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1.
Nutritional Sciences Journal ; 46(4):138-151, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243970

ABSTRACT

Research indicates the COVID-19 epidemic changes people's health and diet, However, this has not yet been well discussed in Taiwan, especially in college students. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of distance learning on college students' dietary patterns, sleep quality and perception of stress during the COVID-19 epidemic in Taiwan. 265 college students from a university in Taichung were recruited in this study. The self-administered online questionnaire was used to investigate the changes in eating behavior, sleep quality, and perception of stress before and one month after distance learning, and further analyzed the relationship among them. The questionnaire contains demographic information, dietary questionnaires (including six categories of food intake behaviors, convenience food intake frequency), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Perceived Stress Scale (Chinese 14-item PSS). The results showed that the proportion of college students to meet the recommended Taiwan Dietary Guidelines amount in vegetables (21.9%), fruits (27.5%), meats and dairy products (15.8%), and nuts and seeds (11.3%) were lower during distance learning. The frequency of convenient food intake was lower during distance learning (13.31 +/- 6.10 points;never to occasionally). During the distance learning period, there was a significant negative correlation between dietary patterns and sleep quality (r = -0.160, p = 0.009), It shows that college students with higher dietary pattern scores have better sleep quality. During the distance learning period, there was a significant positive correlation between sleep quality and perceived stress (r = 0.320, p < 0.001), It shows that college students with higher levels of stress had poorer sleep quality. This study found that the lower the perceived stress of college students, the better their diet and sleep quality;conversely, the higher the perceived stress, the worse their diet and sleep quality. Studies have shown that a healthy, balanced diet can reduce the risk of getting various diseases. Therefore, in the post-epidemic era, it is recommended that schools increase the accessibility and availability of vegetables, fruits, dairy products, nuts and seeds on campus to make it easier for teachers and students to obtain such healthy food in order to achieve the goal of promoting balanced diet.Copyright © 2022 Nutrition Society in Taipei. All rights reserved.

2.
Nutritional Sciences Journal ; 46(1):30-43, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20238643

ABSTRACT

This purpose of this study is to help students developing problem-solving skills by using Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a teaching model, combining with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a training tool to evaluate students' clinical competencies. Sixty-five college junior students from a therapeutic nutrition course were participated. The topics of PBL included diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. For each disease, pre- and post-test quiz and after class exam were assessed to evaluate the students' learning effectiveness. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, OSCE was performed online. The focus group interview and learning effectiveness questionnaire were conducted by the end of this course for all participants. Moreover, 37 students who attended the dietitian internship filled in the learning effectiveness questionnaire again after the internship. The results indicated that after the PBL, the post quiz score for each disease was increased, and through the online OSCE training, students' abilities to master nutrition education and counseling had been upgraded. Students indicated that both PBL and OSCE training could contributed to the learning effectiveness. The better academic performance students were, the more willing they are to work in nutrition-related fields in the future. For those who finished the dietitian internship agreed that they could understand the work content better in general regional and regional hospitals than in teaching ones. In conclusion, PBL teaching model combined with OSCE training could effectively improve students' learning motivation, learning effectiveness and practical application in a therapeutic nutrition course.Copyright © 2022 Nutrition Society in Taipei. All rights reserved.

