Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antigen tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are sometimes discordant. We evaluated the discordance between antigen and PCR tests sampled in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) to assess the relationship of symptom presence, timing between tests, and the presence of a facility outbreak. DESIGN: Observational study using electronic health record data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Residents of 306 SNFs in 23 states, operated by 1 company. METHODS: We identified all rapid antigen and PCR tests conducted in study SNFs as of January 10, 2021, and classified whether symptoms were present and whether the facility was in outbreak at time of testing. We calculated the proportions of antigen tests with discordant follow-up PCR results conducted no more than 2 days after the antigen test. RESULTS: Of the 171,280 antigen tests in 34,437 SNF residents, 20,991 (12.3%) were followed by a PCR test within 2 days. A total of 1324 negative antigen tests were followed by a positive PCR result, representing 0.8% of all antigen tests and 6.3% of repeated antigen tests; while 337 positive antigen tests were followed by a negative PCR result, representing 0.2% of all antigen tests and 1.6% of repeated antigen tests. Discordance more often occurred when residents were symptomatic at time of antigen testing, during known facility outbreaks, and when the antigen test was compared with a PCR test done within 2 days vs 1 day. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, discordance between SARS-CoV-2 antigen and PCR tests was low. Discordance was more common when the individual was symptomatic at time of antigen testing and during facility outbreaks. This suggests that a testing strategy which couples widespread use of antigen tests with clinical thresholds to conduct follow-up confirmatory PCR testing appears to perform well in SNFs, where timely and accurate SARS-CoV-2 case identification are critical.

2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 during a post-acute skilled nursing facility (SNF) stay and the associated risk of death. DESIGN: Cohort study using Minimum Data Set and electronic health record data from a large multistate long-term care provider. Primary outcomes included testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the post-acute SNF stay, and death among those who tested positive. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The sample included all new admissions to the provider's 286 SNFs between January 1 and December 31, 2020. Patients known to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the time of admission were excluded. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality rates were measured in time intervals by month of admission. A parametric survival model with SNF random effects was used to measure the association of patient demographic factors, clinical characteristics, and month of admission, with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The sample included 45,094 post-acute SNF admissions. Overall, 5.7% of patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 100 days of admission, with 1.0% testing positive within 1-14 days, 1.4% within 15-30 days, and 3.4% within 31-100 days. Of all newly admitted patients, 0.8% contracted SARS-CoV-2 and died, whereas 6.7% died without known infection. Infection rates and subsequent risk of death were highest for patients admitted during the first and third US pandemic waves. Patients with greater cognitive and functional impairment had a 1.45 to 1.92 times higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 than patients with less impairment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The absolute risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and death during a post-acute SNF admission was 0.8%. Those who did contract SARS-CoV-2 during their SNF stay had nearly double the rate of death as those who were not infected. Findings from this study provide context for people requiring post-acute care, and their support systems, in navigating decisions around SNF admission during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

