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1.
Viruses ; 14(12):2785, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163622

ABSTRACT

Background: The range of reported rates of bacterial and fungal superinfections in patients with a severe course of COVID-19 is wide, suggesting a lack of standardised reporting. Methods: The rates of bacterial and fungal superinfection were assessed using predefined criteria to differentiate between infection and contamination. Results: Overall, 117 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit due to severe COVID-19 were included. Overall, 55% of patients developed a superinfection and 13.6% developed a fungal superinfection (5.9% candidemia and 7.7% CAPA). The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 65.2%. If superinfection was detected, the length of hospital stay was significantly longer and the mortality was especially increased if candidemia was detected. An increased risk of superinfection was observed in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus or chronic heart failure. The presence of immunomodulating therapy did not seem to have an impact on the frequency of superinfections. Conclusion: Increased awareness of high superinfection rates, fungal infections in particular, in patients suffering from severe COVID-19 is necessary.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20117, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133630

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 gains cell entry via angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, a membrane-bound enzyme of the "alternative" (alt) renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2 counteracts angiotensin II by converting it to potentially protective angiotensin 1-7. Using mass spectrometry, we assessed key metabolites of the classical RAS (angiotensins I-II) and alt-RAS (angiotensins 1-7 and 1-5) pathways as well as ACE and ACE2 concentrations in 159 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, stratified by disease severity (severe, n = 76; non-severe: n = 83). Plasma renin activity (PRA-S) was calculated as the sum of RAS metabolites. We estimated ACE activity using the angiotensin II:I ratio (ACE-S) and estimated systemic alt-RAS activation using the ratio of alt-RAS axis metabolites to PRA-S (ALT-S). We applied mixed linear models to assess how PRA-S and ACE/ACE2 concentrations affected ALT-S, ACE-S, and angiotensins II and 1-7. Median angiotensin I and II levels were higher with severe versus non-severe COVID-19 (angiotensin I: 86 versus 30 pmol/L, p < 0.01; angiotensin II: 114 versus 58 pmol/L, p < 0.05), demonstrating activation of classical RAS. The difference disappeared with analysis limited to patients not taking a RAS inhibitor (angiotensin I: 40 versus 31 pmol/L, p = 0.251; angiotensin II: 76 versus 99 pmol/L, p = 0.833). ALT-S in severe COVID-19 increased with time (days 1-6: 0.12; days 11-16: 0.22) and correlated with ACE2 concentration (r = 0.831). ACE-S was lower in severe versus non-severe COVID-19 (1.6 versus 2.6; p < 0.001), but ACE concentrations were similar between groups and correlated weakly with ACE-S (r = 0.232). ACE2 and ACE-S trajectories in severe COVID-19, however, did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Overall RAS alteration in severe COVID-19 resembled severity of disease-matched patients with influenza. In mixed linear models, renin activity most strongly predicted angiotensin II and 1-7 levels. ACE2 also predicted angiotensin 1-7 levels and ALT-S. No single factor or the combined model, however, could fully explain ACE-S. ACE2 and ACE-S trajectories in severe COVID-19 did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. In conclusion, angiotensin II was elevated in severe COVID-19 but was markedly influenced by RAS inhibitors and driven by overall RAS activation. ACE-S was significantly lower with severe COVID-19 and did not correlate with ACE concentrations. A shift to the alt-RAS axis because of increased ACE2 could partially explain the relative reduction in angiotensin II levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptide Hormones , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin I , Angiotensin II , SARS-CoV-2 , Renin , Antihypertensive Agents
3.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir is the only antiviral agent approved for the treatment of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring supplemental oxygen. Studies show conflicting results regarding its effect on mortality. METHODS: In this single center observational study, we included adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Patients who were treated with remdesivir were compared to controls. Remdesivir was administered for 5 days. To adjust for any imbalances in our cohort, a propensity score matched analysis was performed. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of remdesivir on in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 350 patients (175 remdesivir, 175 controls) were included in our analysis. Overall, in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between groups remdesivir 5.7% [10/175] vs. control 8.6% [15/175], hazard ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22-1.12, p = 0.091. Subgroup analysis showed a significant reduction of in-hospital mortality in patients who were treated with remdesivir ≤ 7 days of symptom onset remdesivir 4.2% [5/121] vs. control 10.4% [13/125], hazard ratio 0.26, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.75, p = 0.012 and in female patients remdesivir 2.9% [2/69] vs. control 12.2% [9/74], hazard ratio 0.18 95%CI 0.04 to 0.85, p = 0.03. Patients in the remdesivir group had a significantly longer LOS (11 days vs. 9 days, p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Remdesivir did not reduce in-hospital mortality in our whole propensity score matched cohort, but subgroup analysis showed a significant mortality reduction in female patients and in patients treated within ≤ 7 days of symptom onset. Remdesivir may reduce mortality in patients who are treated in the early stages of illness.

