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1.
Jmir Public Health and Surveillance ; 8(7), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2003123

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, countries are introducing digital passports that allow citizens to return to normal activities if they were previously infected with (immunity passport) or vaccinated against (vaccination passport) SARS-CoV-2. To be effective, policy decision-makers must know whether these passports will be widely accepted by the public and under what conditions. This study focuses attention on immunity passports, as these may prove useful in countries both with and without an existing COVID-19 vaccination program;however, our general findings also extend to vaccination passports.Objective: We aimed to assess attitudes toward the introduction of immunity passports in six countries, and determine whatMethods: We collected 13,678 participants through online representative sampling across six countries-Australia, Japan, Taiwan, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom-during April to May of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, and assessed attitudes and support for the introduction of immunity passports.Results: Immunity passport support was moderate to low, being the highest in Germany (775/1507 participants, 51.43%) and the United Kingdom (759/1484, 51.15%);followed by Taiwan (2841/5989, 47.44%), Australia (963/2086, 46.16%), and Spain (693/1491, 46.48%);and was the lowest in Japan (241/1081, 22.94%). Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects modeling was used to assess predictive factors for immunity passport support across countries. International results showed neoliberal worldviews (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.13-1.22), personal concern (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.16), perceived virus severity (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14), the fairness of immunity passports (OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.36-2.66), liking immunity passports (OR 2.77, 95% CI 2.61-2.94), and a willingness to become infected to gain an immunity passport (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.51-1.68) were all predictive 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.65), and risk of harm to society (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67-0.76) predicted a decrease in support for immunity

2.
Sexually Transmitted Infections ; 98:A49, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956922

ABSTRACT

Background Online sexual health services (e-services) are being increasingly used for STI testing. Reduced sexual health clinic capacity due to the Covid-19 pandemic prompted our regional e-service to widen eligibility and enable individuals with mild symptoms to access our service. Prior to placing a kit order, information was shown to all symptomatic service users, advising them of the benefits of attending a sexual health clinic and/or to attend a clinic if symptoms persist/worsen. Method A retrospective analysis was performed of service users that ordered a testing kit between March 2020, and December 2021. Kit return rates were compared according to symptom status. Results Of 888,619 kit orders 163,023 (18.3%) came from symptomatic users. The most common symptom reported was vaginal discharge (41.1%), followed by dysuria/frequency (18.4%) and itching (13.8%). The kit return rate among asymptomatic service users was significantly higher (79.3%) compared to symptomatic users (74.3%) (X2 6.04. p =0.01401). The highest return rates were seen among individuals with itching (75.8%), dysuria/frequency (75.7%) and vaginal discharge (74.6%). The lowest return rate was seen by individuals with genital lumps (71.2%). Discussion Significantly fewer kits were returned by symptomatic e-service users compared to asymptomatics. It is plausible the e-service advisory information deterred some users from returning kits, encouraging them to instead test at a clinic. However, many users opted to complete testing online or perhaps did so because of difficulty accessing a sexual health clinic. Further work is needed to explore the preferred modality of testing provider and the suitability of online services for symptomatic individuals.

3.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer ; 69(SUPPL 2):S202-S203, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885446

