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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769229

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection and BK Polyomavirus nephropathy (BKPyVAN) are important causes of allograft dysfunction and premature allograft loss in renal transplant recipients. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Controlled clinical trials to evaluate new agents for prevention and treatment are needed but are hampered by the lack of outcome measures that accurately assess the effect of the intervention, are clinically-relevant, and are acceptable from a regulatory perspective. To facilitate consistent endpoints in clinical trials and to support clinical research and drug development, definitions of BKPyV infection and disease have been developed by the BK Disease Definitions Working group of the Transplantation Associated Virus Infection Forum with the Forum for Collaborative Research, which consists of scientists, clinicians, regulators, and industry representatives. CONCLUSION: These definitions refine established principles of "proven" BKPyV disease and introduce a "probable" disease category that could be used in clinical trials to prevent or treat BKPyVAN in renal transplant recipients.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 225(6): 965-970, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740882

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 16 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and neurological symptoms were assessed using 2 independent methods. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for the virus spike protein was found in 81% of patients in serum and in 56% in CSF. SARS-CoV-2 IgG in CSF was observed in 2 patients with negative serological findings. Levels of IgG in both serum and CSF were associated with disease severity (P < .05). All patients with elevated markers of central nervous system damage in CSF also had CSF antibodies (P = .002), and CSF antibodies had the highest predictive value for neuronal damage markers of all tested clinical variables.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Formation , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260652, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560976

ABSTRACT

Healthcare and residential care workers represent two occupational groups that have, in particular, been at risk of Covid-19, its long-term consequences, and related sick leave. In this study, we investigated the predictors of prolonged sick leave among healthcare and residential workers due to non-hospitalized Covid-19 in the early period of the pandemic. This study is based on a patient register (n = 3209) and included non-hospitalized healthcare or residential care service workers with a positive RT- PCR for SARS-CoV-2 (n = 433) between March and August 2020. Data such as socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, and the length of sick leave because of Covid-19 and prior to the pandemic were extracted from the patient's electronic health records. Prolonged sick leave was defined as sick leave ≥ 3 weeks, based on the Swedish pandemic policy. A generalized linear model was used with a binary distribution, adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidity in order to predict prolonged sick leave. Of 433 (77% women) healthcare and residential care workers included in this study, 14.8% needed longer sick leave (> 3 weeks) due to Covid-19. Only 1.4% of the subjects were on sick leave because of long Covid. The risk of sick leave was increased two-fold among residential care workers (adjusted RR 2.14 [95% CI 1.31-3.51]). Depression/anxiety (adjusted RR 2.09 [95% CI 1.31-3.34]), obesity (adjusted RR 1.96 [95% CI 1.01-3.81]) and dyspnea at symptom onset (adjusted RR 2.47 [95% CI 1.55-3.92]), sick leave prior to the pandemic (3-12 weeks) (adjusted RR 2.23 [95% CI 1.21-4.10]) were associated with longer sick leave. From a public health perspective, considering occupational category, comorbidity, symptoms at onset, and sick leave prior to the pandemic as potential predictors of sick leave in healthcare may help prevent staff shortage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Depression/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweden/epidemiology
4.
J Neuroradiol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A wide range of neuroradiological findings has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ranging from subcortical white matter changes to infarcts, haemorrhages and focal contrast media enhancement. These have been descriptively but inconsistently reported and correlations with clinical findings and biomarkers have been difficult to extract from the literature. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extents of neuroradiological findings in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 and neurological symptoms, and to investigate correlations with clinical findings, duration of intensive care and biomarkers in blood. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 and at least one new-onset neurological symptom were included from April until July 2020. Nineteen patients were examined regarding clinical symptoms, biomarkers in blood and MRI of the brain. In order to quantify the MRI findings, a semi-quantitative neuroradiological severity scale was constructed a priori, and applied to the MR images by two specialists in neuroradiology. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The score from the severity scale correlated significantly with blood biomarkers of CNS injury (glial fibrillary acidic protein, total-tau, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1) and inflammation (C-reactive protein), Glasgow Coma Scale score, and the number of days spent in intensive care. The underlying radiological assessments had inter-rater agreements of 90.5%/86% (for assessments with 2/3 alternatives). Total intraclass correlation was 0.80. Previously reported neuroradiological findings in COVID-19 have been diverse and heterogenous. In this study, the extent of findings in MRI examination of the brain, quantified using a structured report, shows correlation with relevant biomarkers.

