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1.
Chest ; 162(4):A1349-A1350, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060808

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Immune mediated vaccine related pericarditis reports have been well documented;albeit rare and generally well tolerated, it remains a real complication with possible devastating impacts. The incidence has increased even more with the covid vaccine.3 Here we describe a 72 year old female that received her 4th BNT162b2 dose, 5 months after the 3rd dose, and subsequently developed pericarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: 72 year old female, previously well, who presented with a 3 day history of central, sticking chest pain associated with exertional dyspnea, cough, palpitations and malaise. She denied any coryzal symptoms. On presentation she was hemodynamically stable but hypoxic and tachycardic. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis and troponinemia of 0.13ng/ml. ECG showed diffuse ST elevations. A transthoracic echo showed a small pericardial effusion with normal LV and RV function, EF 60-65% and a CT Pulmonary Angiogram revealed a small sub-segmental pulmonary embolism with atelectasis and trace effusions. On further questioning she revealed that the symptoms started 3 days after she received her 2nd booster dose of the Pfizer covid vaccine. She was started on colchicine and apixaban and was discharged home with follow-up. Two days after discharge the patient represented to the hospital with worsening chest pain. Investigations revealed worsening leucocytosis and increased inflammatory markers (CRP 303mg/L, ESR 62mm/h). A new finding of a small pericardial effusion and bilateral pleural effusions with consolidations were noted on a repeat CT scan. Decision was made to continue colchicine and commence prednisone. Other infectious and inflammatory causes of pericarditis were ruled out. The COVID spike IgG was negative and the NAAT Cov 2 IgG showed titres >250 (<50). DISCUSSION: The exact pathogenesis of the COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis remains unknown. It is thought that mRNA vaccines produce a large number of antibodies which elicit a multi-system inflammatory response1;despite this, steroid therapy remains controversial given the risk of recurrent pericarditis.2 A shorter vaccine interval has been associated with adverse outcomes. CDC extended the dosing interval in young persons to reduce the risk of severe myocarditis;however the interval for persons 65 years or more and immunocompromised remained unchanged. Our case and the identical case described by Singh et al1 reinforces the need to determine the best time interval for administration of the covid booster vaccines;especially in patients more than 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: More research needs to be done as to the most appropriate interval between booster doses to reduce the inflammatory complications related to the vaccine. A consideration should also be made to determine if the measurement of SARS COV-2 IgG spike titres have any role in determining the timing of subsequent booster doses. Reference #1: Singh A, Nguyen L, Everest S, et al. (February 12, 2022) Acute Pericarditis Post mRNA-1273 COVID Vaccine Booster. Cureus 14(2): e22148. DOI 10.7759/cureus.22148 Reference #2: Hajjo R., Sabbah D.A., Bardaweel S.K., Tropsha A. Shedding the Light on Post-Vaccine Myocarditis and Pericarditis in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients. Vaccines. 2021;9:1186. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9101186. Reference #3: Diaz GA, Parsons GT, Gering SK, Meier AR, Hutchinson IV, Robicsek A. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After Vaccination for COVID-19. JAMA. 2021 Sep 28;326(12):1210-1212. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.13443. PMID: 34347001;PMCID: PMC8340007. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Zachary Banbury No relevant relationships by Michael Basir No relevant relationships by Alexandra Gottdiener No relevant relationships by Janeen Grant-Sittol No relevant relationships by Srikant Kondapaneni No relevant relationships by Ross Lavine No relevant relationships by Anesha White

2.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):209-F0056, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057894