ABSTRACT

Background: Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is an increasingly recognized complication of hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) with incidence rates ranging from 10-35%. The predominant mechanism leading to TA-TMA is endothelial cell damage leading to complement dysregulation and microvascular hemolysis. Complement dysregulation is particularly important in the pathophysiology of TA-TMA as initial trials have shown response to complement blockade using eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the terminal complement pathway. Ravulizumab is a longer acting monoclonal antibody with the same target as eculizumab that is increasingly used for treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Herein, we describe the case of an African American female with relapsed/refractory infantile B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) who underwent 10/10 HLA-matched sibling donor allogeneic transplant (conditioning: busulfan/fludarabine/thiotepa;GVHD prophylaxis: tacrolimus/methotrexate) who developed TA-TMA marked by pericardial effusion, elevated LDH, proteinuria, hypertension, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and evidence of microangiopathy. Upon diagnosis, as ravulizumab was on formulary and readily available unlike eculizumab, she was treated with ravulizumab instead of eculizumab. Objectives: To describe the therapeutic response to ravulizumab in one patient diagnosed with TA-TMA. Design/Method: A retrospective chart review was performed regarding this patient's ravulizumab treatment course, and direct discussions were had with the patient's care team. Results: Ravulizumab (loading dose of 600 mg followed 2 weeks later by maintenance dosing of 600 mg every 4 weeks) was administered. Pre-treatment CH50 was >75 U/mL (range: 30-75 U/mL) with sC5b9 and C3 complement levels at the upper limit of normal at 220 ng/mL (range: ≤244 ng/mL) and 143 mg/dL (range: 72-164 mg/dL), respectively. Clinical normalization of the patient's TA-TMA was achieved two weeks after loading dose administration with normalization of LDH and blood pressure values, improved proteinuria, decreased transfusion requirements, absence of schistocytes on peripheral smear, and complete resolution of pericardial effusion. A total of 5 maintenance doses of ravulizumab were administered approximately every 4 weeks with CH50 ranging <3-33 U/mL during this time period. Five maintenance doses were administered as the optimal duration was unknown and the patient's TA-TMA treatment course was complicated by COVID-19 infection, for which there was concern could lead to TA-TMA reactivation (which did not occur). The ravulizumab was well tolerated throughout with amoxicillin used for meningococcal prophylaxis. Conclusion: While studies evaluating ravulizumab for treatment of TA-TMA are ongoing, ravulizumab successfully led to complement blockade and clinical improvement in this patient with TA-TMA.

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Production of affordable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in low- and middle-income countries is needed. NDV-HXP-S is an inactivated egg-based Newcastle disease virus vaccine expressing the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It's being developed in Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil;herein are initial results from Thailand. METHODS: This phase 1 stage of a randomised, dose-escalation, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial was conducted at the Vaccine Trial Centre, Mahidol University (Bangkok). Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, non-pregnant and negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were eligible. Participants were block randomised to receive one of six treatments by intramuscular injection twice, 28 days apart: 1 microg+/-CpG1018 (a toll-like receptor 9 agonist), 3 microg+/-CpG1018, 10 microg, or placebo. Participants and personnel assessing outcomes were masked to treatment. The primary outcomes were solicited and spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs) during 7 and 28 days after each vaccination, respectively. Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity measures (anti-S IgG and pseudotyped virus neutralisation). An interim analysis assessed safety at day 57 in treatment-exposed individuals and immunogenicity through day 43 per protocol. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT04764422 ). FINDINGS: Between March 20 and April 23, 2021, 377 individuals were screened and 210 were enrolled (35 per group);all received dose one;five missed dose two. The most common solicited AEs among vaccinees, all predominantly mild, were injection site pain (<63%), fatigue (<35%), headache (<32%), and myalgia (<32%). The proportion reporting a vaccine-related AE ranged from 5.7% to 17.1% among vaccine groups and was 2.9% in controls;there was no vaccine-related serious adverse event. The 10 microg formulation's immunogenicity ranked best, followed by 3 microg+CpG1018, 3 microg, 1 microg+CpG1018, and 1 microg formulations. On day 43, the geometric mean concentrations of 50% neutralising antibody ranged from 122.23 IU/mL (1 microg, 95% CI 86.40-172.91) to 474.35 IU/mL (10 microg, 95% CI 320.90-701.19), with 93.9% to 100% of vaccine groups attaining a >=4-fold increase over baseline. INTERPRETATION: NDV-HXP-S had an acceptable safety profile and potent immunogenicity. The 3 microg and 3 microg+CpG1018 formulations advanced to phase 2. FUNDING: National Vaccine Institute (Thailand), National Research Council (Thailand), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health (USA).

