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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 237: 109540, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Syringe services programs (SSPs) are an important venue for reaching people who inject drugs (PWID) to offer preventive services; however, not all SSPs offer vaccinations. We aimed to describe barriers and opportunities for SSPs to offer vaccinations. METHODS: During June-August 2021, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of SSP providers in the United States. SSPs were recruited from national listservs using purposive sampling to ensure geographic diversity. The survey included questions about SSP characteristics, client demographics, existing vaccination resources, resource needs, and staff perspectives on client vaccination barriers. Statistical comparisons were made using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: In total, 105 SSPs from 34 states responded to the survey; 46 SSPs (43.8%) offered on-site vaccinations. SSPs without on-site vaccinations were more likely operated by community-based organizations (81.4% vs 30.4%, p < 0.001) in urban areas (71.4% vs 40.0%, p = 0.002) than SSPs offering on-site vaccinations. The most common staffing need was for personnel licensed to administer vaccines (74/98, 75.5%). Over half of SSPs reported vaccine supply, administration supplies, storage equipment, and systems to follow-up clients for multidose series as important resource needs. The most common resource need was for reminder/recall systems for vaccines with multidose series (75/92, 81.5%). Vaccine safety concerns (92/95, 96.8%) and competing priorities (92/96, 95.8%) were the most common staff-reported client barriers to vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing missed opportunities for offering vaccinations to PWID who use SSPs will require increased numbers of on-site personnel licensed to administer vaccines and additional training, vaccination supplies, and storage and handling equipment.


Subject(s)
Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Needle-Exchange Programs , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Syringes , United States , Vaccination
2.
Kidney360 ; 2(12): 1917-1927, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789955

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with ESKD on maintenance dialysis receive dialysis in common spaces with other patients and have a higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. They may have persistently or intermittently positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests after infection. We describe the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the serologic response in a convenience sample of patients with ESKD to understand the duration of infectivity. Methods: From August to November 2020, we enrolled patients on maintenance dialysis with SARS-CoV-2 infections from outpatient dialysis facilities in Atlanta, Georgia. We followed participants for approximately 42 days. We assessed COVID-19 symptoms and collected specimens. Oropharyngeal (OP), anterior nasal (AN), and saliva (SA) specimens were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using RT-PCR, and sent for viral culture. Serology, including neutralizing antibodies, was measured in blood specimens. Results: Fifteen participants, with a median age of 58 (range, 37‒77) years, were enrolled. Median duration of RT-PCR positivity from diagnosis was 18 days (interquartile range [IQR], 8‒24 days). Ten participants had at least one, for a total of 41, positive RT-PCR specimens ≥10 days after symptoms onset. Of these 41 specimens, 21 underwent viral culture; one (5%) was positive 14 days after symptom onset. Thirteen participants developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, 11 of which included neutralizing antibodies. RT-PCRs remained positive after seroconversion in eight participants and after detection of neutralizing antibodies in four participants; however, all of these samples were culture negative. Conclusions: Patients with ESKD on maintenance dialysis remained persistently and intermittently SARS-CoV-2-RT-PCR positive. However, of the 15 participants, only one had infectious virus, on day 14 after symptom onset. Most participants mounted an antibody response, including neutralizing antibodies. Participants continued having RT-PCR-positive results in the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, but without replication-competent virus detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 319-326, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To inform prevention strategies, we assessed the extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and settings in which transmission occurred in a Georgia public school district. METHODS: During 1 December 2020-22 January 2021, SARS-CoV-2-infected index cases and their close contacts in schools were identified by school and public health officials. For in-school contacts, we assessed symptoms and offered SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing; performed epidemiologic investigations and whole-genome sequencing to identify in-school transmission; and calculated secondary attack rate (SAR) by school setting (eg, sports, elementary school classroom), index case role (ie, staff, student), and index case symptomatic status. RESULTS: We identified 86 index cases and 1119 contacts, 688 (61.5%) of whom received testing. Fifty-nine of 679 (8.7%) contacts tested positive; 15 of 86 (17.4%) index cases resulted in ≥2 positive contacts. Among 55 persons testing positive with available symptom data, 31 (56.4%) were asymptomatic. Highest SARs were in indoor, high-contact sports settings (23.8% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 12.7%-33.3%]), staff meetings/lunches (18.2% [95% CI, 4.5%-31.8%]), and elementary school classrooms (9.5% [95% CI, 6.5%-12.5%]). The SAR was higher for staff (13.1% [95% CI, 9.0%-17.2%]) vs student index cases (5.8% [95% CI, 3.6%-8.0%]) and for symptomatic (10.9% [95% CI, 8.1%-13.9%]) vs asymptomatic index cases (3.0% [95% CI, 1.0%-5.5%]). CONCLUSIONS: Indoor sports may pose a risk to the safe operation of in-person learning. Preventing infection in staff members, through measures that include coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination, is critical to reducing in-school transmission. Because many positive contacts were asymptomatic, contact tracing should be paired with testing, regardless of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Contact Tracing , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , Students
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2978-e2984, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) in other US cities, we conducted multiple, proactive, facility-wide testing events for PEH living sheltered and unsheltered and homelessness service staff in Atlanta, Georgia. We describe the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevalence and associated symptoms, and review shelter infection prevention and control (IPC) policies. METHODS: PEH and staff were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during 7 April-6 May 2020. A subset of PEH and staff was screened for symptoms. Shelter assessments were conducted concurrently at a convenience sample of shelters using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 2875 individuals at 24 shelters and 9 unsheltered outreach events underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 2860 (99.5%) had conclusive test results. The SARS-CoV-2 prevalences were 2.1% (36/1684) among PEH living sheltered, 0.5% (3/628) among PEH living unsheltered, and 1.3% (7/548) among staff. Reporting fever, cough, or shortness of breath in the last week during symptom screening was 14% sensitive and 89% specific for identifying COVID-19 cases, compared with RT-PCR. Prevalences by shelter ranged 0-27.6%. Repeat testing 3-4 weeks later at 4 shelters documented decreased SARS-CoV-2 prevalences (0-3.9%). Of 24 shelters, 9 completed shelter assessments and implemented IPC measures as part of the COVID-19 response. CONCLUSIONS: PEH living in shelters experienced a higher SARS-CoV-2 prevalence compared with PEH living unsheltered. Facility-wide testing in congregate settings allowed for the identification and isolation of COVID-19 cases, and is an important strategy to interrupt SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19 Testing , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6460-6463, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective hepatitis A vaccines have been recommended in the United States for at-risk adults since 1996; however, adult vaccination coverage is low. METHODS: Among a random sample of adult outbreak-associated hepatitis A cases from three states that were heavily affected by person-to-person hepatitis A outbreaks, we assessed the presence of documented Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) indications for hepatitis A vaccination, hepatitis A vaccination status, and whether cases that were epidemiologically linked to an outbreak-associated hepatitis A case had received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). RESULTS: Overall, 74.1% of cases had a documented ACIP indication for hepatitis A vaccination. Fewer than 20% of epidemiologically linked cases received PEP. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to increase provider awareness of and adherence to ACIP childhood and adult hepatitis A vaccination and PEP recommendations in order to stop the current person-to-person hepatitis A outbreaks and prevent similar outbreaks in the future.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A , Adult , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
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