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is projected to affect an average of 1.23 million individuals by the 2050. Whilst anti-VEGF treatment for neovascular AMD (nvAMD) is considered the current gold-standard care, this requires regular monitoring and treatment delivery which causes increased capacity challenges. This, along with the current COVID-19 pandemic, have highlighted the need for efficient and safe ways to diagnose and manage nvAMD. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in medical care has the potential to alleviate some of this projected pressure facing eye clinics. Previous research has shown that AI has comparable sensitivity and specificity to clinicians in identifying ocular disorders from retinal images. The purpose of the current study was to develop and AI model to identify active from inactive nvAMD disease from retinal SD-OCT images. Methods : Using Google's Vision AutoML software, 1058 Heidelberg SD-OCT images were identified and labelled as either showing nvAMD activity or inactivity. All images were uploaded to Google's cloud storage and automatically assigned two bounding-box labels;1 label capturing the entire Heidelberg SD-OCT image, including the raster and b-scan, with the second capturing the b-scan only. All labels were automatically allocated to either a train, validate or test group based on an 80:10:10 ratio set by the software. Results : Of the 1058 images, a total of 2116 labels were assigned, 1012 showing active and 1104 showing inactive nvAMD. Performance of the AI model revealed an area under the precision recall curve (AUPRC) of 0.84 at a threshold of 0.5, specificity of 40.98% and sensitivity of 95.24%. For the active-only images, the specificity was 34.28% with a sensitivity of 97%. For the inactive-only images, the specificity was 51% with a sensitivity of 92.73%. Conclusions : Utilising Google's AutoML AI software, this model is able to correctly identify active nvAMD from Heidelberg SD-OCT images with a high level of sensitivity and good overall AUPRC.

3.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045956

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a continuing global pandemic causing significant changes and modifications in the ways we teach and learn here in the U.S as well as around the world. Most universities, faculty members, and students modified their learning system by incorporating significant online or mixed learning methods/modes to reduce in person contact time and to reduce the spread of the virus. Universities, faculty and students were challenged as they adapted to new learning modules, strategies and approaches. This adaption started in the Spring of 2020 and has continued to date through the Spring of 2022. The main objective of this project was to investigate faculty perception of STEM student experiences and behavior during the Fall 2020 semester as compared to the Spring 2020 semester as COVID-19 impacts were prolonged. Through a qualitative methodology of zoom interviews administered to 32 STEM faculty members across six U.S. Universities nationwide and a theming scheme, the opinion and narratives of these faculty members were garnered in a round one and round two sets of interviews, in Summer 2020 and then in Spring 2021 (following the semesters of interest). Some of the main new themes that were detected in faculty interviews during the Fall 2020 semester and which reflect faculty perceptions are represented as follow: COVID-19 impact on student and faculty motivation, COVID-19 impacts on labs and experiential learning, COVID-19 impact on mental health, COVID-19 impact on STEM students' involvement in STEM experiential learning opportunities and research. Other previous themes detected and which are revisited to analyze major differences with those themes obtained during the Spring 2020 are presented and not limited to: extra efforts from professors, student cheating behavior, cheating factors and prevention, student behavioral and performance changes, student struggles and challenges, University response and efforts to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the differences in these themes between the semesters to look at noticed adaptations and modifications. Presented will also be recommendations to improve student and faculty motivation along with strategies to enhance the student learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. We report on common findings and suggest future strategies. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

4.
Journal of Payments Strategy and Systems ; 16(2):181-196, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958489

ABSTRACT

The payments ecosystem is experiencing accel-erated change, with the COVID-19 pandemic acting as an additional catalyst. This paper looks at the example of Australia, where regulation has been reset to reflect, and future-proof its handling of, these changes. With a focus on regulation, and the modernisation of payments systems, this paper concentrates on what these changes mean for legacy payment systems, for the future of cash, and for their end users, especially in terms of their trust and confidence in payments. © Henry Stewart Publications, 1750-1806.

