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1.
Virology ; 582: 57-61, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304372

ABSTRACT

Competition assays were conducted in vitro and in vivo to examine how the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant displaced the prototype Washington/1/2020 (WA/1) strain. While WA/1 virus exhibited a moderately increased proportion compared to that in the inoculum following co-infection in human respiratory cells, Delta variant possessed a substantial in vivo fitness advantage as this virus becoming predominant in both inoculated and contact animals. This work identifies critical traits of the Delta variant that likely played a role in it becoming a dominant variant and highlights the necessities of employing multiple model systems to assess the fitness of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ferrets , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biological Assay
2.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28673, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267686

ABSTRACT

Broadly neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are sought to curb coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. Here we produced and characterized a set of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Two of them, 17A7 and 17B10, were highly potent in microneutralization assay with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) ≤135 ng/mL against infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants, including G614, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Kappa, Lambda, B.1.1.298, B.1.222, B.1.5, and R.1. Both mAbs (especially 17A7) also exhibited strong in vivo efficacy in protecting K18-hACE2 transgenic mice from the lethal infection with G614, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta viruses. Structural analysis indicated that 17A7 and 17B10 target the tip of the receptor binding motif in the RBD-up conformation. A third RBD-reactive mAb (3A6) although escaped by Beta and Gamma, was highly effective in cross-neutralizing Delta and Omicron BA.1 variants in vitro and in vivo. In competition experiments, antibodies targeting epitopes similar to these 3 mAbs were rarely enriched in human COVID-19 convalescent sera or postvaccination sera. These results are helpful to inform new antibody/vaccine design and these mAbs can be useful tools for characterizing SARS-CoV-2 variants and elicited antibody responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Neutralization Tests
4.
Lancet ; 400(10353): 693-706, 2022 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284974

ABSTRACT

Annual seasonal influenza epidemics of variable severity caused by influenza A and B virus infections result in substantial disease burden worldwide. Seasonal influenza virus circulation declined markedly in 2020-21 after SARS-CoV-2 emerged but increased in 2021-22. Most people with influenza have abrupt onset of respiratory symptoms and myalgia with or without fever and recover within 1 week, but some can experience severe or fatal complications. Prevention is primarily by annual influenza vaccination, with efforts underway to develop new vaccines with improved effectiveness. Sporadic zoonotic infections with novel influenza A viruses of avian or swine origin continue to pose pandemic threats. In this Seminar, we discuss updates of key influenza issues for clinicians, in particular epidemiology, virology, and pathogenesis, diagnostic testing including multiplex assays that detect influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2, complications, antiviral treatment, influenza vaccines, infection prevention, and non-pharmaceutical interventions, and highlight gaps in clinical management and priorities for clinical research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): e2161422, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237111

ABSTRACT

The rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages mandates a better understanding of viral replication and cross-neutralization among these sublineages. Here we used K18-hACE2 mice and primary human airway cultures to examine the viral fitness and antigenic relationship among Omicron sublineages. In both K18-hACE2 mice and human airway cultures, Omicron sublineages exhibited a replication order of BA.5 ≥ BA.2 ≥ BA.2.12.1 > BA.1; no difference in body weight loss was observed among different sublineage-infected mice. The BA.1-, BA.2-, BA.2.12.1-, and BA.5-infected mice developed distinguishable cross-neutralizations against Omicron sublineages, but exhibited little neutralization against the index virus (i.e. USA-WA1/2020) or the Delta variant. Surprisingly, the BA.5-infected mice developed higher neutralization activity against heterologous BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 than that against homologous BA.5; serum neutralizing titres did not always correlate with viral replication levels in infected animals. Our results revealed a distinct antigenic cartography of Omicron sublineages and support the bivalent vaccine approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Animals , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Melphalan , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(6): 366-374, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198263