3.
China Tropical Medicine ; 23(1):53-57, 2023.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2288485

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize and analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 Omicron variant cases in makeshift hospital, and the influence of age, sex and vaccination status on the disease duration, so as to provide reference for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 cases admitted to makeshift hospital of National Convention and Exhibition Center (Shanghai) from April 9 to May 31, 2022 were retrospectively described and analyzed, and further cohort analysis was conducted to determine the influence of age, sex and vaccination status on the disease duration of COVID-19 cases in the author's branch hospital. Results: Among the 174 466 COVID-19 cases in makeshift hospital, most of them were male, accounting for 59.38%. The infected cases were mainly young and middle-aged people aged 18-59 years old, accounting for 83.50%, followed by 12.30% of the elderly group over 60 years old;the average hospital stay was 7.40 days;the proportion of patients with fever was less than 27.79%;15.37% (26 817/174 466) of the patients complicated with underlying diseases, and the top three were hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. The proportion of people who received COVID-19 vaccine accounted for 79.56% (13 799/17 956), of which the highest proportion of three doses was 44.09%. The disease duration of 17 956 COVID-19 cases in the author's branch of makeshift hospital was 10.18 (7.34, 13.05) days. The disease duration in the elderly group was the longest with 11.34 (8.35, 14.37) days, followed by 11.17 (9.07, 14.33) days in the preschool group, 10.37 (8.14, 13.34) days in the middle-aged group, 10.07 (7.37, 12.37) days in the school-age group, and 9.34 (7.05, 12.16) days in the young group. There was significant difference in the overall distribution of disease duration among the five groups (H=550.479 P < 0.01). The disease duration in each age group basically showed a V-shaped distribution. The disease duration was 10.27 (7.34, 12.57) days in males and 10.10 (7.25, 13.09) days in females, and there was no significant difference (Z=-1.505 P > 0.05). The disease duration of vaccinated patients was 10.24 (7.35, 13.05) days, and that of unvaccinated patients was 9.47 (7.09, 12.47) days. There was significant difference between the two groups (Z=-4.338 P < 0.01). Conclusions: COVID-19 Omicron variant cases have a high proportion of males, mainly young and middle-aged, and the proportion of fever patients is less than 30%. The disease duration is significantly lower than that of the original strain in Wuhan, and shows "V" distribution with each age group. Sex had no effect on the disease duration. COVID-19 vaccination did not have a clinical effect on the disease duration.

4.
2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, EMNLP 2022 ; : 148-158, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2287144

ABSTRACT

The medical conversational system can relieve doctors' burden and improve healthcare effi-ciency, especially during the COVID-19 pan-demic. However, the existing medical dialogue systems have die problems of weak scalability, insufficient knowledge, and poor controlla-bility. Thus, we propose a medical conversa-tional question-answering (CQA) system based on the knowledge graph, namely MedConQA, which is designed as a pipeline framework to maintain high flexibility. Our system utilizes automated medical procedures, including medi-cal triage, consultation, image-text drug recom-mendation, and record. Each module has been open-sourced as a tool, which can be used alone or in combination, with robust scalability. Besides, to conduct knowledge-grounded dia-logues with users, we first construct a Chinese Medical Knowledge Graph (CMKG) and col-lect a large-scale Chinese Medical CQA (CM-CQA) dataset, and we design a series of meth-ods for reasoning more intellectually. Finally, we use several state-of-the-art (SOTA) tech-niques to keep the final generated response more controllable, which is further assured by hospital and professional evaluations. We have open-sourced related code, datasets, web pages, and tools, hoping to advance future research. © 2022 Association for Computational Linguistics.