4.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071844

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised patients experience reduced vaccine effectiveness and are at higher risk for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) death. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) aims to protect these patients. So far, only tixagevimab/cilgavimab is authorized for use as PrEP. This paper aims to provide real-world data on the use of tixagevimab/cilgavimab and sotrovimab as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PrEP in immunocompromised patients, comparing the evolution of antibody levels and reporting the incidence of breakthrough infections. A retrospective, single-center analysis was conducted including 132 immunocompromised patients with inadequate vaccine response, who received COVID-PrEP at our clinic between January and June 2022. Initially, 95 patients received sotrovimab while 37 patients received tixagevimab/cilgavimab. Antibody levels after first PrEP with sotrovimab remain high for several months after infusion (median 10,058 and 7235 BAU/mL after 1 and 3 months, respectively), with higher titers than after tixagevimab/cilgavimab injection even 3 months later (7235 vs. 1647 BAU/mL, p = 0.0007). Overall, breakthrough infections were rare (13/132, 10%) when compared to overall infection rates during this period (over 30% of the Austrian population), with mild disease course and rapid viral clearance (median 10 days). Sotrovimab may be an additional option for SARS-CoV-2 PrEP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Immunocompromised Host
5.
Infection ; 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab and baricitinib are recommended treatment options for hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen support. Literature about its efficacy and safety in a head-to-head comparison is scarce. METHODS: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring oxygen were treated with tocilizumab or baricitinib additionally to dexamethasone. Tocilizumab was available from February till the 19th of September 2021 and baricitinib from 21st of September. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome parameters were progression to mechanical ventilation (MV), length-of-stay (LOS) and potential side effects. RESULTS: 159 patients (tocilizumab 68, baricitinib 91) with a mean age of 60.5 years, 64% male were included in the study. Tocilizumab patients were admitted 1 day earlier, were in a higher WHO category at the time of inclusion and had a higher CRP level on admission and treatment initiation. Patients receiving Tocilizumab were treated with remdesivir more often and only patients in the baricitinib group were treated with monoclonal antibodies. Other characteristics did not differ significantly. In-hospital mortality (18% vs. 11%, p = 0.229), progression to MV (19% vs. 11%, p = 0.173) and LOS (13 vs. 12 days, p = 0.114) did not differ between groups. Side effects were equally distributed between groups, except ALAT elevation which was significantly more often observed in the tocilizumab group (43% vs. 25%, p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality, progression to MV and LOS were not significantly different in patients treated with tocilizumab or baricitinib additionally to standard of care. Both drugs seem equally effective but further head-to-head trials are needed.