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the stability of improvements in global respiratory virus surveillance in countries supported by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after reductions in CDC funding and with the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We assessed whether national influenza surveillance systems of CDC-funded countries: (i) continued to analyse as many specimens between 2013 and 2021; (ii) participated in activities of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System; (iii) tested enough specimens to detect rare events or signals of unusual activity; and (iv) demonstrated stability before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used CDC budget records and data from the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Findings: While CDC reduced per-country influenza funding by about 75% over 10 years, the number of specimens tested annually remained stable (mean 2261). Reporting varied substantially by country and transmission zone. Countries funded by CDC accounted for 71% (range 61-75%) of specimens included in WHO consultations on the composition of influenza virus vaccines. In 2019, only eight of the 17 transmission zones sent enough specimens to WHO collaborating centres before the vaccine composition meeting to reliably identify antigenic variants. Conclusion: Great progress has been made in the global understanding of influenza trends and seasonality. To optimize surveillance to identify atypical influenza viruses, and to integrate molecular testing, sequencing and reporting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into existing systems, funding must continue to support these efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13): S26-S33, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162885

ABSTRACT

A network of global respiratory disease surveillance systems and partnerships has been built over decades as a direct response to the persistent threat of seasonal, zoonotic, and pandemic influenza. These efforts have been spearheaded by the World Health Organization, country ministries of health, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nongovernmental organizations, academic groups, and others. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention worked closely with ministries of health in partner countries and the World Health Organization to leverage influenza surveillance systems and programs to respond to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Countries used existing surveillance systems for severe acute respiratory infection and influenza-like illness, respiratory virus laboratory resources, pandemic influenza preparedness plans, and ongoing population-based influenza studies to track, study, and respond to SARS-CoV-2 infections. The incorporation of COVID-19 surveillance into existing influenza sentinel surveillance systems can support continued global surveillance for respiratory viruses with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
8.
J Virol ; : e0140322, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137419

ABSTRACT

Despite reports of confirmed human infection following ocular exposure with both influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2, the dynamics of virus spread throughout oculonasal tissues and the relative capacity of virus transmission following ocular inoculation remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the impact of exposure route on subsequent release of airborne viral particles into the air has not been examined previously. To assess this, ferrets were inoculated by the ocular route with A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) IAVs and two SARS-CoV-2 (early pandemic Washington/1 and Delta variant) viruses. Virus replication was assessed in both respiratory and ocular specimens, and transmission was evaluated in direct contact or respiratory droplet settings. Viral RNA in aerosols shed by inoculated ferrets was quantified with a two-stage cyclone aerosol sampler (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH]). All IAV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses mounted a productive and transmissible infection in ferrets following ocular inoculation, with peak viral titers and release of virus-laden aerosols from ferrets indistinguishable from those from ferrets inoculated by previously characterized intranasal inoculation methods. Viral RNA was detected in ferret conjunctival washes from all viruses examined, though infectious virus in this specimen was recovered only following IAV inoculation. Low-dose ocular-only aerosol exposure or inhalation aerosol exposure of ferrets to IAV similarly led to productive infection of ferrets and shedding of aerosolized virus. Viral evolution during infection was comparable between all inoculation routes examined. These data support that both IAV and SARS-CoV-2 can establish a high-titer mammalian infection following ocular exposure that is associated with rapid detection of virus-laden aerosols shed by inoculated animals. IMPORTANCE Documented human infection with influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 has been reported among individuals wearing respiratory protection in the absence of eye protection, highlighting the capacity of these respiratory tract-tropic viruses to exploit nonrespiratory routes of exposure to initiate productive infection. However, comprehensive evaluations of how ocular exposure may modulate virus pathogenicity and transmissibility in mammals relative to respiratory exposure are limited and have not investigated multiple virus families side by side. Using the ferret model, we show that ocular exposure with multiple strains of either coronaviruses or influenza A viruses leads to an infection that results in shedding of detectable aerosolized virus from inoculated animals, contributing toward onward transmission of both viruses to susceptible contacts. Collectively, these studies support that the ocular surface represents a susceptible mucosal surface that, if exposed to a sufficient quantity of either virus, permits establishment of an infection which is similarly transmissible as that following respiratory exposure.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(10): 1698-1705, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116480

