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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 362: 196-205, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889456

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The respiratory illness triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is often particularly serious or fatal amongst patients with pre-existing heart conditions. Although the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-related cardiac damage remain elusive, inflammation (i.e. 'cytokine storm') and oxidative stress are likely involved. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we sought to determine: 1) if cardiomyocytes are targeted by SARS-CoV-2 and 2) how inflammation and oxidative stress promote the viral entry into cardiac cells. We analysed pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress and its impact on virus entry and virus-associated cardiac damage from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and compared it to left ventricular myocardial tissues obtained from non-infected transplanted hearts either from end stage heart failure or non-failing hearts (donor group). We found that neuropilin-1 potentiates SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cardiomyocytes, a phenomenon driven by inflammatory and oxidant signals. These changes accounted for increased proteases activity and apoptotic markers thus leading to cell damage and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the heart and defines promising targets for antiviral interventions for COVID-19 patients with pre-existing heart conditions or patients with co-morbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Myocytes, Cardiac , Oxidative Stress
2.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 2022 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885455

ABSTRACT

Acute cardiac injuries occur in 20%-25% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Herein, we demonstrate that human cardiac organoids (hCOs) are a viable platform to model the cardiac injuries caused by COVID-19 hyperinflammation. As IL-1ß is an upstream cytokine and a core COVID-19 signature cytokine, it was used to stimulate hCOs to induce the release of a milieu of proinflammatory cytokines that mirror the profile of COVID-19 cytokine storm. The IL-1ß treated hCOs recapitulated transcriptomic, structural, and functional signatures of COVID-19 hearts. The comparison of IL-1ß treated hCOs with cardiac tissue from COVID-19 autopsies illustrated the critical roles of hyper-inflammation in COVID-19 cardiac insults and indicated the cardioprotective effects of endothelium. The IL-1ß treated hCOs thus provide a defined and robust model to assess the efficacy and potential side effects of immunomodulatory drugs, as well as the reversibility of COVID-19 cardiac injuries at baseline and simulated exercise conditions.

3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(8): 1066-1075, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many postmortem studies address the cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 and provide valuable information, but are limited by their small sample size. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to better understand the various aspects of the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 by pooling data from a large number of autopsy studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched the online databases Ovid EBM Reviews, Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science for concepts of autopsy or histopathology combined with COVID-19, published between database inception and February 2021. We also searched for unpublished manuscripts using the medRxiv services operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles were considered eligible for inclusion if they reported human postmortem cardiovascular findings among individuals with a confirmed SARS coronavirus type 2 (CoV-2) infection. PARTICIPANTS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients with post-mortem cardiovascular findings. INTERVENTIONS: None. METHODS: Studies were individually assessed for risk of selection, detection, and reporting biases. The median prevalence of different autopsy findings with associated interquartile ranges (IQRs). RESULTS: This review cohort contained 50 studies including 548 hearts. The median age of the deceased was 69 years. The most prevalent acute cardiovascular findings were myocardial necrosis (median: 100.0%; IQR, 20%-100%; number of studies = 9; number of patients = 64) and myocardial oedema (median: 55.5%; IQR, 19.5%-92.5%; number of studies = 4; number of patients = 46). The median reported prevalence of extensive, focal active, and multifocal myocarditis were all 0.0%. The most prevalent chronic changes were myocyte hypertrophy (median: 69.0%; IQR, 46.8%-92.1%) and fibrosis (median: 35.0%; IQR, 35.0%-90.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the myocardium with median prevalence of 60.8% (IQR 40.4-95.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review confirmed the high prevalence of acute and chronic cardiac pathologies in COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 cardiac tropism, as well as the low prevalence of myocarditis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Aged , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Metab ; 4(3): 310-319, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764213

ABSTRACT

Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have gained attention due to their links to clinical outcomes and their potential long-term sequelae1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) displays tropism towards several organs, including the heart and kidney. Whether it also directly affects the liver has been debated2,3. Here we provide clinical, histopathological, molecular and bioinformatic evidence for the hepatic tropism of SARS-CoV-2. We find that liver injury, indicated by a high frequency of abnormal liver function tests, is a common clinical feature of COVID-19 in two independent cohorts of patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization. Using autopsy samples obtained from a third patient cohort, we provide multiple levels of evidence for SARS-CoV-2 liver tropism, including viral RNA detection in 69% of autopsy liver specimens, and successful isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from liver tissue postmortem. Furthermore, we identify transcription-, proteomic- and transcription factor-based activity profiles in hepatic autopsy samples, revealing similarities to the signatures associated with multiple other viral infections of the human liver. Together, we provide a comprehensive multimodal analysis of SARS-CoV-2 liver tropism, which increases our understanding of the molecular consequences of severe COVID-19 and could be useful for the identification of organ-specific pharmacological targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Liver , Proteomics , Tropism
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327292