6.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has undergone different molecular changes, sprouting genetic variants of the original wildtype. Clinical comparisons between patients infected with alpha versus delta are scarce. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, adult patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to confirmed SARS-CoV­2 alpha or delta infection were included. Patient characteristics, virologic and laboratory parameters, as well as the clinical course were compared in patients infected with alpha vs. delta variants. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients infected with alpha and 215 patients infected with delta were included. Patients infected with the delta variant were admitted to hospital earlier after symptom onset (6 vs. 7 days, p < 0.001). Blood levels of C­reactive protein (43.3 vs. 62.9 mg/l, p = 0.02) and neutrophil count (3.81 vs. 4.53 G/l, p = 0.06) were lower in delta patients. Furthermore, at hospital admission cycle threshold (CT) values were significantly lower in patients infected with the delta variant (22.3 vs. 24.9, p < 0.001). Patients infected with the delta variant needed supplemental oxygen less often during disease course (50% vs. 64%, p = 0.02). Furthermore, there was a statistically non-significant trend towards a lower ICU admission rate among delta patients (16% vs. 24%, p = 0.08) CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed with the delta variant were admitted to the hospital earlier, had a less severe course of disease and a higher viral replication on admission. This may provide a window of opportunity for antivirals in the hospital setting.

7.
IDCases ; 29: e01528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945122

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients having undergone B-cell-depletion with anti-CD20-antibodies have a higher risk of mortality, delayed viral clearance and prolonged infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report two cases of patients with persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in association with B-cell-depletion that were treated with the monoclonal antibody Sotrovimab. Case presentation: Both patients presented with chronic symptoms of COVID-19 such as dyspnea, fatigue, and chest pain. Nasopharyngeal swabs remained positive months after the initial infection with fluctuating cycle threshold (Ct) values around 30. Both patients received a single infusion with the monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 antibody Sotrovimab, which resulted in a rapid improvement of symptoms and inflammation markers as well as negative SARS-CoV-2 swabs. A follow-up after a month showed ongoing improvement of symptoms, persistent negative SARS-CoV-2 swabs, and positive serum antibodies. Conclusion: Infusion with the monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 antibody led to rapid improvement in two patients with persistent COVID-19 after B-cell depletion.

8.
Frontiers in physiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940243

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is an infectious disease associated with cytokine storms and derailed sympatho-vagal balance leading to respiratory distress, hypoxemia and cardiovascular damage. We applied the auricular vagus nerve stimulation to modulate the parasympathetic nervous system, activate the associated anti-inflammatory pathways, and reestablish the abnormal sympatho-vagal balance. aVNS is performed percutaneously using miniature needle electrodes in ear regions innervated by the auricular vagus nerve. In terms of a randomized prospective study, chronic aVNS is started in critical, but not yet ventilated Covid-19 patients during their stay at the intensive care unit. The results show decreased pro-inflammatory parameters, e.g. a reduction of CRP levels by 32% after 1 day of aVNS and 80% over 7 days (from the mean 151.9 mg/dl to 31.5 mg/dl) or similarly a reduction of TNFalpha levels by 58.1% over 7 days (from a mean 19.3 pg/ml to 8.1 pg/ml) and coagulation parameters, e.g. reduction of DDIMER levels by 66% over 7 days (from a mean 4.5 μg/ml to 1.5 μg/ml) and increased anti-inflammatory parameters, e.g. an increase of IL-10 levels by 66% over 7 days (from the mean 2.7 pg/ml to 7 pg/ml) over the aVNS duration without collateral effects. aVNS proved to be a safe clinical procedure and could effectively supplement treatment of critical Covid-19 patients while preventing devastating over-inflammation.

9.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0014022, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891745