5.
J Biomol Tech ; 32(4)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934550

ABSTRACT

Shared research resources, also known as core facilities, serve a crucial role in supporting research, training, and other needs for their respective institutions. In response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, all but the most critical laboratory research was halted in many institutions around the world. The Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities conducted 2 surveys to understand and document institutional responses to the COVID-19 pandemic from core facility perspectives. The first survey was focused on initial pandemic response and efforts to sustainably ramp down core facility operations. The second survey, which is the subject of this study, focused on understanding the approaches taken to ramp up core facility operations after these ramp-down procedures. The survey results revealed that many cores remained active during the ramp-down, performing essential COVID-19 research, and had a more coordinated institutional response for ramping up research as a whole. The lessons gained from this survey will be indexed to serve as a resource for the core facility community to understand, plan, and mitigate risk and disruptions in the event of future disasters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation ; 37(SUPPL 3):i146, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a debilitating disease that can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal quality of life amongst those diagnosed with AAV using the EQ-5D instrument, which allows for calculation of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs.) METHOD: A total of 343 patients with AAV participated in this study, of which 191 (55.7%) were male, resulting in 2746 episodes. The EQ-5D-5L standardised instrument was used to evaluate health-related quality of life in the domains of mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression and to generate a summary index score. Overall health was also rated using a visual analogue scale (0-100). EQ-5D questionnaires were completed during routine nephrology clinic attendances and through a vasculitis patient support smartphone app. We used a random effects model to control for multiple entries relating to individual patients. RESULTS: A lower quality of life was seen amongst those with AAV (median index value 0.80, overall population average 0.856). The mean visual analogue scale score was 75.6 ± 17.3 (overall population average 82.8, Fig. 1). Patients' pain and discomfort level (mean 1.95) was most affected while self-care (mean 1.33) was least affected (Fig. 1). An increase in BVAS tightly correlated with a reduction in quality of life. Using the random effects model, the index score was seen to decrease with increasing age with a 2.7% reduction in index score per decade. A 7% reduction in index score was seen during periods of disease activity compared with periods of remission. Patients with end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis had an 8% reduction in index score. A reduced quality of life was seen following COVID-19 lockdown with a 5% reduction in index score seen. Using a median survival rate of 6.16 years for patients with small vessel vasculitis, we calculated the QALYs for this population as 4.9 years. CONCLUSION: We have defined for the first time the EQ-5D index value over the full disease course in patients with AAV. Notably, we have identified a reduction in quality of life during periods of disease activity. Other studies have demonstrated a reduction in quality of life during active disease using the AAV-PRO questionnaire and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. A decrease in work productivity has also been noted. Previously reported mean index values of 0.72 and 0.76 were lower than our observed values, although both are significantly reduced compared with population norms. In conclusion, this research highlights the negative impact of AAV on patients' lives.

7.
Diabetic Medicine ; 39(SUPPL 1):131-132, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868615

ABSTRACT

Background: Prior to the covid-19 pandemic glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) education was delivered face-to- face by diabetes specialist nurses. This service is now predominately virtual, with diabetes dietitians hosting online groups to deliver education. Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of GLP-1 therapy education delivered online compared to face-to- face education sessions. Methods: Data were collated from 53 patients prior to the restrictions imposed by the covid-19 pandemic (Group A) and 53 patients who were educated virtually (Group B). The demographics of the patient group including duration of diabetes, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), Hba1c on referral and Hba1c change after four months of GLP-1 therapy were compared. Results: Group A was 45% male, with a mean age of 57 years, 10% had type 2 diabetes for over 10 years and 88% had a BMI between 30-39 kg/m2. The range of HbA1c at referral was 62-121mmol/ mol and mean improvement in HbA1c after 4 months of GLP-1 therapy in Group A was 24.3 ± 15.3mmol/mol. Group B was 55% male, with a mean age of 56 years, 43% had type 2 diabetes for over 10 years and 51% had a BMI of over 40 kg/m2. The range of HbA1c at referral was between 61-117mmol/ mol and the mean improvement in HbA1c after 4 months of GLP-1 therapy in Group B was 23.8 ± 17.5mmol/mol. Conclusions: The launch of virtual education for patients starting on GLP-1 therapy has been successful and maintained significant improvements in HbA1c after 4 months of treatment.