ABSTRACT

Acute cardiac injuries occur in 20-25% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Despite urgent needs, there is a lack of 3D organotypic models of COVID-19 hearts for mechanistic studies and drug testing. Herein, we demonstrate that human cardiac organoids (hCOs) are a viable platform to model the cardiac injuries caused by COVID-19 hyperinflammation. As IL-1β is an upstream cytokine and a core COVID-19 signature cytokine, it was used to stimulate hCOs to induce the release of a milieu of proinflammatory cytokines that mirror the profile of COVID-19 cytokine storm. The IL-1β treated hCOs recapitulated transcriptomic, structural, and functional signatures of COVID-19 hearts. The comparison of IL-1β treated hCOs with cardiac tissue from COVID-19 autopsies illustrated the critical roles of hyper-inflammation in COVID-19 cardiac insults and indicated the cardioprotective effects of endothelium. The IL-1β treated hCOs also provide a viable model to assess the efficacy and potential side effects of immunomodulatory drugs, as well as the reversibility of COVID-19 cardiac injuries at baseline and simulated exercise conditions.

6.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(11)2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488623

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is placing a heavy burden on healthcare systems worldwide with the risk that acute cardiovascular diseases are treated too late. The present study aims to analyze patients with acute coronary syndrome in the current pandemic. A total of 966 patients (2019 n = 463, 2020 n = 503) can be evaluated. A comparison of patient care during and before the COVID-19 pandemic was made in terms of patient characteristics and pre- and in-hospital processes. Another aim is to show how many patients seek clinical care at a late stage of the disease. After Lockdown in Germany at week 12, 2020, there was a significant decrease in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), significant for STEMI cases in the first weeks after Lockdown (calendar week 13-16 2019 n = 43, 2020 n = 30; p = 0.02). The time from pain to first medical contact (time to FMC) is significantly extended during Lockdown, while internal clinical processes are unchanged. The rate of subacute myocardial infarction is numerically, but not significantly increased in calendar weeks 15, 2020 (p = 0.40) and 16 (p = 0,19). In addition, elderly patients avoid treatment for multifactorial reasons, and the longer overall pain to FMC may impact long-term mortality.

7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(2): 542-555, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467310

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 is associated with adverse outcome. However, it is unclear whether cell-specific consequences are associated with cardiac SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we investigated heart tissue utilizing in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and RNA-sequencing in consecutive autopsy cases to quantify virus load and characterize cardiac involvement in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 95 SARS-CoV-2-positive autopsy cases were included. A relevant SARS-CoV-2 virus load in the cardiac tissue was detected in 41/95 deceased (43%). Massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE)-RNA-sequencing was performed to identify molecular pathomechanisms caused by the infection of the heart. A signature matrix was generated based on the single-cell dataset 'Heart Cell Atlas' and used for digital cytometry on the MACE-RNA-sequencing data. Thus, immune cell fractions were estimated and revealed no difference in immune cell numbers in cases with and without cardiac infection. This result was confirmed by quantitative immunohistological diagnosis. MACE-RNA-sequencing revealed 19 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a q-value <0.05 (e.g. up: IFI44L, IFT3, TRIM25; down: NPPB, MB, MYPN). The upregulated DEGs were linked to interferon pathways and originate predominantly from endothelial cells. In contrast, the downregulated DEGs originate predominately from cardiomyocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed viral protein in cells positive for the endothelial marker ICAM1 but rarely in cardiomyocytes. The Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis revealed that downregulated GO terms were linked to cardiomyocyte structure, whereas upregulated GO terms were linked to anti-virus immune response. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that cardiac infection induced transcriptomic alterations mainly linked to immune response and destruction of cardiomyocytes. While endothelial cells are primarily targeted by the virus, we suggest cardiomyocyte destruction by paracrine effects. Increased pro-inflammatory gene expression was detected in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac tissue but no increased SARS-CoV-2 associated immune cell infiltration was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Male , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication
8.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234757