ABSTRACT

A high rate of bacterial and fungal superinfections was reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, diagnosis can be challenging. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity and the clinical utility of the point-of-care method T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) with the gold standard: the blood culture. T2MR can potentially detect five different Candida species and six common bacteria (so-called "ESKAPE" pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinet`obacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecium). If superinfection was suspected in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit, blood culture and two panels of T2MR were performed. Eighty-five diagnostic bundles were performed in 60 patients in total. T2MR detected an ESKAPE pathogen in 9 out of 85 (10.6%) samples, compared to BC in 3 out of 85 (3.5%). A Candida species was detected in 7 of 85 (8.2%) samples of T2MR compared to 1 out of 85(1.2%) in blood culture. The mean time to positive test result in samples with concordant positive results was 4.5 h with T2MR and 52.5 h with blood culture. The additional use of T2MR enables a highly sensitive and rapid detection of ESKAPE and Candida pathogens. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a high number of deaths since the beginning of the pandemic worldwide. One of the reasons is the high number of bacterial and fungal superinfections in patients suffering from critical disease. However, diagnosis is often challenging. In this study we could show that the additional use of the culture-independent method T2MR did not only show a much higher detection rate of bacterial and fungal pathogens but also a significantly shorter time until detection and therapy change compared to the gold standard: the blood culture. The implementation of T2MRin the care of patients with severe course of COVID-19 might lead to an earlier sufficient antimicrobial therapy and as a result lower mortality and less use of broad-spectrum unnecessary therapy reducing the risk of resistance development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , Enterococcus faecium , Superinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Culture , COVID-19/diagnosis , Candida , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/microbiology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Superinfection/drug therapy
10.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 801309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793001

ABSTRACT

RT-qPCR-based diagnostic tests play important roles in combating virus-caused pandemics such as Covid-19. However, their dependence on sophisticated equipment and the associated costs often limits their widespread use. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification after reverse transcription (RT-LAMP) is an alternative nucleic acid detection method that overcomes these limitations. Here, we present a rapid, robust, and sensitive RT-LAMP-based SARS-CoV-2 detection assay. Our 40-min procedure bypasses the RNA isolation step, is insensitive to carryover contamination, and uses a colorimetric readout that enables robust SARS-CoV-2 detection from various sample types. Based on this assay, we have increased sensitivity and scalability by adding a nucleic acid enrichment step (Bead-LAMP), developed a version for home testing (HomeDip-LAMP), and identified open-source RT-LAMP enzymes that can be produced in any molecular biology laboratory. On a dedicated website, rtlamp.org (DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.6033689), we provide detailed protocols and videos. Our optimized, general-purpose RT-LAMP assay is an important step toward population-scale SARS-CoV-2 testing.

11.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 117(3): 177-186, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763329