8.
Philippine Journal of Science ; 150(6):1765-1778, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1790700

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel respiratory disease first identified in Wuhan, China, that is caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. It has triggered a global pandemic of historic proportions. The government of the Philippines began its national vaccine drive on 01 Mar 2021, with the goal of vaccinating 70 million of its citizens by the end of the calendar year. To determine the optimum geographical distribution strategy in the Philippines for the limited supply of vaccines that is currently available, we developed and adapted a basic SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) model that allows us to understand the evolution of a pandemic when public health authorities are vaccinating two susceptible populations within a country with different vaccine rates. Our analysis with our 2SIR-VD (two-population susceptible-infected-recovered-vaccinated-deceased) model of an idealized pandemic scenario revealed that prioritizing vaccine deployment to the National Capital Region (NCR) of the Philippines minimized the number of COVID-19 cases in the country. We, therefore, recommend deploying 80–90% of the available vaccine supply to the NCR to mitigate viral transmission there. The remaining doses would allow the rest of the archipelago to vaccinate all of their medical frontliners, senior citizens, and adults with comorbidities – thus shielding this vulnerable population against severe disease and death from COVID-19. © 2021, Department of Science and Technology. All rights reserved.

9.
Lancet ; 399(10324):512-513, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1766870
11.
Higher Education Research and Development ; 41(1):116-131, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1700082

ABSTRACT

Members of the Higher Education (HE) community have embodied the spirit of designers by identifying needs and creatively responding with speed, agility and ingenuity as a direct response to the COVID-19 pandemic. While these rapid changes were required at the time of the pandemic, the lack of an innovation structure in HEIs (Higher Education Institutions) has become evident. We argue it is necessary to implement an innovation structure in a HEI which can be used to guide all types of innovation, to ensure they are desirable, viable, feasible and suitable from the perspective of all stakeholders. This article builds on the ARRIVE innovation process and uses Vaugh et al.’s Principles for Designing Progress to develop the concept of Strategic Design in Education (SDxE). Through embracing the SDxE approach, the HE community has the potential to not only get comfortable in the complexity and ambiguity which will inevitably result in the HEI sector for decades to come, but have an opportunity to shape it into something more desirable. We propose that SDxE offers an actionable scaffold for Human-Centered innovation, one that holds the potential to affect change, improve collaboration and produce more successful outcomes across the micro, meso and macro layers of HEIs. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

12.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1696057

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic transformed STEM learning environments across U.S. institutions. However, the impact of this pandemic on learning and decision-making in students are yet to be fully understood. It is important to gain insights into student experiences during COVID-19 pandemic so that student and institutional resiliency can be improved during future pandemics. This research is part of a larger nationwide inductive research project with the purpose of developing theories to explain the learning experiences and decisions of undergraduate STEM students during the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed-methods approach with purposive sampling was utilized to enroll 63 undergraduate STEM students from six U.S institutions. Data was collected through recruitment surveys, academic transcripts, and interviews. One-hour ZOOM interviews, gave research participants the opportunity to narrate their salient STEM learning experiences during the spring 2020 semester. Data was analyzed using the NVivo qualitative analysis software and Microsoft Excel for coding, categorizing, memo-ing, constant comparative analysis, and theme development. Also, Microsoft Excel was used to analyze demographic data from recruitment surveys and GPA data from the academic transcripts. Results from the analysis of 30 coded interview transcripts revealed an emergent theme - Professor-Student Interactions Impact Learning and Adaptation Decisions. The three key categories of this theme are: Professor-Student Interactions and Learning Challenges;Adaptation Decisions;and STEM Performance. The seven categories of Professor-Student Interactions are coded as: Online Instructional Delivery Methods;Professor Caring Attitudes;Professor Leniency;Professor Availability;Student Workloads;Professor Technology Proficiency;and Professor Teaching Resources. Positive professor-student interactions improve student learning experiences. Negative professor-student interactions worsen student learning challenges and are coded as: Illusion of Time, Procrastination;Lack of Focus;Challenge of Asking Questions;Poor Understanding;Poor Quality Assignments;Poor Intermediate Grades;Stresses;and Lowered Motivation. While most research participants experienced high stresses, a few of them experienced low or no stresses. To minimize the impact of COVID-related learning challenges on their STEM learning and performance, research participants made effective adaptation decisions coded as: Refined Scheduling;Alternate Learning Resources;Professor Office Hours;Teaching Assistants;Peer Collaboration;Relaxation Strategies;and Pass/Fail Options. Compared to the fall 2019 GPAs, the improved spring 2020 GPAs of research participants may be partially attributed to professor leniency, pass/fail option, and cheating. Findings indicate that while STEM professors were adjusting to COVID-modified teaching and learning environments, many STEM students were developing a sense of self-discipline, self-teaching, and independence. They relied on both professor and non-professor generated resources to improve their own STEM learning and performance. Lessons learned and best practices for improved professor-student interactions and student adaptation decisions are discussed for potential replication in STEM communities for improved adaptability and resiliency during future pandemics. Future research will focus on quantifying the long-term effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on STEM performance. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