3.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1858124

ABSTRACT

Importance In October 2019, Medicare changed its skilled nursing facility (SNF) reimbursement model to the Patient Driven Payment Model (PDPM), which has modified financial incentives for SNFs that may relate to therapy use and health outcomes. Objective To assess whether implementation of the PDPM was associated with changes in therapy utilization or health outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study used a regression discontinuity (RD) approach among Medicare fee-for-service postacute-care patients admitted to a Medicare-certified SNF following hip fracture between January 2018 and March 2020. Exposures Skilled nursing facility admission after PDPM implementation. Main Outcomes and Measures Main outcomes were individual and nonindividual (concurrent and group) therapy minutes per day, hospitalization within 40 days of SNF admission, SNF length of stay longer than 40 days, and discharge activities of daily living score. Results The study cohort included 201 084 postacute-care patients (mean [SD] age, 83.8 [8.3] years;143 830 women [71.5%];185 854 White patients [92.4%]);147 711 were admitted pre-PDPM, and 53 373 were admitted post-PDPM. A decrease in individual therapy (RD estimate: −15.9 minutes per day;95% CI, −16.9 to −14.6) and an increase in nonindividual therapy (RD estimate: 3.6 minutes per day;95% CI, 3.4 to 3.8) were observed. Total therapy use in the first week following admission was about 12 minutes per day (95% CI, −13.3 to −11.3) (approximately 13%) lower for residents admitted post-PDPM vs pre-PDPM. No consistent and statistically significant discontinuity in hospital readmission (0.31 percentage point increase;95% CI, −1.46 to 2.09), SNF length of stay (2.7 percentage point decrease in likelihood of staying longer than 40 days;95% CI, −4.83 to −0.54), or functional score at discharge (0.04 point increase in activities of daily living score;95% CI, −0.19 to 0.26) was observed. Nonindividual therapy minutes were reduced to nearly zero in late March 2020, likely owing to COVID-19–related restrictions on communal activities in SNFs. Conclusions and Relevance In this cross-sectional study of SNF admission after PDPM implementation, a reduction of total therapy minutes was observed following the implementation of PDPM, even though PDPM was designed to be budget neutral. No significant changes in postacute outcomes were observed. Further study is needed to understand whether the PDPM is associated with successful discharge outcomes.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104066, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) residents have borne a disproportionate share of SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. Vaccines have limited hospitalisation and death from earlier variants in this vulnerable population. With the rise of Omicron and future variants, it is vital to sustain and broaden vaccine-induced protection. We examined the effect of boosting with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine on humoral immunity and Omicron-specific neutralising activity among NH residents and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We longitudinally enrolled 85 NH residents (median age 77) and 48 HCWs (median age 51), and sampled them after the initial vaccination series; and just before and 2 weeks after booster vaccination. Anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralisation titres to the original Wuhan strain and neutralisation to the Omicron strain were obtained. FINDINGS: Booster vaccination significantly increased vaccine-specific anti-spike, anti-RBD, and neutralisation levels above the pre-booster levels in NH residents and HCWs, both in those with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicron-specific neutralisation activity was low after the initial 2 dose series with only 28% of NH residents' and 28% HCWs' titres above the assay's lower limit of detection. Omicron neutralising activity following the booster lifted 86% of NH residents and 93% of HCWs to the detectable range. INTERPRETATION: With boosting, the vast majority of HCWs and NH residents developed detectable Omicron-specific neutralising activity. These data provide immunologic evidence that strongly supports booster vaccination to broaden neutralising activity and counter waning immunity in the hope it will better protect this vulnerable, high-risk population against the Omicron variant. FUNDING: NIH AI129709-03S1, U01 CA260539-01, CDC 200-2016-91773, and VA BX005507-01.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
5.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(6): 1642-1647, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to compare rates of adverse events among nursing home residents who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster dose with those who had not yet received their booster. METHODS: We assessed a prospective cohort of 11,200 nursing home residents who received a primary COVID-19 mRNA vaccine series at least 6 months prior to September 22, 2021 and received a third "booster dose" between September 22, 2021 and February 2, 2022. Residents lived in 239 nursing homes operated by Genesis HealthCare, spanning 21 U.S. states. We screened electronic health records for 20 serious vaccine-related adverse events that are monitored following receipt of COVID-19 vaccination by the CDC's Vaccine Safety Datalink. We matched boosted and yet-to-be boosted residents during the same time period, comparing rates of events occurring 14 days after booster administration with those occurring 14 days prior to booster administration. To supplement previously reported background rates of adverse events, we report background rates of medical conditions among nursing home residents during 2020, before COVID-19 vaccines were administered in nursing homes. Events occurring in 2021-2022 were confirmed by physician chart review. We report unadjusted rates of adverse events and used a false discovery rate procedure to adjust for multiplicity of events tested. RESULTS: No adverse events were reported during the 14 days post-booster. A few adverse events occurred prior to booster (ischemic stroke: 49.4 per 100,000 residents, 95% CI: 21.2, 115.7; venous thromboembolism: 9.9 per 100,000 residents, 95% CI: 1.7, 56.0), though differences in event rates pre- versus post-booster were not statistically significant (p < 0.05) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. No significant differences were detected between post-booster vaccination rates and prior year 14-day background rates of medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: No safety signals were detected following a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine booster dose in this large multi-state sample of nursing home residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Nursing Homes , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
JAMA health forum ; 3(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1738362