5.
Bulletin of Educational Psychology ; 53(3):643-664, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835595

ABSTRACT

Awe is one of the eight positive emotions proposed by Vaillant (2008a, 2008b). McDougall (1910) first described the concept of awe, which includes admiration imbued with senses of power and wonder as well as the meaning of a peak experience. Ekman (1992) and Valdesolo and Graham (2014) suggested that awe is a special, complex, and unique emotion. Stellar et al. (2017) suggested that awe is a self-transcendent emotion that involves admiration, inspiration, and elevation. By contrast, Keltner and Haidt (2003) considered awe’s core dimensions to be senses of vastness and accommodation. Vastness refers to stimuli that strain one’s perception in terms of personal frames of reference such as physical size (i.e., volume, area, quantity), social scale (i.e., fame), and symbolic markers of vast size (i.e., a lavish office). The congeniality indicates that such a vastness triggers a cognitive discordance that might induce an imbalance between one’s perception and behavior. Therefore, one must accommodate the present situation and balance cognitive reference frames, experiencing one’s smallness, powerlessness, and confusion. Once such an accommodation takes effect, feelings pertaining to enlightenment and rebirth may arise. If not, fear and a feeling of being threatened may ensue. Therefore, feelings of awe may be identified when a powerful situation accompanied by an inclination to submit occurs, or when a difficult-to-explain situation accompanied by a feeling of amazement, surprise, or confusion occurs. Such feelings of awe can be categorized as positive affect or emotions that promote happiness (Shiota et al., 2007). Regarding causation, a given object or event is necessary to elicit a feeling of awe. This cause usually lies in a rich, attractive source, such as art, technology, or landscapes. Awe cannot be elicited without a cause (Keltner & Haidt, 2003;Shiota et al., 2007), but it can be induced by objects such as landscapes (Shiota et al., 2007), outer space (Bonner & Friedman, 2011), human achievement (Keltner & Haidt, 2003;Thomson & Siegel, 2017), artworks, music, powerful leaders (Keltner & Haidt, 2003), natural disaster, and epidemic disease (Piff et al., 2015). Furthermore, the mechanism underlying awe is different among cultures (Nakayama et al., 2020). Awe is considered a positive emotion in Western culture but is considered a complex mixture of positive and negative emotions in Eastern culture. In East Asia, people usually view the negative aspect of awe in a positive light, and vice versa. This represents an example of dialectical thinking (Peng & Nisbett, 1999). Theory and research have supported the notion that awe can strengthen not only the positive behavior, well-being, and psychological capital but also student learning outcomes and self-effectiveness (McCullough et al., 2002;Saroglou et al., 2008;Van Cappellen & Saroglou, 2012;Weinstein et al., 2009). Therefore, awe can be considered a self-transcendent emotion (Stellar et al., 2017) that helps enhance perceptions of well-being. However, to date, few studies have explored the mechanisms underlying the emotion of awe. To fill this literature gap, this study focused on the development of measurement properties for the General Awe Scale (GAS). On the basis of a literature review, we developed the first draft of the GAS, which comprises 50 items pertaining to the following 5 dimensions: (1) curiosity and exploration, (2) a feeling of wonderment regarding nature, (3) appreciation of artwork, (4) a feeling of smallness, and (5) social connection. The development of the GAS was divided into the following two stages. In the first stage, 384 college students were recruited for the pilot study, and the collected data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and internal consistency analysis to develop the final 27-item scale. In the second stage, 720 college students were recruited and surveyed;the statistical analysis methods used were confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), alpha reliability, and criterion-related validity. In this study, data were collected using an online survey that was distributed on relevant social media platforms used at several Taiwanese universities. The research data including demographic variables as well as travel frequency, religious activity participation, meditation frequency, stress levels, and learning satisfaction were collected using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Fang, 2012), Prosocial Scale, Taiwan Subjective Well-Being Scale (Short-Form;Yu et al., 2017), Gratitude Scale (Lin, 2012), and Spirituality Well-Being Scale (Chung et al., 2013). The results are summarized as follows: 1. The CFA results supported the notion that the GAS was composed of five latent factors, namely (1) curiosity and exploration, (2) a feeling of wonderment regarding nature, (3) appreciation of artwork, (4) a feeling of smallness, and (5) social connection. 2. The results revealed that the GAS satisfied the validity and reliability criteria. 3. In this study, we adopted the notions of subjective well-being, prosocial behavior, spiritual-well-being, and gratitude as external criteria for validity confirmation. The results demonstrated that the GAS had significant positive relationships with these external criteria. The criterion-related validity of the GAS was thus verified. 4. The majority of the survey respondents were ranked on the middle-to-high level of the GAS. Specifically, our data revealed that the students who had gone abroad in the past year had higher learning satisfaction and lower stress levels, reporting significantly higher GAS scores. In this study, we developed the structure of the GAS comprising 27 items that pertained to the aforementioned five dimensions. Similar to the findings of most Western studies, this study indicated that specific factors such as nature and artwork (Fingerhut & Prinz, 2018;Keltner & Haidt, 2003) can elicit the emotion of awe. Keltner and Haidt (2003) contended that awe consists of three types, namely awe regarding nature, god, and cognitive knowledge. These are consistent with the feeling of wonderment regarding nature and appreciation of artwork categories developed in this study. We discovered that awe can not only can enhance curiosity and desire for exploration but also make one feel small and powerless when connecting with society. These concepts are associated with the remaining three factors of the GAS, namely curiosity and exploration, a feeling of smallness, and social connection. Although some cultures believe that awe involves a complex fusion of positive and negative emotions. The results of this study suggested that awe was principally a positive emotion rather than a negative one;this viewpoint is more consistent with the conclusions of previous studies on the mechanism of the awe emotion. Moreover, awe was significantly correlated with the frequency of going abroad;hence, students who had been abroad recently registered higher GAS scores than those who had not, especially in the curiosity and exploration and social connection categories. These findings are consistent with those of a Chinese study (Tian et al., 2015) that suggested a significant positive association between travel experience and awe. A tourism-related study also demonstrated that personal involvement and experience was the most effective means of evoking awe (Bloemer & de Ruyter, 1999). For example, travelers can feel awe when becoming immersed in experiences of the world's greatest buildings or historical temples (Keltner & Haidt, 2003), passing through grassland wilderness (Hall & Cole, 2012), or participating in music performances (Cotter et al., 2018). Compared with students who were under greater pressure, students with low stress levels recorded higher GAS scores. This result is also consistent with previous study findings indicating that when under pressure, people are less likely to behave and think positively (Darley & Batson, 1973). In addition, awe had a significant positive correlation with learning satisfaction, which suggests that students who felt they had good learning outcomes also had greater senses of awe. Gottlieb et al. (2018) also reported consistent results indicating that awe may be correlated with scientific learning, and Anderson et al. (2019) suggested that those with greater senses of awe can more easily evoke learning curiosity and improve learning outcomes. In summary, this study demonstrated that awe enhances prosocial behavior, gratitude, subjective well-being, and spiritual well-being in Taiwanese individuals. Future studies should continue to study the impact, determinants, and causal processes underlying the emotion of awe to not only expand its application and understanding in positive human behaviors but also promote the development of a harmonious and peaceful society. Future studies can focus on tourism, ecological conservation, or adventure education. In the case of adventure education, using virtual reality technology allows users to experience dangerous situations (e.g., bungee jumping, rock climbing, and outer space) as though they were right at the scene. Thus, viewing such vast and magnificent scenery that completely differs from one’s everyday experience can compensate for the decreased travel opportunities during the COVID-19 pandemic and enhance individuals’ sense of awe and awe-induced experience, reinforcing positive behaviors and learning outcomes. © 2022, National Taiwan Normal University. All rights reserved.