13.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695787

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19, considered as being a lethal pandemic by the World Health Organization, has caused profound changes in the educational system within the U.S and across the world. Overnight, universities and their educators had to switch to a largely online teaching format, which challenged their capacity to deliver learning content effectively to STEM students. Students were forced to adapt to a new learning environment in the midst of challenges in their own lives due to the COVID-19 effects on society and professional expectations. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate faculty perceptions of STEM student experiences during COVID-19. Through a qualitative methodology consisting of one-hour zoom interviews administered to 32 STEM faculty members from six U.S. Universities nationwide, faculty narratives regarding student and faculty experiences during COVID-19 were obtained. The qualitative research approach involved identifying common themes across faculty experiences and views in these narratives. Some of the categories of emerging themes associated with faculty perceptions on student and faculty experiences included: student struggles and challenges, student cheating and the online environment, faculty and student adaptability, faculty and student needs and support, and university resources and support. Best practices to facilitate online teaching and learning employed by STEM faculty were also discussed. Key findings revealed that students and faculty had both positive and negative experiences during COVID-19. Additionally, there was a greater need for consistent policies to improve the online student learning experiences. Recommendations to improve STEM student experiences include increased institutional resources and collaboration between faculty and the university administrators to provide a coherent online learning environment. Preliminary findings also provide insights to enhance institutional adaptability and resilience for improving STEM student experiences during future pandemics. Future research should continue to explore institutional adaptation strategies that enhance STEM student learning during pandemics. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

15.
Irish Journal of Medical Science ; 190(SUPPL 5):209-209, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576278
16.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296521

ABSTRACT

The development of a portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine under clinical development, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on a two-component protein nanoparticle (RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates. We evaluated five different adjuvants combined with RBD-NP including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion;AS03, an alpha-tocopherol-containing squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion used in pandemic influenza vaccines;AS37, a TLR-7 agonist adsorbed to Alum;CpG 1018-Alum (CpG-Alum), a TLR-9 agonist formulated in Alum;or Alum, the most widely used adjuvant. All five adjuvants induced substantial nAb and CD4 T cell responses after two consecutive immunizations. Durable nAb responses were evaluated for RBD-NP/AS03 immunization and the live-virus nAb response was durably maintained up to 154 days post-vaccination. AS03, CpG-Alum, AS37 and Alum groups conferred significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The nAb titers were highly correlated with protection against infection. Furthermore, RBD-NP when used in conjunction with AS03 was as potent as the prefusion stabilized Spike immunogen, HexaPro. Taken together, these data highlight the efficacy of the RBD-NP formulated with clinically relevant adjuvants in promoting robust immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates.

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407032
20.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention ; 30(7):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1354610
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