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study assesses whether implementation of the Patient Driven Payment Model is associated with changes in therapy utilization or health outcomes. Key Points Question Was the Patient Driven Payment Model (PDPM), implemented in October 2019, associated with rehabilitation therapy utilization and health outcomes of patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs)? Findings In this cross-sectional study of 201 084 patients admitted to an SNF after hip fracture between January 2018 and March 2020, those admitted post-PDPM received about 13% fewer therapy minutes than those admitted pre-PDPM, but the likelihood of rehospitalization and functional scores at discharge remained unchanged. Meaning Implementation of PDPM was associated with a reduction in the volume of therapy use without changes in subsequent hospitalization risk or discharge functional scores. Importance In October 2019, Medicare changed its skilled nursing facility (SNF) reimbursement model to the Patient Driven Payment Model (PDPM), which has modified financial incentives for SNFs that may relate to therapy use and health outcomes. Objective To assess whether implementation of the PDPM was associated with changes in therapy utilization or health outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study used a regression discontinuity (RD) approach among Medicare fee-for-service postacute-care patients admitted to a Medicare-certified SNF following hip fracture between January 2018 and March 2020. Exposures Skilled nursing facility admission after PDPM implementation. Main Outcomes and Measures Main outcomes were individual and nonindividual (concurrent and group) therapy minutes per day, hospitalization within 40 days of SNF admission, SNF length of stay longer than 40 days, and discharge activities of daily living score. Results The study cohort included 201 084 postacute-care patients (mean [SD] age, 83.8 [8.3] years;143 830 women [71.5%];185 854 White patients [92.4%]);147 711 were admitted pre-PDPM, and 53 373 were admitted post-PDPM. A decrease in individual therapy (RD estimate: −15.9 minutes per day;95% CI, −16.9 to −14.6) and an increase in nonindividual therapy (RD estimate: 3.6 minutes per day;95% CI, 3.4 to 3.8) were observed. Total therapy use in the first week following admission was about 12 minutes per day (95% CI, −13.3 to −11.3) (approximately 13%) lower for residents admitted post-PDPM vs pre-PDPM. No consistent and statistically significant discontinuity in hospital readmission (0.31 percentage point increase;95% CI, −1.46 to 2.09), SNF length of stay (2.7 percentage point decrease in likelihood of staying longer than 40 days;95% CI, −4.83 to −0.54), or functional score at discharge (0.04 point increase in activities of daily living score;95% CI, −0.19 to 0.26) was observed. Nonindividual therapy minutes were reduced to nearly zero in late March 2020, likely owing to COVID-19–related restrictions on communal activities in SNFs. Conclusions and Relevance In this cross-sectional study of SNF admission after PDPM implementation, a reduction of total therapy minutes was observed following the implementation of PDPM, even though PDPM was designed to be budget neutral. No significant changes in postacute outcomes were observed. Further study is needed to understand whether the PDPM is associated with successful discharge outcomes.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327151

ABSTRACT

Background: A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine booster dose has been recommended for all nursing home residents. However, we lack effectiveness data on boosters preventing infection, death and hospitalization in this frail population. Methods We emulated nested target trials in two large nursing home systems in parallel to evaluate the effectiveness of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine booster at preventing infection, hospitalization, or death. Residents who completed a 2-dose series of the mRNA vaccine and were eligible for a booster were included in from September 22, 2021 to November 5, 2021. Outcomes were measured through December 18, 2021, including test-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, or death. The vaccine effectiveness at day 42 was estimated with a Kaplan-Meier estimator, both unadjusted and weighted with the inverse probability of treatment. Results The two NH systems were large and multi-state, System 1 included 200 NH (8,538 control and 5,721 boosted residents) and System 2 included 127 NHs (4,100 control and 2,291 boosted residents). Booster vaccination reduced infections by 50.4% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 29.4%, 64.7%) SARS-CoV-2 infections in System 1 and 58.2% (32.3%, 77.8%) in System 2. Boosted residents in System 1 also had a 97.3% (86.9%, 100.0%) reduction in SARS-CoV-2 associated death, but too few events for comparison in System 2. Conclusions: During a Delta predominant period, SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccination significantly reduced infection in two U.S. nursing home systems. In the larger System 1 a 97% reduction in SARS-CoV-2 related death was also observed. These findings strongly support administration of vaccine boosters to nursing home residents.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323956

