 0·62, 95% CI 0·50-0·78; P < 0·001), but there was no difference when COVID-19 inpatients were analysed. Immunoglobulins M, G and A were lower in COVID-19 subjects of types O or B group than those of A or AB (0·16 vs. 0·19; P = 0·03, 2·11 vs. 2·55; P = 0·02, 0·23 vs. 0·32; P = 0·03, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort, COVID-19 individuals were less likely to belong to blood types O and B, and also had lower SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres than A and AB individuals. COVID-19 severity did not associate with the blood groups.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hemagglutinins/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Transfusion ; 61(5): 1447-1460, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the neutralizing (nAb) and binding antibody kinetics in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors, especially during the first 100 days after disease onset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of previously RT-PCR positive (detected by nasopharyngeal swab during the acute phase), male convalescent patients, all with mild symptoms, were enrolled in serial blood sample collection for a longitudinal nAb titers and anti-nucleocapsid (NP) antibodies (IgM, IgG and IgA) evaluation. NAbs were detected by a cytopathic effect-based virus neutralization test (CPE-based VNT), carried out with SARS-CoV-2 (GenBank: MT350282). RESULTS: A total of 78 male volunteers provided 316 samples, spanning a total of 4820 days of study. Although only 25% of donors kept nAb titers ≥160 within 100 days after the onset of disease, there was >75% probability of sustaining nAb titers ≥160 in volunteers whose initial nAb titer was ≥1280, weight ≥ 90 kg or obese, according to their body mass index (BMI), as evidenced by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox hazard regression (all p < .02). There was no correlation between the ABO group, ABO antibody titers and persistent high nAb titers. High IgG anti-NP (S/CO ≥5.0) is a good surrogate for detecting nAb ≥ 160, defined by the ROC curve (sensitivity = 90.5%; CI95%: 84.5%-94.7%). CONCLUSION: Selection of CCP donors for multiple collections based on initial high nAb titers (≥1280) or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 provides a simple strategy to achieve higher quality in CCP programs. High IgG anti-NP levels can also be used as surrogate markers for high nAb screening.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , Nucleocapsid/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged
19.
Transfusion ; 60(12): 2938-2951, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP) collection began in two Brazilian hospitals for treatment of severe/critical patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Mild/moderate COVID-19 convalescents were selected as CCP donors after reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and absence of symptoms for ≥14 days plus (a) age (18-60 years), body weight greater than 55 kg; (b) immunohematological studies; (c) no infectious markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2, Chagas and syphilis infection; (d) no HLA antibodies (multiparous); (e) second RT-PCR (nasopharyngeal swab and/or blood) negativity; (f) virus neutralization test (cytopathic effect-based virus neutralization test neutralizing antibody) and anti-nucleocapsid protein SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG, and IgA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Among 271 donors (41 females, 230 males), 250 presented with neutralizing antibodies. Final RT-PCR was negative on swab (77.0%) or blood (88.4%; P = .46). Final definition of RT-PCR was only defined at more than 28 days after full recovery in 59 of 174 (33.9%) RT-PCR -ve, and 25/69 RT-PCR +ve (36.2%; 13 between 35 and 48 days). Neutralizing antibody titers of 160 or greater were found in 63.6%. Correlation between IgG signal/cutoff of 5.0 or greater and neutralizing antibody of 160 or greater was 82.4%. Combination of final RT-PCR -ve with neutralizing antibody ≥160 was 41.3% (112/271). Serial plasma collection showed decline in neutralizing antibody titers and IgA levels (P < .05), probably denoting a "golden period" for CCP collection (≤28 days after joining the program); IgA might have an important role as neutralizing antibody. Donor's weight, days between disease onset and serial plasma collection, and IgG and IgM levels are important predictors for neutralizing antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR +ve cases are still detected in 36.2% within 28 to 48 days after recovery. High anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG levels may be used as a surrogate marker to neutralizing antibody.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Donor Selection/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Blood Donors , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Young Adult
20.
Vox Sang ; 116(1): 18-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been used, predominantly in high-income countries (HICs) to treat COVID-19; available data suggest the safety and efficacy of use. We sought to develop guidance for procurement and use of CCP, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for which data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, geographically representative group of individuals with expertise spanning transfusion medicine, infectious diseases and haematology was tasked with the development of a guidance document for CCP, drawing on expert opinion, survey of group members and review of available evidence. Three subgroups (i.e. donor, product and patient) were established based on self-identified expertise and interest. Here, the donor and product-related challenges are summarized and contrasted between HICs and LMICs with a view to guide related practices. RESULTS: The challenges to advance CCP therapy are different between HICs and LMICs. Early challenges in HICs related to recruitment and qualification of sufficient donors to meet the growing demand. Antibody testing also posed a specific obstacle given lack of standardization, variable performance of the assays in use and uncertain interpretation of results. In LMICs, an extant transfusion deficit, suboptimal models of donor recruitment (e.g. reliance on replacement and paid donors), limited laboratory capacity for pre-donation qualification and operational considerations could impede wide adoption. CONCLUSION: There has been wide-scale adoption of CCP in many HICs, which could increase if clinical trials show efficacy of use. By contrast, LMICs, having received little attention, require locally applicable strategies for adoption of CCP.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Developing Countries , Guidelines as Topic , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
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