7.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4):S38-S39, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1748278

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: To understand how the emergency department built environment contributes to physician burnout. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews of attending physicians who work regularly at the study institution, an urban ED, Level 1 Trauma Center with an annual census of 85, 000 and an EM residency program. Physicians were first asked about overall burnout followed by questions relating the physical environment to burnout. Subjects participated in a virtual reality (VR) simulation of the study ED. In the VR simulation, subjects placed virtual “sticky notes” to describe elements of the environment that contributed to or relieved burnout. Physicians also completed occupant comfort surveys to measure their overall satisfaction with the built environment for three different ED spaces. The surveys contained prompts for 6 categories: acoustics, air quality, cleanliness and maintenance, lighting, layout and furnishings, temperature (photo). A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze interview transcripts, VR collected virtual memos and surveys. Results: 19 emergency physicians were enrolled (68% male, 42% early-, 42% mid-, 16% late-career) Average Maslach Burnout Inventory scores were 2.8 for emotional exhaustion, 2.4 for depersonalization and 4.8 for personal accomplishment. Sources of overall ED burnout were most commonly attributed to to ED volume, crowding, lack of resources, lack of institutional support, provider metrics, difficult patients, medico-legal concerns, worsening job market and effects of COVID-19. For the main study question, 71 themes were coded over 6 built environment domains and 25 themes related to impact and burnout. Of the 6 environmental domains, layout, cleanliness and acoustics were more commonly associated with burnout compared to air quality, lighting and temperature. An internal waiting room was the strongest contributor to physician burnout due to the close proximity to unassigned (waiting) patients associated with interruptions, distractions and concern for provider safety which contributed to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Increased distance to patient rooms was connected with a sense of depersonalization. Clutter, non-useful displays, poor organization and equipment issues were frequently noted and connected to a sense of disorganization and decreased personal accomplishment. Additionally, poor visualization of patients and monitors from physician workstations contributed to decreased situational awareness, anxiety, lack of provider safety and decreased personal accomplishment. Other frequently cited components included lack of visual/acoustical privacy in hallways, patient proximity to physician workstations associated with patient discomfort, medico-legal concerns, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. 100% of the physicians agreed or strongly agreed that the VR simulation was helpful to elicit memories and reflection about the built environment. Conclusion: The study reflects associations between the ED built environment and components of physician burnout. Interventions aimed at balancing distance to patients (unassigned and assigned), reducing clutter and disorganization, balancing the acoustical environment and improving patient comfort and privacy may improve provider wellness. [Formula presented]

8.
Journal of Integrated Care ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1699732

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Telehealth consultations are likely to continue while living with COVID-19 and the risk of other pandemics. Greater understanding of patient perceptions is important in order to inform future integrated care models involving telehealth. Design/methodology/approach: An interpretative qualitative study. Fifteen, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with diverse range of community dwelling patients who attended outpatient clinics at The John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Findings: Key themes were identified: (1) telehealth is valuable in a pandemic;(2) telehealth accessibility can be challenging;(3) there are variations in care experiences, especially when visual feedback is lacking;(4) telehealth for acute and complex care needs may lead to gaps and (5) considerations towards the future of telehealth, beyond a pandemic. Research limitations/implications: There is a shortfall in evidence of the patient experience of integrated care within a telehealth framework. The results provided practical insights into how telehealth services can play a greater role in integrated care. Practical implications: Apart from the need for affordable access to high-speed data for basic Internet access, the author posit the need for patient and clinician training towards promoting communication that is underpinned by choice, trust and shared decision-making. Originality/value: Telehealth is important towards keeping patients safe during COVID-19. Key findings extend knowledge of the practical implications need to promote integrated telehealth systems. While there is a benefit in extending telehealth to more preventative activities, there is also a need for greater service coordination and sharing of information between treating clinicians. Overall the results highlight telehealth consultations to be an effective means of treating well-known conditions and for follow-up rather than for acute conditions. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