ABSTRACT

Treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is particularly challenging due to the rapid scientific advances and the often significant hypoxemia. Use of high-flow oxygen, noninvasive mask ventilation, and the technique of awake proning can sometimes avoid the need for intubation. Mechanical ventilation follows the principles of ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; lung protective ventilation) and is generally supplemented by consequent positioning therapy (with at least 16 h in prone position in multiple cycles). Antiviral therapy options such as remdesivir usually come too late for patients with COVID-19 in the ICU, the only exception being the administration of monoclonal antibodies for patients without seroconversion. The value of immunomodulatory therapy such as dexamethasone is undisputed. Interleukin­6 antagonists, on the other hand, are rather problematic for ICU patients, and for Janus kinase inhibitors, data and experience are still insufficient in this context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial
12.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(23-24): 1310-1317, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and treatment of influenza patients are often provided across several medical specialties. We compared patient outcomes at an infectious diseases (ID), a rheumatology (Rheu) and a pulmonology (Pul) department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective observational multicenter study we included all influenza positive adults who were hospitalized and treated at flu isolation wards in three hospitals in Vienna during the season 2018/2019. RESULTS: A total of 490 patients (49% female) with a median age of 73 years (interquartile range [IQR] 61-82) were included. No differences regarding age, sex and most underlying diseases were present at admission. Frequencies of the most common complications differed: acute kidney failure (ID 12.7%, Rheu 21.2%, Pulm 37.1%, p < 0.001), acute heart failure (ID 4.3%, Rheu 17.1%, Pulm 14.4%, p < 0.001) and respiratory insufficiency (ID 45.1%, Rheu 41.5%, Pulm 56.3%, p = 0.030). Oseltamivir prescription was lowest at the pulmonology flu ward (ID 79.6%, Rheu 90.5%, Pulm 61.7%, p < 0.001). In total 176 patients (35.9%) developed pneumonia. Antibiotic selection varied between the departments: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (ID 28.9%, Rheu 63.8%, Pulm 5.9%, p < 0.001), cefuroxime (ID 28.9%, Rheu 1.3%, Pulm 0%, p < 0.001), 3rd generation cephalosporins (ID 4.4%, Rheu 5%, Pulm 72.5%, p < 0.001), doxycycline (ID 17.8%, Rheu 0%, Pulm 0%, p < 0.001). The median length of stay was significantly different between wards: ID 6 days (IQR 5-8), Rheu 6 days (IQR 5-7) and Pulm 7 days (IQR 5-9.5, p = 0.034). In-hospital mortality was 4.3% and did not differ between specialties. CONCLUSION: We detected differences in oseltamivir usage, length of in-hospital stay and antibiotic choices for pneumonia. Influenza-associated mortality was unaffected by specialty.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Oseltamivir , Seasons
13.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(6): 1494-1500, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care antigen tests (AgTs) for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enable the rapid testing of infected individuals and are easy-to-use. However, there are few studies evaluating their clinical use. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical performance characteristics of various commercial SARS-CoV-2 AgTs. DESIGN: The sensitivity of five AgTs, comprising four rapid antigen tests (RAT; AMP Rapid Test SARS-CoV-2 Ag, NADAL COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test, CLINITEST Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Test, and Roche SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test) and one sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA; LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 Assay), were evaluated in 300 nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. Reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used as a reference method. PARTICIPANTS: NP swabs were collected from patients admitted to hospital due to COVID-19. KEY RESULTS: Sensitivities of the AgTs ranged from 64.9 to 91.7% for samples with RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values lower than 30 and were 100% for cycle threshold (Ct) values lower than 20. The highest sensitivity was observed for CLINITEST Rapid COVID-19 Antigen Test, and Roche SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test. Multivariate analysis using time from symptom onset and the Ct value for AgT sensitivity showed an inverse correlation. Further, the female sex was an independent factor of lower RAT sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Antigen tests from NP swab samples show high sensitivity in patients with a Ct value < 20. The best clinical sensitivity can be obtained using AgTs within the first 6 days after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 385-390, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have high rates of bacterial superinfection. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction panels may be able to provide useful information about the incidence and spectrum of bacteria causing superinfections. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study we included all COVID-19 positive patients admitted to our intensive care unit with suspected hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) in whom the BioFire® Pneumonia Panel (PP) was performed from tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnostic purposes. The aim of our study was to analyze the spectrum of pathogens detected with the PP. RESULTS: In this study 60 patients with a median age of 62.5 years were included. Suspected VAP was the most frequent (48/60, 80%) indication for performing the PP. Tracheal aspirate was the predominant sample type (50/60, 83.3%). The PP led to a negative, monomicrobial and polymicrobial result in 36.7%, 35% and 28.3% of the patients, respectively. The three most detected bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (13/60, 21.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12/60, 20%) and Haemophilus influenzae (9/60, 15%). Neither atypical bacteria nor resistance genes were detected. Microbiological culture of respiratory specimens was performed in 36 (60%) patients concomitantly. The PP and microbiological culture yielded a non-concordant, partial concordant and completely concordant result in 13.9% (5/36), 30.6% (11/36) and 55.6% (20/36) of the analyzed samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with suspected HAP/VAP results of the PP and microbiological culture methods were largely consistent. In our cohort, S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were the most frequently detected organisms. A higher diagnostic yield may be achieved if both methods are combined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics
15.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(2): 176-181, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs as a specimen collection method to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection is frequently perceived as uncomfortable by patients and requires trained personnel. In this study, detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in mouthwash samples and buccal swabs were compared in both children and adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In patients admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19 within the previous 72 hours, NP and buccal swabs as well as mouthwash samples were collected. RT-qPCR was performed on all samples. RESULTS: In total, 170 samples were collected from 155 patients (137 adults and 18 children). Approximately 91.7% of the collected NP swabs were positive in RT-PCR compared to 63.1% of mouthwash samples and 42.4% of buccal swabs. Compared to NP swabs, the sensitivity of using mouthwash was 96.3% and 65.4% for buccal swabs in NP swab samples with a CT value <25. With increasing CT values, sensitivity decreased in both mouthwash and buccal swabs. The virus load was highest during the first week of infection, with a continuous decline observed in all three collection methods over time. DISCUSSION: Mouthwash presents an alternative collection method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in the case of unfeasible NP swab sampling. Buccal swabs should not be used due to their low sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , Mouthwashes , Nasopharynx , Specimen Handling
19.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 704767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317240

