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1.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(5): 587-592, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794548

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described in a wide range of species, including domestic animals such as dogs and cats. Illness in dogs is usually self-limiting, and further diagnostics may not be pursued if clinical signs resolve or they respond to empirical treatment. As new variants emerge, the clinical presentation and role in transmission may vary in animals. This report highlights different clinical presentations and immunological responses in two SARS-CoV-2 Delta-variant-positive dogs with similar exposure to the same fully vaccinated human with a SARS-CoV-2 infection and emphasizes the need for active surveillance and additional One Health research on SARS-CoV-2 variant infections in companion animals and other species.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , Animals, Domestic , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Georgia , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 681-695, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714567

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes respiratory disease in mink similar to human COVID-19. We characterized the pathological findings in 72 mink from US farms with SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, localized SARS-CoV-2 and its host cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in mink respiratory tissues, and evaluated the utility of various test methods and specimens for SARS-CoV-2 detection in necropsy tissues. Of SARS-CoV-2-positive animals found dead, 74% had bronchiolitis and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). Of euthanized SARS-CoV-2-positive animals, 72% had only mild interstitial pneumonia or minimal nonspecific lung changes (congestion, edema, macrophages); similar findings were seen in SARS-CoV-2-negative animals. Suppurative rhinitis, lymphocytic perivascular inflammation in the lungs, and lymphocytic infiltrates in other tissues were common in both SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative animals. In formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) upper respiratory tract (URT) specimens, conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) was more sensitive than in situ hybridization (ISH) or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of SARS-CoV-2. FFPE lung specimens yielded less detection of virus than FFPE URT specimens by all test methods. By IHC and ISH, virus localized extensively to epithelial cells in the nasal turbinates, and prominently within intact epithelium; olfactory mucosa was mostly spared. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 was extensively detected by IHC within turbinate epithelium, with decreased detection in lower respiratory tract epithelium and alveolar macrophages. This study expands on the knowledge of the pathology and pathogenesis of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in mink and supports their further investigation as a potential animal model of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Mink , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Epithelial Cells , Lung , Macrophages, Alveolar , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307782

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, from people to companion animals has been reported globally. Between March 2020 and January 2021, the United States reported 94 companion animals with SARS-CoV-2. While most animals with SARS-CoV-2 have mild illness, 10 animals (5 dogs, 5 cats) died around the time of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In one dog, histopathologic changes suggest SARS-CoV-2 exacerbated a severe chronic respiratory disease and contributed to death. In one cat, SARS-CoV-2 was associated with histopathologic changes suggesting the virus caused clinical signs that resulted in euthanasia. In the remaining eight animals, SARS-CoV-2 infection was an incidental finding (4 dogs, 4 cats). This report provides evidence that in rare circumstances, SARS-CoV-2 can contribute to or cause death in companion animals with underlying conditions.

4.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463837

ABSTRACT

In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Animals, Wild/virology , Cats , Disease Hotspot , Female , Male , Mephitidae/virology , Mice , Mink/virology , Raccoons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Utah/epidemiology
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