9.
International Studies Review ; 23(4):1959-1987, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1666009

ABSTRACT

Exceptional times call for exceptional measures-this formula is all too familiar in the domestic setting. Governments have often played loose with their state's constitution in the name of warding off an urgent threat. But after decades of increasing interconnectedness and emerging transnational governance, today one sees new forms of emergency politics that are cross-border in range. From the European Union to the World Health Organization, from supranational institutions to state governments acting in concert, the logic of emergency is embraced in international contexts, with Covid-19 the latest occasion. This Forum offers an entry-point into this emerging phenomenon. Taking as its point of departure two recent books, it examines the origins, forms, effects and normative stakes of emergency politics beyond the state. Among the matters discussed are the concept of emergency politics, the historical context of its contemporary forms, the patterns of decision-making associated with it, the implications for the legitimacy of transnational institutions, and the constitutional and political ways in which it might be contained. Transnational emergency politics seems likely to remain a central feature of the coming years, and our aim is to further its study in international relations.

10.
Mbio ; 12(6):20, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1615427

ABSTRACT

The world was unprepared for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and remains ill-equipped for future pandemics. While unprecedented strides have been made developing vaccines and treatments for COVID-19, there remains a need for highly effective and widely available regimens for ambulatory use for novel coronaviruses and other viral pathogens. We posit that a priority is to develop pan-family drug cocktails to enhance potency, limit toxicity, and avoid drug resistance. We urge cocktail development for all viruses with pandemic potential both in the short term (<1 to 2 years) and longer term with pairs of drugs in advanced clinical testing or repurposed agents approved for other indications. While significant efforts were launched against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in vitro and in the clinic, many studies employed solo drugs and had disappointing results. Here, we review drug combination studies against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses and introduce a model-driven approach to assess drug pairs with the highest likelihood of clinical efficacy. Where component agents lack sufficient potency, we advocate for synergistic combinations to achieve therapeutic levels. We also discuss issues that stymied therapeutic progress against COVID-19, including testing of agents with low likelihood of efficacy late in clinical disease and lack of focus on developing virologic surrogate endpoints. There is a need to expedite efficient clinical trials testing drug combinations that could be taken at home by recently infected individuals and exposed contacts as early as possible during the next pandemic, whether caused by a coronavirus or another viral pathogen. The approach herein represents a proactive plan for global viral pandemic preparedness.

11.
Capjournal ; - (30):28-32, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1567468

ABSTRACT

Astronomers for Planet Earth (A4E) is a global collective, whose main goal is to communicate the fragility of our planet from an astronomical perspective. A4E works hard to equally engage with astronomers and educators worldwide, by encouraging the communities to reduce emissions and providing a space to collaborate and share resources. These actions have led to increased sustainability and the incorporation of climate change lessons and activities into teaching and outreach. With the global shift to online communication due to Covid-19, Astronomers for Planet Earth has utilised digital tools in the form of online conferences and seminars, high-impact journal articles, webinars, social media, and video production to engage its audience and grow a membership of around 1300 astronomers in 70 countries around the world. Our article addresses the importance of communicating the climate crisis from an astronomical perspective and explores the successes and challenges of our group's virtual communication with the astronomy community and the general public thus far.

13.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 27(2 SUPPL):715, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1496046