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3324-3331, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological symptoms have been frequently reported in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and biomarkers of central nervous system (CNS) injury are reported to be increased in plasma but not extensively studied in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study examined CSF for biomarkers of CNS injury and other pathology in relation to neurological symptoms and disease severity in patients with neurological manifestations of COVID-19. METHODS: Nineteen patients with neurological symptoms and mild to critical COVID-19 were prospectively included. Extensive analysis of CSF, including measurement of biomarkers of CNS injury (neurofilament light chain [NfL] protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAp], and total tau), was performed and compared to neurological features and disease severity. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms included altered mental status (42%), headache (42%), and central (21%) and peripheral weakness (32%). Two patients demonstrated minor pleocytosis, and four patients had increased immunoglobulin G levels in CSF. Neuronal autoantibody testing using commercial tests was negative in all patients. Increased CSF levels of NfL protein, total tau, and GFAp were seen in 63%, 37%, and 16% of patients, respectively. Increased NfL protein correlated with disease severity, time in intensive care, and level of consciousness. NfL protein in CSF was higher in patients with central neurological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by the small sample size, our data suggest that levels of NfL protein, GFAp, and total tau in CSF are commonly elevated in patients with COVID-19 with neurological symptoms. This is in contrast to the standard CSF workup where pathological findings are scarce. NfL protein, in particular, is associated with central neurological symptoms and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurofilament Proteins , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Ups J Med Sci ; 125(4): 305-310, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the Covid-19 pandemic, the protection of healthcare workers has been in focus throughout the world, but the availability and quality of personal protective equipment has at times and in some settings been suboptimal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8679 healthcare workers and healthcare support staff in the county of Uppsala, north of Stockholm, were included in this cross-sectional study. All subjects were analysed for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2, and predictors for positive serostatus were analysed in a logistic regression model including demographic parameters and self-reported employment characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 577 (6.6%) were classified as seropositive, with no statistically significant differences between healthcare workers and support staff. Among healthcare workers, age (OR 0.987 per year, 95% CI 0.980-0.995), time to sampling (OR 1.019 per day, 95% CI 1.004-1.035), and employment at an outpatient care unit (OR 0.620, 95% CI 0.487-0.788) were statistically significantly associated with risk of infection. Covid-19 specific units were not at particular risk, compared to other units with comparable characteristics and staff demography. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 transmission is related to inpatient healthcare work, and illustrate the need for a high standard of basic hygiene routines in all inpatient care settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Toxicol Rep ; 7: 768-771, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603581

ABSTRACT

During the current COVID-19 pandemic, a need for evaluation of already available drugs for treatment of the disease is crucial. Hereby, based on literature review from the current pandemic and previous outbreaks with corona viruses we analyze the impact of the virus infection on cell stress responses and redox balance. High levels of mortality are noticed in elderly individuals infected with SARS-CoV2 and during the previous SARS-CoV1 outbreak. Elderly individuals maintain a chronic low level of inflammation which is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production, a condition that increases the severity of viral infections in this population. Coronavirus infections can lead to alterations of redox balance in infected cells through modulation of NAD + biosynthesis, PARP function along with altering proteasome and mitochondrial function in the cell thereby leading to enhanced cell stress responses which further exacerbate inflammation. ROS production can increase IL-6 production and lipid peroxidation resulting in cell damage. Therefore, early treatment with anti-oxidants such as NAC during COVID-19 can be a way to bypass the excessive inflammation and cell damage that lead to severe infection, thus early NAC as intervention should be evaluated in a clinical trial setting.

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