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic incited unprecedented demand for assays that detect viral nucleic acids, viral proteins, and corresponding antibodies. The 320 molecular diagnostics in receipt of US Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization mainly focus on viral detection; however, no currently approved test can be used to infer infectiousness, that is, the presence of replicable virus. As the number of tests conducted increased, persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positivity by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in some individuals led to concerns over quarantine guidelines. To this end, we attempted to design an assay that reduces the frequency of positive test results from individuals who do not shed culturable virus. We describe multiplex quantitative RT-PCR assays that detect genomic RNA (gRNA) and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) species of SARS-CoV-2, including spike, nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope, and ORF8. Viral RNA abundances calculated from these assays were compared with antigen presence, self-reported symptoms, and culture outcome (virus isolation) using samples from a 14-day longitudinal household transmission study. By characterizing the clinical and molecular dynamics of infection, we show that sgRNA detection has higher predictive value for culture outcome compared to detection of gRNA alone. Our findings suggest that sgRNA presence correlates with active infection and may help identify individuals shedding culturable virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Self Report , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Guide, Kinetoplastida , COVID-19/diagnosis
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112576

ABSTRACT

Influenza A(H7N9) viruses remain as a high pandemic threat. The continued evolution of the A(H7N9) viruses poses major challenges in pandemic preparedness strategies through vaccination. We assessed the breadth of the heterologous neutralizing antibody responses against the 3rd and 5th wave A(H7N9) viruses using the 1st wave vaccine sera from 4 vaccine groups: 1. inactivated vaccine with 2.8 µg hemagglutinin (HA)/dose + AS03A; 2. inactivated vaccine with 5.75 µg HA/dose + AS03A; 3. inactivated vaccine with 11.5 µg HA/dose + MF59; and 4. recombinant virus like particle (VLP) vaccine with 15 µg HA/dose + ISCOMATRIX™. Vaccine group 1 had the highest antibody responses to the vaccine virus and the 3rd/5th wave drifted viruses. Notably, the relative levels of cross-reactivity to the drifted viruses as measured by the antibody GMT ratios to the 5th wave viruses were similar across all 4 vaccine groups. The 1st wave vaccines induced robust responses to the 3rd and Pearl River Delta lineage 5th wave viruses but lower cross-reactivity to the highly pathogenic 5th wave A(H7N9) virus. The population in the United States was largely immunologically naive to the A(H7N9) HA. Seasonal vaccination induced cross-reactive neuraminidase inhibition and binding antibodies to N9, but minimal cross-reactive antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies to A(H7N9).

11.
iScience ; 25(12): 105507, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095533

ABSTRACT

Here we interrogate the factors responsible for SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in a K18-hACE2 transgenic mouse model. We show that Delta and the closely related Kappa variant cause viral pneumonia and severe lung lesions in K18-hACE2 mice. Human COVID-19 mRNA post-vaccination sera after the 2nd dose are significantly less efficient in neutralizing Delta/Kappa than early 614G virus in vitro and in vivo. By 5 months post-vaccination, ≥50% of donors lack detectable neutralizing antibodies against Delta and Kappa and all mice receiving 5-month post-vaccination sera die after the lethal challenges. Although a 3rd vaccine dose can boost antibody neutralization against Delta in vitro and in vivo, the mean log neutralization titers against the latest Omicron subvariants are 1/3-1/2 of those against the original 614D virus. Our results suggest that enhanced virulence, greater immune evasion, and waning of vaccine-elicited protection account for SARS-CoV-2 variants caused breakthrough infections.

12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(43): 1353-1358, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected influenza virus transmission, with historically low activity, atypical timing, or altered duration of influenza seasons during 2020-22 (1,2). Community mitigation measures implemented since 2020, including physical distancing and face mask use, have, in part, been credited for low influenza detections globally during the pandemic, compared with those during prepandemic seasons (1). Reduced population exposure to natural influenza infections during 2020-21 and relaxed community mitigation measures after introduction of COVID-19 vaccines could increase the possibility of severe influenza epidemics. Partners in Chile and the United States assessed Southern Hemisphere influenza activity and estimated age-group-specific rates of influenza-attributable hospitalizations and vaccine effectiveness (VE) in Chile in 2022. Chile's most recent influenza season began in January 2022, which was earlier than during prepandemic seasons and was associated predominantly with influenza A(H3N2) virus, clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2. The cumulative incidence of influenza-attributable pneumonia and influenza (P&I) hospitalizations was 5.1 per 100,000 person-years during 2022, which was higher than that during 2020-21 but lower than incidence during the 2017-19 influenza seasons. Adjusted VE against influenza A(H3N2)-associated hospitalization was 49%. These findings indicate that influenza activity continues to be disrupted after emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Northern Hemisphere countries might benefit from preparing for an atypical influenza season, which could include early influenza activity with potentially severe disease during the 2022-23 season, especially in the absence of prevention measures, including vaccination. Health authorities should encourage all eligible persons to seek influenza vaccination and take precautions to reduce transmission of influenza (e.g., avoiding close contact with persons who are ill).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , United States , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Seasons , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chile/epidemiology , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Influenza B virus
13.
mBio ; 13(5): e0242122, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038244

ABSTRACT

The continued spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans necessitates evaluation of variants for enhanced virulence and transmission. We used the ferret model to perform a comparative analysis of four SARS-CoV-2 strains, including an early pandemic isolate from the United States (WA1), and representatives of the Alpha, Beta, and Delta lineages. While Beta virus was not capable of pronounced replication in ferrets, WA1, Alpha, and Delta viruses productively replicated in the ferret upper respiratory tract, despite causing only mild disease with no overt histopathological changes. Strain-specific transmissibility was observed; WA1 and Delta viruses transmitted in a direct contact setting, whereas Delta virus was also capable of limited airborne transmission. Viral RNA was shed in exhaled air particles from all inoculated animals but was highest for Delta virus. Prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 offered varied protection against reinfection with either homologous or heterologous variants. Notable genomic variants in the spike protein were most frequently detected following WA1 and Delta virus infection. IMPORTANCE Continued surveillance and risk assessment of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are critical for pandemic response and preparedness. As such, in vivo evaluations are indispensable for early detection of variants with enhanced virulence and transmission. Here, we used the ferret model to compare the pathogenicity and transmissibility of an original SARS-CoV-2 isolate (USA-WA1/2020 [WA1]) to those of a panel of Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants, as well as to evaluate protection from homologous and heterologous reinfection. We observed strain-specific differences in replication kinetics in the ferret respiratory tract and virus load emitted into the air, revealing enhanced transmissibility of the Delta virus relative to previously detected strains. Prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 provided varied levels of protection from reinfection, with the Beta strain eliciting the lowest level of protection. Overall, we found that ferrets represent a useful model for comparative assessments of SARS-CoV-2 infection, transmission, and reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Ferrets , Reinfection , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939027

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, scientific research has moved at an unprecedented rate in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapid development of effective vaccines and therapeutics would not have been possible without extensive background knowledge on coronaviruses developed over decades by researchers, including Kathryn (Kay) Holmes. Kay's research team discovered the first coronavirus receptors for mouse hepatitis virus and human coronavirus 229E and contributed a wealth of information on coronaviral spike glycoproteins and receptor interactions that are critical determinants of host and tissue specificity. She collaborated with several research laboratories to contribute knowledge in additional areas, including coronaviral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and evolution. Throughout her career, Kay was an extremely dedicated and thoughtful mentor to numerous graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. This article provides a review of her contributions to the coronavirus field and her exemplary mentoring.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Receptors, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19 , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1442-1445, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917186

ABSTRACT

To detect new and changing SARS-CoV-2 variants, we investigated candidate Delta-Omicron recombinant genomes from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national genomic surveillance. Laboratory and bioinformatic investigations identified and validated 9 genetically related SARS-CoV-2 viruses with a hybrid Delta-Omicron spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
16.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; 100(6):366-374, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888011

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the stability of improvements in global respiratory virus surveillance in countries supported by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after reductions in CDC funding and with the stress of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods We assessed whether national influenza surveillance systems of CDC-funded countries: (i) continued to analyse as many specimens between 2013 and 2021;(ii) participated in activities of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System;(iii) tested enough specimens to detect rare events or signals of unusual activity;and (iv) demonstrated stability before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used CDC budget records and data from the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System. Findings While CDC reduced per-country influenza funding by about 75% over 10 years, the number of specimens tested annually remained stable (mean 2261). Reporting varied substantially by country and transmission zone. Countries funded by CDC accounted for 71% (range 61–75%) of specimens included in WHO consultations on the composition of influenza virus vaccines. In 2019, only eight of the 17 transmission zones sent enough specimens to WHO collaborating centres before the vaccine composition meeting to reliably identify antigenic variants. Conclusion Great progress has been made in the global understanding of influenza trends and seasonality. To optimize surveillance to identify atypical influenza viruses, and to integrate molecular testing, sequencing and reporting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 into existing systems, funding must continue to support these efforts.