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the 1st wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spring 2020, restrictions and 'lockdowns' impacted how healthcare was provided to many patients in Europe and the US. Objective: To understand the impact of COVID-19 on consultations between neurologists and Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients in Europe and US during the 1st wave of the pandemic. Methods: A multi-centre online retrospective chart-review study of patients with MS was conducted in Q2 2020 (04/2020-06/2020) and Q4 2020 (10/2020-12/2020) in Europe (UK, FR, DE, IT, ES) and US amongst neurologists (MS Nurses included in the UK). Respondents screened for duration of practice in specialty (≥3yrs) and caseload (≥15 MS patients/mo). De-identified patient charts were recorded for the next 10 eligible patients seen during the consultation period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: 321 and 101 (Q2), 324 and 101 (Q4) respondents were recruited in Europe and US respectively, reporting on 2244 and 709 (Q2), 2264 and 704 (Q4) RRMS patients, respectively. In Q2 2020, 39% (Europe) and 31% (US) reported RRMS patients saw their neurologist (or MS Nurse in the UK) in person, compared to 50% (Europe)/19% (US) where the consultation was conducted by phone, 6% (Europe)/ 42% (US) by telemedicine and 6% (Europe)/ 8% (US) via internet. By Q4 2020, the proportion of reported RRMS patients seen in person significantly increased to 71% in Europe and 68% in the US [p<0.01]. Reported patients seen in person were directionally more likely to have active or highly active MS and be suffering from a relapse vs those seen virtually (active or highly active: Europe: Q2 51% vs 35%, Q4 44% vs 36%;US Q2 47% vs 39%;Q4 46% vs 42%. Currently suffering a relapse: Europe: Q2 18% vs 6%, Q4 15% vs 8%;US: Q2 16% vs 7%;Q4 16% vs 5%). In Europe, consultations were significantly more likely [p<0.01] to be in person vs. virtual for reported patients who had initiated or switched disease-modifying therapy in the previous 12 mo. (Q2 36% vs 26%, Q4 30% vs 22%). Conclusions: In the sample surveyed, in person consultations were significantly lower [p<0.01] in the first wave of the pandemic vs. the latter half of 2020. Reported patients with more active disease who started treatment recently were directionally more likely to be seen in person. Further research is needed to understand the impact of virtual appointments on the care of RRMS patients with lower disease burden.

14.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 21(SUPPL 4):830-831, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1494502

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In 2018, the OPTN board approved changes to kidney-pancreas (KP) waiting time criteria. KP candidates accrued waiting time if they were (1) on insulin and had a C-peptide <=2ng/mL or (2) on insulin and had a C-peptide >=2ng/ mL and had a BMI <=30kg/m∧2 which was the maximum allowable BMI. Since 7/11/2019 candidates must be on insulin, registered for a KP, and meeting kidney waiting time criteria. Methods: Registrations added to the waitlist and transplants between 7/11/2018- 7/10/2019 (pre-implementation) or 7/11/2019-7/10/2020 (post-implementation) were compared. Data originated from OPTN waitlist, Transplant Candidate Registration forms and Transplant Recipient Registration forms as of 10/16/2020. Results: 1,389 registrations were added to KP and 42,229 to kidney alone (KI) waitlists (pre-implementation);854 KP and 19,196 KI transplants performed. 1,401 registrations were added to KP and 19,493 KI waitlists (post-implementation);814 KP and 19,493 KI transplants performed. The proportion of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) KP candidates and recipients increased from 23.29% to 27.45% and 21.41% to 27%, respectively (Table 1). Candidate mean BMI increased from 25.7 to 26.3. KP recipients with T2DM and C-peptide >2ng/mL had higher median BMIs than those with lower C-peptide. KP post-transplant outcomes stratified by ethnicity, BMI, and diabetes status remained similar. The proportion of KI candidates and recipients remained roughly unchanged. Pediatric KI organ offers increased (527 to 592 offers per 100 active patient-years) but transplants remained unchanged. Conclusions: Changes in KP waiting time criteria did not adversely affect KI or pediatric KI candidates. Removing the BMI cutoff for obese patients with T2DM resulted in higher BMI KP transplants with equivalent post-transplant outcomes compared to lower BMI recipients. Although total KP transplants were slightly less in the post-implementation period, registrations were more and the transplant volumes were likely adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
HIV Medicine ; 22(SUPPL 2):62-63, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1409356