ABSTRACT

Traditionally, the legal field has lagged behind others in its innovative uses of technology to serve the interests of justice. In the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, the physical distancing measures adopted to curtail the spread of coronavirus presented challenged conventional resources and practices used in international courts and tribunals. In response, the pandemic forced international courts and tribunals to follow suit, and determine the role that digital resources could play in the realms of court proceedings and evidence collection.This Article observes the adaptations international courts and tribunals, including the ICC, IRMCT, STL, and the ECCC, have adopted since March 2020 to continue their mandate during the pandemic, as well as their increased reliance upon digital tools that emerged prior to the pandemic, with a focus on virtual proceedings and digital evidence. The Article further considers the potential longevity of this increased use of digital resources in the field of international criminal law, and how the development of these tools can serve the interests of transitional justice by offering cost-saving solutions to courts, strengthening investigations and prosecutions, and increasing access to international criminal proceedings.

9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(4): 1198-1207, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Federal minimum nurse staffing levels for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) were proposed in 2019 U.S. Congressional bills. We estimated costs and personnel needed to meet the proposed staffing levels, and examined characteristics of SNFs not meeting these thresholds. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2019Q4 payroll data, the Hospital Wage Index, and other administrative data for 14,964 Medicare and Medicaid-certified SNFs. We examined characteristics of SNFs not meeting proposed minimum thresholds: 4.1 total nursing hours per resident day (HPRD); 0.75 registered nurse (RN) HPRD; 0.54 licensed practical nurse (LPN) HPRD; and 2.81 certified nursing assistant (CNA) HPRD. For SNFs falling below the thresholds, we calculated the additional HPRD needed, along with the associated full-time equivalent (FTE) personnel and salary costs. RESULTS: In 2019, 25.0% of SNFs met the minimum 4.1 total nursing HPRD, while 31.0%, 84.5%, and 10.7% met the RN, LPN, and CNA thresholds, respectively. Only 5.0% met all four categories. In adjusted analyses, factors most strongly associated with SNFs not meeting the proposed minimums were: higher Medicaid census, larger bed size, for-profit ownership, higher county SNF competition; and, for RNs specifically, higher community poverty and lower Medicare census. Rural SNFs were less likely to meet all categories and this was explained primarily by county SNF competition. We estimate that achieving the proposed federal minimums across SNFs nationwide would require an estimated additional 35,804 RN, 3509 LPN, and 116,929 CNA FTEs at $7.25 billion annually in salary costs based on current wage rates and prepandemic resident census levels. CONCLUSIONS: Achieving proposed minimum nurse staffing levels in SNFs will require substantial financial investment in the workforce and targeted support of low-resource facilities. Extensive recruitment and retention efforts are needed to overcome supply constraints, particularly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , United States , Workforce
10.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):16-17, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584882

ABSTRACT

Reports of fatal adverse events following mRNA-based vaccination for COVID-19 in Norwegian nursing home (NH) residents have raised concern regarding vaccine safety in very old and frail persons. A limitation of these reports, however, is the absence of contemporaneous control groups, particularly given the high baseline mortality in this population. Using electronic health records’ data on resident deaths, hospital transfer, vaccination, and daily census from Genesis Healthcare, a large NH provider spanning 24 U.S. states, we compared 7-day mortality and hospitalization rates for vaccinated versus unvaccinated NH residents. Between December 18, 2020 and December 31, 2020, 7006 residents across 118 NHs were vaccinated with the first dose. Mortality and hospital transfer rates within 7 days of vaccination were compared to rates for: (1) unvaccinated residents in the same facility within 7 days of the vaccine clinic (n=4414), and (2) residents in 166 yet-to-be-vaccinated facilities between December 25, 2020 and January 1, 2021 (n=17,076). We excluded residents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test within 20 days prior to their 7-day observation window. Mortality rates per 100,000 residents were lower among vaccinated (587, 95%CI: 431, 798) versus unvaccinated residents within the same facilities (984, 95%CI: 705, 1382), and compared to residents in not-yet-vaccinated facilities (912, 95%CI: 770-1080), with overlapping 95% CIs. Hospital transfers were lower among vaccinated residents than in either comparison group, but with overlapping CIs. Our findings suggest that short term mortality rates appear unrelated to vaccination for COVID-19 in NH residents, and should dispel concerns raised by previous reports.

