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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(6): 777-779, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458859
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2948-2957, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Catheterization, Central Venous/statistics & numerical data , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , United States , Young Adult
5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 109: 106501, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe a clinic-randomized trial to improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) care through a CKD-clinical decision support (CKD-CDS) intervention in primary care clinics and the challenges we encountered due to COVID-19 care disruption. METHODS/DESIGN: Primary care clinics (N = 32) were randomized to usual care (UC) or to CKD-CDS. Between April 17, 2019 and March 14, 2020, more than 7000 patients had accrued for analysis by meeting study-eligibility criteria at an index office visit: age 18-75, laboratory criteria for stage 3 or 4 CKD (eGFR 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m2), and one or more opportunities algorithmically identified to improve CKD care such as blood pressure (BP) or glucose control, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, discontinuance of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), or nephrology referral. At CKD-CDS clinics, CDS provided individualized treatment suggestions that were printed for patients and clinicians at the start of office encounters and were viewable within the electronic health record. By initial design, the impact of the CKD-CDS intervention on care gaps was to be assessed 12 months after the index date, but COVID-19 caused major disruptions to care delivery during the intervention period. In response to disruptions, the intervention was temporarily suspended while we expanded CDS use for telehealth encounters and programmed new criteria for displaying the CKD-CDS to intervention patients due to clinic closures and scheduling changes. DISCUSSION: We describe a NIH-funded pragmatic trial of web-based EHR-integrated CKD-CDS and modifications necessary mid-study to complete the study as intended in the face of COVID-19 pandemic challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(6): 1444-1453, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports from around the world have indicated a fatality rate of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the range of 20%-30% among patients with ESKD. Population-level effects of COVID-19 on patients with ESKD in the United States are uncertain. METHODS: We identified patients with ESKD from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data during epidemiologic weeks 3-27 of 2017-2020 and corresponding weeks of 2017-2019, stratifying them by kidney replacement therapy. Outcomes comprised hospitalization for COVID-19, all-cause death, and hospitalization for reasons other than COVID-19. We estimated adjusted relative rates (ARRs) of death and non-COVID-19 hospitalization during epidemiologic weeks 13-27 of 2020 (March 22 to July 4) versus corresponding weeks in 2017-2019. RESULTS: Among patients on dialysis, the rate of COVID-19 hospitalization peaked between March 22 and April 25 2020. Non-Hispanic Black race and Hispanic ethnicity associated with higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalization, whereas peritoneal dialysis was associated with lower rates. During weeks 13-27, ARRs of death in 2020 versus 2017-2019 were 1.17 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16 to 1.19) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.24 to 1.36) among patients undergoing dialysis or with a functioning transplant, respectively. Excess mortality was higher among non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Asian patients. Among patients on dialysis, the rate of non-COVID-19 hospitalization during weeks 13-27 in 2020 was 17% lower versus hospitalization rates for corresponding weeks in 2017-2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the first half of 2020, the clinical outcomes of patients with ESKD were greatly affected by COVID-19, and racial and ethnic disparities were apparent. These findings should be considered in prioritizing administration of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cause of Death , Female , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/ethnology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Medicaid , Medicare , Middle Aged , Mortality/ethnology , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis , Triage , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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