ABSTRACT

Background: A 37-year- old man was diagnosed with HIV-1 in November 2018, following a negative test in July 2018. Baseline HIV viral load was 56882 cps/ml and CD4 610 cells/mm3 (32%). HLA B5701 was negative and genotype showed wild-type virus. Baseline ALT was 54 IU/L but this was felt to be related to recent seroconversion. He was commenced on abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir (Triumeq) and achieved full viral suppression after 4 weeks. Method: Over the course of 2019, his ALT ranged from 40-150 IU/L with associated occasional rises in AST to around 80 IU/L;bilirubin, ALP and GGT remained within normal limits. He reported no other prescribed or over the counter medication including gym supplements, steroid use or recreational drugs and alcohol consumption was <7 units/week. Extensive investigation for causes of transaminitis were all within normal ranges/negative and hepatic ultrasound was normal. We referred him to hepatology and continued monthly liver tests, pending review. His transaminitis worsened and by Nov 2020 ALT 501 IU/L/ AST 200 IU/L and an urgent liver biopsy was arranged. By Dec 2020 ALT 997 IU/L, AST 316 IU/L and we decided to stop his Triumeq as there was no other explanation for his liver inflammation. Results: The patient later disclosed the use of anabolic steroids during 2020 due to Covid-19 gym closures but he had stopped these in November. His transaminases improved immediately upon cessation of Triumeq and within 14 days ALT was 354 and AST 130. Conclusion: Liver biopsy histopathology showed changes in keeping with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) that was not consistent with typical patterns seen with anabolic steroid use. Given other case reports of INSTI-associated DILI with a possible class effect, as well as omeprazole use, we recommenced ART with TDF/lamivudine/doravirine. The patient continues to use anabolic steroids. ALT/AST continue to fall and the patient remains in follow-up. We report a case of probable delayed hepatotoxicity after 2 years in a patient taking Triumeq. Late ART-associated DILI should be considered in the context of worsening transaminitis.

16.
7th International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment, CyberSA 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1402780

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a dramatic shift in educational practice, whereby home-schooling and remote working became the norm. Many typical schools outreach projects to encourage uptake of learning cyber security skills therefore were put on hold, due to the inability to physical attend and inspire. In this short paper, we describe a new approach to teaching cyber security with a view of inspiring a new generation of learners to the subject. Traditional Capture-The-Flag exercises are widely used in cyber security education, whereby a series of challenges are completed to gain access and obtain a passphrase from a computer system. We couple this approach with interactive sessions made possible via video conferencing platforms such as Microsoft Teams and Zoom, along with the very nature of being in the home environment, where home IoT devices are now commonplace. We develop an integrated CTF for the home IoT environment, where students can observe the impact of submitting flags via online video, to physical adjust the home environment - ranging from switching off lights, playing music, or controlling an IoT-enabled robot. The result is a highly interactive and engaging experience that benefits from the very nature of remote working, inspiring the notion of "hacking an IoT home". © 2021 IEEE.

17.
Environmental Science and Technology Letters ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1392761

ABSTRACT

Methamphetamine, MDMA, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol in samples from 20 wastewater treatment plants servicing the eight state or territory capitals of Australia were analyzed, with equivalent coverage of >45% of the national population. Trends in drug consumption were calculated and assessed from samples collected from 2016 to 2020, with a focus on pre-COVID-19 (August 2016 to December 2019), versus February to June 2020, when Australia observed a nationwide lockdown. Results showed delayed but significant decreases in methamphetamine, >50% in Western Australia. In contrast, significant increases in cannabis in most jurisdictions were observed. This suggests changes in consumption may be somewhat linked to reduced supply of imported substances, with increased use of locally produced drugs. Initial decreases in cocaine and MDMA consumption were evident in many parts of the country, but pre-COVID trends were re-established after April 2020. Interestingly, weekend-weekday differences were narrowed for cocaine, MDMA, and alcohol during lockdown, which might be expected due to bars being closed and social gathering not allowed. With this study providing insight into the first four months of COVID-19 restrictions in Australia, it remains to be seen what the longer-term effect of the pandemic will be. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

18.
Hiv Medicine ; 22:104-105, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1377275
19.
Clinical Psychology Forum ; 2021(342):48-52, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1339999

ABSTRACT

In order to provide help to NHS, HSE and HSCNI services at the start of the Covid-19 lockdown, we offered online Stress Control classes, free-of-charge. These ran over three weeks in April. Due to its success, we repeated the classes in May. © 2021, British Psychological Society. All rights reserved.

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