11.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 57(3): 359-363, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545743

ABSTRACT

Lower gastrointestinal diagnostics have been facing significant capacity constraints, which the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated due to significant reductions in endoscopy procedures. Colon Capsule Endoscopy (CCE) provides a safe, viable solution to offset ongoing demand and could be a valuable tool for the recovery of endoscopy services post-COVID. NHS Scotland has already begun a country-wide rollout of CCE as a managed service, and NHS England have committed to a pilot scheme of 11,000 capsules via hospital-based delivery. Here, we outline a proven method of CCE delivery that ensures the CCE and results are delivered in an efficient, clinically robust manner with high patient acceptability levels through a managed service. Delivering CCE without a managed service is likely to be slower, more costly, and less effective, limiting the many benefits of CCE as an addition to the standard diagnostic pathway for bowel cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capsule Endoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Capsule Endoscopy/methods , Colonoscopy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2669-2672, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486740

ABSTRACT

In fall 2020, a coronavirus disease cluster comprising 16 cases occurred in Connecticut, USA. Epidemiologic and genomic evidence supported transmission among persons at a school and fitness center but not a workplace. The multiple transmission chains identified within this cluster highlight the necessity of a combined investigatory approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fitness Centers , Connecticut/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(2): 429-438, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large nursing home chain implemented a policy to temporarily hold potentially unnecessary medications. We describe rates of held and discontinued medications after a temporary hold policy of potentially unnecessary or nonessential medications. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study uses electronic health record (EHR) data on 3247 residents of 64 nursing homes operated by a multistate long-term care provider. Medications were documented in the electronic medication administration record. Overall medication held and discontinued incidences are reported. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is used to determine individual probabilities for medication discontinuation within each facility. RESULTS: In total, 3247 residents had 5297 nonessential medications held. Multivitamins were most likely to be held, followed by histamine-2 receptor antagonists, antihistamines, and statins. At the end of the hold policy, 2897 of 5297 (54%) were permanently discontinued, including probiotics (73%), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (66%), antihistamines (64%), and statins (45%). Demographics, cognitive and functional impairment were similar between residents with medications who were discontinued versus continued. For most medications, more than 50% of the variance in whether medications were discontinued was explained by facility rather than resident-level factors. CONCLUSION: A temporary medication hold policy implemented during the CoVID-19 pandemic led to the deprescribing of a plurality of 'nonessential' medications. This type of organization-wide initiative may be an effective mechanism for altering future prescribing behaviors to reduce the use of unnecessary medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deprescriptions , Nursing Homes , Aged , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Long-Term Care , Male , Nursing Homes/trends , Potentially Inappropriate Medication List/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States
14.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(10): e549, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470173

ABSTRACT

Patient- and family-centered end-of-life care can be difficult to achieve in light of visitation restrictions and infection-prevention measures. We evaluated how the 3 Wishes Program evolved to allow continued provision of compassionate end-of-life care for critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. DESIGN: This is a prospective observational study where data were collected 1 year prior to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and 1 year after (from March 1, 2019, to March 31, 2021). The number of deceased patients whose care involved the 3 Wishes Program, their characteristics, and wishes were compared between prepandemic and pandemic periods. SETTING: Six adult ICUs of a two-hospital health system in Los Angeles. PATIENTS: Deceased patients whose care involved the 3 Wishes Program. INTERVENTIONS: The 3 Wishes Program is a palliative care intervention in which individualized wishes are implemented for dying patients and their families. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the study period, the end-of-life care for 523 patients involved the 3 Wishes Program; more patients received the 3 Wishes Program as part of their end-of-life care during the pandemic period than during the prepandemic study period (24.8 vs 17.6 patients/mo; p = 0.044). Patients who died during the pandemic compared with prepandemic were less likely to have family at the bedside and more likely to have postmortem wishes fulfilled for their families. Compared with the 736 wishes implemented during the prepandemic period, the 969 wishes completed during the pandemic were more likely to involve keepsakes. Wishes were most commonly implemented by bedside nurses, although the 3 Wishes Program project manager (not involved in the patient's clinical care) was more likely to assist remotely during the pandemic (24.8% vs 12.1%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Bedside innovations, programmatic adaptations, and institutional support made it possible for healthcare workers to continue the 3 Wishes Program and provide compassionate end-of-life care in the ICU during this pandemic.