6.
3rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Manufacture, AIAM 2021 ; : 1849-1851, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1769999

ABSTRACT

With the progress and development of social science and technology, various information technologies have been deeply integrated into people's lives. The Internet of Things is an emerging industry of information technology, and the logistics industry is the major direction of this technology application. Especially during the COVID-19 outbreak, the Internet of Things technology provides important support for emergency logistics distribution. This thesis is based on the concept of the Internet of Things, discovers and studies the problems and deficiencies of current emergency logistics distribution of our country by comparing the current situation of emergency logistics distribution at home and abroad, and proposes relevant measures to solve these problems, as well as provides effective scientific theoretical support to achieve the purpose of distribution optimization. © 2021 ACM.

7.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1764128

ABSTRACT

Fogging on transparent surfaces such as goggles causes a series of hazards to users. To fabricate antifogging and low-haze transparent renewable polymer materials, intrinsic hydrophilicity with high water adsorption capability of thermoplastic starch (TPS) had been adopted. Strikingly, when benzoic acid (BA) was blended with thermoplastic starch (TPS-BA), the haze of TPS-BA was only 7.8% when it suffered the cold and warm method of antifogging measurement with 87% transmittance. Simultaneously, TPS-BA achieved an 18 mm inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus. To reveal the antifogging mechanism of TPS-BA films, the surficial and interior structure features were evaluated by three-dimensional optical scanner, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle testing, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and so on. The incorporation of BA resulted in the roughness (Rq), water contact angle (WCA), and crystallinity of the TPS-BA film decreasing from 6.5 to 0.68 μm, 65.1 to 39.9°, and 13.6 to 6.3%, respectively. The amorphous matrix and smooth surface reduced the scattered light, allowing the TPS-BA film to achieve low haze performance and high transmittance. Importantly, the diversified and weakened hydrogen bonds formed among starch, BA, and glycerol could inhibit the formation of starch crystalline regions and allowed hydroxyl groups to quickly bond with water. Thus, when TPS-BA is placed in a high-humidity surrounding, an "expressway"is constructed for water molecules diffusing into the TPS-BA matrix. This novel low-haze, antifogging, sustainable, and facilely fabricated TPS with antibacterial properties is a promising candidate in disposable medical goggles to fight against COVID-19. © 2021 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