17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(6): 206-211, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687588

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance is a critical tool for tracking emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which can exhibit characteristics that potentially affect public health and clinical interventions, including increased transmissibility, illness severity, and capacity for immune escape. During June 2021-January 2022, CDC expanded genomic surveillance data sources to incorporate sequence data from public repositories to produce weighted estimates of variant proportions at the jurisdiction level and refined analytic methods to enhance the timeliness and accuracy of national and regional variant proportion estimates. These changes also allowed for more comprehensive variant proportion estimation at the jurisdictional level (i.e., U.S. state, district, territory, and freely associated state). The data in this report are a summary of findings of recent proportions of circulating variants that are updated weekly on CDC's COVID Data Tracker website to enable timely public health action.† The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2 and AY sublineages) variant rose from 1% to >50% of viral lineages circulating nationally during 8 weeks, from May 1-June 26, 2021. Delta-associated infections remained predominant until being rapidly overtaken by infections associated with the Omicron (B.1.1.529 and BA sublineages) variant in December 2021, when Omicron increased from 1% to >50% of circulating viral lineages during a 2-week period. As of the week ending January 22, 2022, Omicron was estimated to account for 99.2% (95% CI = 99.0%-99.5%) of SARS-CoV-2 infections nationwide, and Delta for 0.7% (95% CI = 0.5%-1.0%). The dynamic landscape of SARS-CoV-2 variants in 2021, including Delta- and Omicron-driven resurgences of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across the United States, underscores the importance of robust genomic surveillance efforts to inform public health planning and practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Genomics , Humans , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance/methods , United States/epidemiology
18.
Nature ; 602(7896): 307-313, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585832

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of concern (VOCs) are driving the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. Experimental assessments of replication and transmission of major VOCs and progenitors are needed to understand the mechanisms of replication and transmission of VOCs3. Here we show that the spike protein (S) from Alpha (also known as B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) VOCs had a greater affinity towards the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor than that of the progenitor variant S(D614G) in vitro. Progenitor variant virus expressing S(D614G) (wt-S614G) and the Alpha variant showed similar replication kinetics in human nasal airway epithelial cultures, whereas the Beta variant was outcompeted by both. In vivo, competition experiments showed a clear fitness advantage of Alpha over wt-S614G in ferrets and two mouse models-the substitutions in S were major drivers of the fitness advantage. In hamsters, which support high viral replication levels, Alpha and wt-S614G showed similar fitness. By contrast, Beta was outcompeted by Alpha and wt-S614G in hamsters and in mice expressing human ACE2. Our study highlights the importance of using multiple models to characterize fitness of VOCs and demonstrates that Alpha is adapted for replication in the upper respiratory tract and shows enhanced transmission in vivo in restrictive models, whereas Beta does not overcome Alpha or wt-S614G in naive animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Animals, Laboratory/virology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virulence/genetics
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23561, 2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559302

ABSTRACT

N-glycosylation plays an important role in the structure and function of membrane and secreted proteins. The spike protein on the surface of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, is heavily glycosylated and the major target for developing vaccines, therapeutic drugs and diagnostic tests. The first major SARS-CoV-2 variant carries a D614G substitution in the spike (S-D614G) that has been associated with altered conformation, enhanced ACE2 binding, and increased infectivity and transmission. In this report, we used mass spectrometry techniques to characterize and compare the N-glycosylation of the wild type (S-614D) or variant (S-614G) SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins prepared under identical conditions. The data showed that half of the N-glycosylation sequons changed their distribution of glycans in the S-614G variant. The S-614G variant showed a decrease in the relative abundance of complex-type glycans (up to 45%) and an increase in oligomannose glycans (up to 33%) on all altered sequons. These changes led to a reduction in the overall complexity of the total N-glycosylation profile. All the glycosylation sites with altered patterns were in the spike head while the glycosylation of three sites in the stalk remained unchanged between S-614G and S-614D proteins.


Subject(s)
Glycopeptides/analysis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Glycosylation , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
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