16.
Build Environ ; 207: 108440, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466084

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study are to investigate building professionals' experience, awareness, and interest in occupant health in buildings, and to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their opinions, as well as to compare the research on occupant health in buildings to professionals' opinions. To address these objectives, a mixed research methodology, including a thorough review of the literature (NL = 190) and an online survey (NS = 274), was utilized. In general, there is an increasing research interest in occupant health and a heightened interest in health-related projects, among professionals, following the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, among the nine different building attributes examined, indoor air quality was the most researched building attribute with a focus on occupant health and was also presumed to be the most important by the professionals. Professionals considered fatigue and musculoskeletal pain to be the most important physical well-being issues, and stress, anxiety, and depression to be the most important mental well-being issues that need to be the focus of design, construction, and operation of buildings to support and promote occupant health, while eye-related symptoms and loss of concentration were the most researched physical and mental well-being symptoms in the literature, respectively. Finally, professionals indicated that COVID-19 pandemic had significant effect on their perspectives regarding buildings' impact on occupant health and they believed future building design, construction and operation will focus more on occupant health because of the pandemic experience.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2766-2777, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken a disproportionate toll on long-term care facility residents and staff. Our objective was to review the empirical evidence on facility characteristics associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Long-term care facilities (nursing homes and assisted living communities). PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six empirical studies of factors associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths in long-term care facilities published between January 1, 2020 and June 15, 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes included the probability of at least one case or death (or other defined threshold); numbers of cases and deaths, measured variably. RESULTS: Larger, more rigorous studies were fairly consistent in their assessment of risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes in long-term care facilities. Larger bed size and location in an area with high COVID-19 prevalence were the strongest and most consistent predictors of facilities having more COVID-19 cases and deaths. Outcomes varied by facility racial composition, differences that were partially explained by facility size and community COVID-19 prevalence. More staff members were associated with a higher probability of any outbreak; however, in facilities with known cases, higher staffing was associated with fewer deaths. Other characteristics, such as Nursing Home Compare 5-star ratings, ownership, and prior infection control citations, did not have consistent associations with COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSION: Given the importance of community COVID-19 prevalence and facility size, studies that failed to control for these factors were likely confounded. Better control of community COVID-19 spread would have been critical for mitigating much of the morbidity and mortality long-term care residents and staff experienced during the pandemic. Traditional quality measures such as Nursing Home Compare 5-Star ratings and past deficiencies were not consistent indicators of pandemic preparedness, likely because COVID-19 presented a novel problem requiring extensive adaptation by both long-term care providers and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Risk Adjustment , Skilled Nursing Facilities/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Long-Term Care/methods , Long-Term Care/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123696, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400715
20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(1): 8-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited COVID-19 vaccination acceptance among healthcare assistants (HCAs) may adversely impact older adults, who are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 infections. Our study objective was to evaluate the perceptions of COVID-19 vaccine safety and efficacy in a sample of frontline HCAs, overall and by race and ethnicity. METHODS: An online survey was conducted from December 2020 to January 2021 through national e-mail listserv and private Facebook page for the National Association of Health Care Assistants. Responses from 155 HCAs, including certified nursing assistants, home health aides, certified medical assistants, and certified medication technicians, were included. A 27-item survey asked questions about experiences and perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines, including how confident they were that COVID-19 vaccines are safe, effective, and adequately tested in people of color. Multivariable regression was used to identify associations with confidence in COVID-19 vaccines. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 155 completed responses. Among respondents, 23.9% were black and 8.4% Latino/a. Most respondents worked in the nursing home setting (53.5%), followed by hospitals (12.9%), assisted living (11.6%), and home care (10.3%). Respondents expressed low levels of confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, with fewer than 40% expressing at least moderate confidence in safety (38.1%), effectiveness (31.0%), or adequate testing in people of color (27.1%). Non-white respondents reported lower levels of confidence in adequate testing of vaccines compared to white respondents. In bivariate and adjusted models, respondents who gave more favorable scores of organizational leadership at their workplace expressed greater confidence in COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSION: Frontline HCAs reported low confidence in COVID-19 vaccines. Stronger organizational leadership in the workplace appears to be an important factor in influencing HCA's willingness to be vaccinated. Action is needed to enhance COVID-19 vaccine uptake in this important population with employers playing an important role to build vaccine confidence and trust among employees.


Subject(s)
Allied Health Personnel/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Perception , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Assisted Living Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL