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2.
Nature Reviews. Immunology. ; 29:29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209826

ABSTRACT

Immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is central to long-term control of the current pandemic. Despite our rapidly advancing knowledge of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, understanding how these responses translate into protection against reinfection at both the individual and population levels remains a major challenge. An ideal outcome following infection or after vaccination would be a highly protective and durable immunity that allows for the establishment of high levels of population immunity. However, current studies suggest a decay of neutralizing antibody responses in convalescent patients, and documented cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection are increasing. Understanding the dynamics of memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 and the mechanisms of immune control are crucial for the rational design and deployment of vaccines and for understanding the possible future trajectories of the pandemic. Here, we summarize our current understanding of immune responses to and immune control of SARS-CoV-2 and the implications for prevention of reinfection.

3.
Viruses ; 13(4):07, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209615

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a significant global public health burden, leading to an urgent need for effective therapeutic strategies. In this article, we review the role of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in the clinical management of COVID-19 and provide an overview of recent randomized controlled trial data evaluating nAbs in the ambulatory, hospitalized and prophylaxis settings. Two nAb cocktails (casirivimab/imdevimab and bamlanivimab/etesevimab) and one nAb monotherapy (bamlanivimab) have been granted Emergency Use Authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ambulatory patients who have a high risk of progressing to severe disease, and the European Medicines Agency has similarly recommended both cocktails and bamlanivimab monotherapy for use in COVID-19 patients who do not require supplemental oxygen and who are at high risk of progressing to severe COVID-19. Efficacy of nAbs in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has been varied, potentially highlighting the challenges of antiviral treatment in patients who have already progressed to severe disease. However, early data suggest a promising prophylactic role for nAbs in providing effective COVID-19 protection. We also review the risk of treatment-emergent antiviral resistant "escape" mutants and strategies to minimize their occurrence, discuss the susceptibility of newly emerging SARS-COV-2 variants to nAbs, as well as explore administration challenges and ways to improve patient access.

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