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to an ongoing pandemic with a surge of critically ill patients. Very little is known about the occurrence and characteristic of cardiac arrest in critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim was to investigate the incidence and outcome of intensive care unit cardiac arrest (ICU-CA) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted (27 February 2020-14 January 2021) at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Of 183 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 18% (n = 33) had ICU-CA. The median age of the study population was 63 (55-73) years and 66% (n = 120) were male. Demographic characteristics and comorbidities did not differ significantly between patients with and without ICU-CA. Simplified Acute Physiological Score II (SAPS II) (ICU-CA: median 44 points vs. no ICU-CA: 39 points) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (median 12 points vs. 7 points) on admission were significantly higher in patients with ICU-CA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was present in 91% (n = 30) with and in 63% (n = 94) without ICU-CA (p = 0.002). Mechanical ventilation was more common in patients with ICU-CA (97% vs. 67%). The median stay in ICU before CA was 6 (1-17) days. A total of 33% (n = 11) of ICU-CAs occurred during the first 24 h of ICU stay. The initial rhythm was non-shockable (pulseless electrical activity (PEA)/asystole) in 91% (n = 30); 94% (n = 31) had sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The median time to ROSC was 3 (1-5) minutes. Patients with ICU-CA had significantly higher ICU mortality (61% vs. 37%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the presence of ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 4.268, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.211-15.036; p = 0.024) and high SAPS II (OR 1.031, 95% CI 0.997-1.065; p = 0.077) were independently associated with the occurrence of ICU-CA. A total of 18% of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered from a cardiac arrest within the intensive care unit. The occurrence of ICU-CA was associated with presence of ARDS and severity of illness.

9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 30, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates worldwide. Little is known about the occurrence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and high mortality rates have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcome of IHCA during the pandemic in comparison to an earlier period. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data prospectively recorded during 3-month-periods 2019 and 2020 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). All consecutive adult patients with IHCA were included. Clinical parameters, neurological outcomes and organ failure/support were assessed. RESULTS: During the study period hospital admissions declined from 18,262 (2019) to 13,994 (2020) (- 23%). The IHCA incidence increased from 4.6 (2019: 84 IHCA cases) to 6.6 (2020: 93 IHCA cases)/1000 hospital admissions. Median stay before IHCA was 4 (1-9) days. Demographic characteristics were comparable in both periods. IHCA location shifted towards the ICU (56% vs 37%, p < 0.01); shockable rhythm (VT/VF) (18% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and defibrillation were more frequent in the pandemic period (20% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Resuscitation times, rates of ROSC and post-CA characteristics were comparable in both periods. The severity of illness (SAPS II/SOFA), frequency of mechanical ventilation and frequency of vasopressor therapy after IHCA were higher during the 2020 period. Overall, 43 patients (12 with & 31 without COVID-19), presented with respiratory failure at the time of IHCA. The Horowitz index and resuscitation time were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 (each p < 0.01). Favourable outcomes were observed in 42 and 10% of patients with and without COVID-19-related respiratory failure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions declined during the pandemic, but a higher incidence of IHCA was observed. IHCA in patients with COVID-19 was a common finding. Compared to patients with non-COVID-19-related respiratory failure, the outcome was improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Drug Utilization/trends , Electric Countershock/trends , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(11): 1281-1285, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676377

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be documented in various tissues, but the frequency of cardiac involvement as well as possible consequences are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the myocardial tissue from autopsy cases and to document a possible cardiac response to that infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from consecutive autopsy cases from Germany between April 8 and April 18, 2020. All patients had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swab tests. Exposures: Patients who died of coronavirus disease 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in cardiac tissue as well as CD3+, CD45+, and CD68+ cells in the myocardium and gene expression of tumor necrosis growth factor α, interferon γ, chemokine ligand 5, as well as interleukin-6, -8, and -18. Results: Cardiac tissue from 39 consecutive autopsy cases were included. The median (interquartile range) age of patients was 85 (78-89) years, and 23 (59.0%) were women. SARS-CoV-2 could be documented in 24 of 39 patients (61.5%). Viral load above 1000 copies per µg RNA could be documented in 16 of 39 patients (41.0%). A cytokine response panel consisting of 6 proinflammatory genes was increased in those 16 patients compared with 15 patients without any SARS-CoV-2 in the heart. Comparison of 15 patients without cardiac infection with 16 patients with more than 1000 copies revealed no inflammatory cell infiltrates or differences in leukocyte numbers per high power field. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of autopsy cases, viral presence within the myocardium could be documented. While a response to this infection could be reported in cases with higher virus load vs no virus infection, this was not associated with an influx of inflammatory cells. Future investigations should focus on evaluating the long-term consequences of this cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Infections/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Infections/metabolism , Cardiovascular Infections/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/metabolism , Myocarditis/virology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data
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