8.
Proc. - Int. Congr. Image Signal Process., BioMed. Eng. Informatics, CISP-BMEI ; : 827-833, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1050262

ABSTRACT

Italy is the first country in Europe with more than 200,000 people infected with COVID-19. As a medium-sized country, it has an average mortality rate of COVID-19 about 14.2%, which is much higher than the rates of China, USA, and most of other countries, and has caused the extensive concern of the international community. It is heartening that the number of new deaths from COVID-19 in Italy has recently been limited to single digits per day. As a representative of European countries, Italian successful experience in fighting the epidemic is well worth learning from, and the transmission characteristics of COVID-19 in Italy should get its due attention. Here we conducted a statistical analysis of COVID-19 data from Italy, based on a discretized SERI epidemic model. Considering the potential infectivity of COVID-19 during incubation periods, we processed the real-time statistics data of COVID-19 between February 15 and August 13, 2020 in Italy, and calculated the values of daily transmission rates ß and reproduction numbers R0 using the 7-day moving average method and gave a detailed error analysis. During the fitting time interval, the mean values of ß and R0 for COVID-19 are calculated as 0.058-0.068 and 2.47-2.94, respectively, while the current value of R0 on August 13 is calculated to be ~1.24-1.47, indicating that the epidemic is getting better. We compared our results on COVID-19 in Italy with those in China, USA and the World, and discussed possible influence of other fitting methods on the results of this paper. Combined with Italian clinical medical data, our research will provide the theoretical and information support to Italian policy makers and help people all over the World understand the dynamics of transmission evolution of the virus and design effective heath intervention strategies to combat COVID-19 in the future. © 2020 IEEE.

10.
Non-conventional in Spanish | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-598432

ABSTRACT

Background: in December 2019, COVID-19 outbreak broke out in Wuhan, and spread rapidly in China and the Europe, posing a significant challenge to public health in China and the world at large. Currently, the outbreak is basically under contain in China, while it is in full scale in Europe region. Methods: through the means of literature, investigation and comparison, this study compared the dynamic data of the epidemic situation between China and the severe European countries. It analyzed the prevention and control strategies and measures in China. Results: the prevention and contain strategies and specific criteria of COVID - 19 in China are scientific, accurate and practical. Conclusion: as the first major battlefield for the prevention and control of COVID 19, China has paid a massive sacrifice for it, and gained abundant direct experience and remarkable results. Among them, the unified and efficient command system, the legal, scientific and accurate prevention and control strategy, and the prevention and control mode of moving forward and sinking centre of gravity are worth reference from by European region.

11.
Non-conventional in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-108727

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID - 19) was found in Wuhan, China. The current epidemic is spreading in China and even the world. The virus has the characteristics of strong infectivity, long incubation period, mainly spread by droplets, close contact. So far there is no specific drug treatment. There are nearly 100,000 confirmed cases worldwide. Methods: In the current severe situation of the epidemic, this paper uses the methods of literature, investigation and logical and so on. Results: According to the special environment of China, the concept of One Health is proposed for prevention and control. Under the leadership of the government, multiple functional departments and disciplines cooperate to exchange information, forming a working mechanism of efficient coordination, seamless connection, a combination of prevention and control, and coordination among the masses. Conclusion: The government should set up a department of "One Health" to promote the coordination and cooperation between multiple departments and disciplines. It is suggested: 1. Strengthening infectious disease medical personnel training and public health research;2. To intervene in the psychological crisis of different groups;3. Provide security and logistic support for medical staff;4. Guarantee the reserve of protective and medical materials;5. Vigilance and prevention and control of the "weak period" of the epidemic;6. International opinion dominates.

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