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Allergologie ; 44(1):54-80, 2021.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1572877


With the advent of biologicals, more and more therapeutics are available that specifically address specific switch points in the pathomechanism of immunologically dominated diseases. Thus, the focus of diagnostics and therapy (precision medicine) is more on the individual disease characteristics of the individual patient. Regarding the different phenotypes of atopic diseases, severe asthma was the first entity for which biologicals were approved, followed by urticaria, and finally atopic dermatitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Experience in the treatment of severe bronchial asthma has shown that the intensity of the response to biological therapy depends on the quality of clinical and immunological phenotyping of the patients. This also applies to different diseases of the atopic form, as patients can suffer from several atopic diseases at the same time, each with different characteristics. Biologics are already emerging that may represent a suitable therapy for allergic bronchial asthma, which often occurs together with severe neurodennatitis. and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. In practice, however, the question of possible combinations of biologicals for the therapy of complex clinical pictures of individual patients is increasingly arising. In doing so, the side effect profile must be taken into account, including hypersensitivity reactions, whose diagnostic and logistical management must aim at a safe and efficient therapy of the underlying disease. Increased attention must also be paid to biological therapy in pregnancy and planned (predictable) vaccinations as well as existing infections, such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Before starting a biological therapy, the immune status should be checked with regard to chronic vi- ral and bacterial infections and, if necessary. the vaccination status should be refreshed or missing vaccinations should be made up for before starting therapy. Currently, reliable data on the effect of biologicals on the immunological situation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 are not available. Therefore, research and development of suitable diagnostic methods for detection of immunologically caused side effects as well as detection of potential therapy responders and non-responders is of great importance.

Allergologie ; 44(5):339-348, 2021.
Article in German | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1227147


Background: Vaccinations against Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are intended to induce an immune response in the sense of protection against infection/disease. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is also thought to induce a (different) immune response in the sense of tolerance to allergens. There is uncertainty among patients and physicians regarding the use of vaccination and AIT in temporal relation, which this position paper aims to clarify. The four vaccines currently approved in Germany for vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 are described and possible immunological interactions with AIT are highlighted, as well as practical recommendations for action. Methods: Based on the current internationally published literature, this position paper provides specific recommendations for action regarding the use of AIT in temporal relation to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Results: The present recommendations for action relate to the following conditions for which AIT is used i) allergic rhinitis, ii) allergic bronchial asthma, iii) insect venom allergy, iiii) food allergy (peanut). Conclusions: If vaccination is imminent, initiation of subcutaneous (SCIT), sublingual (SLIT), or oral (OIT) AIT should be delayed until 1 week after the 2nd vaccination date. Thus, there should generally be an interval of approximately 1 week between SCIT and COVID-19 vaccination. For the continuation of an ongoing AIT, we recommend an interval of 1 week before and after vaccination for SCIT. For SLIT and OIT, we recommend taking them up to the day before vaccination and taking a break from SLIT and OIT for 2 – 7 days after vaccination.

Allergologie ; 44(4):261-269, 2021.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1215636


Background: After the beginning and during the worldwide pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), patients with allergic and atopic diseases have felt and still feel insecure. Currently, four vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been approved by the Paul Ehrlich Institute in Germany, and vaccination campaigns have been started nationwide. In this respect, it is of utmost importance to give recommendations on possible immunological interactions and potential risks of immunomodulatory substances (monoclonal antibodies, biologicals) during concurrent vaccination with the approved vaccines. Methods: This position paper provides specific recommendations on the use of immunomodulatory drugs in the context of concurrent SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations based on current literature. Results: The recommendations are covering the following conditions in which biologicals are indicated and approved: i) chronic inflammatory skin diseases (atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria), ii) bronchial asthma, and iii) chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Patients with atopic dermatitis or chronic spontaneous urticaria are not at increased risk for allergic reactions after COVID-19 vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination may result in transient eczema exacerbation due to general immune stimulation. Vaccination in patients receiving systemic therapy with biologicals can be performed. Patients with severe asthma and concomitant treatment with biologicals also do not have an increased risk of allergic reaction following COVID-19 vaccination which is recommended in these patients. Patients with CRSwNP are also not known to be at increased risk for allergic vaccine reactions, and continuation or initiation of a treatment with biologicals is also recommended with concurrent COVID-19 vaccination. In general, COVID-19 vaccination should be given within the interval between two applications of the respective biological, that is, with a time-lag of at least 1 week after the previous or at least 1 week before the next biological treatment planned. Conclusion: Biologicals for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria, bronchial asthma, and CRSwNP should be continued during the current COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. However, the intervals of biological treatment may need to be slightly adjusted (DGAKI/AeDA recommendations as of March 22, 2021). © 2021 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl Feistle.

Allergologie ; 44(4):253, 2021.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1198054