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) demonstrating in-vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, large trials failed to show any net clinical benefit. Since SARS-CoV-2 has an EC50 of 16.4 µg/ml for LPV this could be due to inadequate dosing. Methods: COVID-19 positive patients admitted to the hospital who received high dose LPV/RTV were included. High dose (HD) LPV/RTV 200/50 mg was defined as four tablets bid as loading dose, then three tablets bid for up to 10 days. Trough plasma concentrations were measured after the loading dose and on day 5-7 in steady state (SS). Post loading dose (PLD) and SS plasma trough levels were compared with SS trough levels from COVID-19 patients who received normal dose (ND) LPV/RTV (2 tablets bid) at the beginning of the pandemic. Results: Fifty patients (30% female) with a median age of 59 years (interquartile range 49-70.25) received HD LPV/RTV. Median HD-PLD concentration was 24.9 µg/ml (IQR 15.8-30.3) and significantly higher than HD-SS (12.9 µg/ml, IQR 7.2-19.5, p < 0.001) and ND-SS (13.6 µg/ml, IQR 10.1-22.2, p = 0.013). HD-SS and ND-SS plasma levels did not differ significantly (p = 0.507). C-reactive-protein showed a positive correlation with HD-SS (Spearman correlation-coefficient rS = 0.42, p = 0.014) and ND-SS (rS = 0.81, p = 0.015) but not with HD-PLD (rS = 0.123, p = 0.43). Conclusion: HD-PLD plasma trough concentration was significantly higher than HD-SS and ND-SS concentration, but no difference was detected between HD-SS and ND-SS trough levels. Due to the high EC50 of SARS-CoV-2 and the fact that LPV/RTV is highly protein bound, it seems unlikely that LPV/RTV exhibits a relevant antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo.

20.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(11): 820-829, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) containing antibodies derived from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has been proposed as a promising therapeutic option for severe COVID-19. METHODS: In our intensive care unit (ICU), 55 patients (46 male, median age 61 years) with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 (35 = 63.6% on mechanical ventilation, 7 = 14.5% on high-flow nasal oxygen, 12 = 20% on non-invasive ventilation, 1 = 1.8% without respiratory support) were treated with high-titre CP (200 mL per dose, range 1-6 doses, median 3 doses per patient, minimum titre > 1:100, Wantai test). 139 COVID-19 patients treated in the same ICU who did not receive CP served as control group. In 27 patients, the effect of CP on the individual levels of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was assessed by ELISA in serum sample pairs collected before and after CP transfusion. RESULTS: The first CP dose was administered at a median of 8 days after symptom onset. 13 patients in the plasma cohort died (28-day mortality 24.1%), compared to 42 (30.2%) in the cohort who did not receive CP (p = 0.5, Pearson Chi-squared test). Out of the 27 individuals investigated for the presence of IgG antibodies, 8 did not have detectable IgG levels before the first CP transfusion. In this subpopulation, 3 patients (37.5%) died. Not a single confirmed adverse reaction to CP was noted. CONCLUSIONS: While adjunctive treatment with CP for severe and life-threatening COVID-19 was a very safe intervention, we did not observe any effect on mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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