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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1):6972, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1815600

ABSTRACT

Common alphacoronaviruses and human rhinoviruses (HRV) induce type I and III interferon (IFN) responses important to limiting viral replication in the airway epithelium. In contrast, highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 may evade or antagonize RNA-induced IFN I/III responses. In airway epithelial cells (AECs) from children and older adults we compared IFN I/III responses to SARS-CoV-2 and HRV-16, and assessed whether pre-infection with HRV-16, or pretreatment with recombinant IFN-β or IFN-λ, modified SARS-CoV-2 replication. Bronchial AECs from children (ages 6-18 years) and older adults (ages 60-75 years) were differentiated ex vivo to generate organotypic cultures. In a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility, cultures were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or HRV-16, and RNA and protein was harvested from cell lysates 96 h. following infection and supernatant was collected 48 and 96 h. following infection. In additional experiments cultures were pre-infected with HRV-16, or pre-treated with recombinant IFN-β1 or IFN-λ2 before SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a subset of experiments a range of infectious concentrations of HRV-16, SARS-CoV-2 WA-01, SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, and SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant were studied. Despite significant between-donor heterogeneity SARS-CoV-2 replicated 100 times more efficiently than HRV-16. IFNB1, INFL2, and CXCL10 gene expression and protein production following HRV-16 infection was significantly greater than following SARS-CoV-2. IFN gene expression and protein production were inversely correlated with SARS-CoV-2 replication. Treatment of cultures with recombinant IFNβ1 or IFNλ2, or pre-infection of cultures with HRV-16, markedly reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication. In addition to marked between-donor heterogeneity in IFN responses and viral replication, SARS-CoV-2 (WA-01, Delta, and Omicron variants) elicits a less robust IFN response in primary AEC cultures than does rhinovirus, and heterologous rhinovirus infection, or treatment with recombinant IFN-β1 or IFN-λ2, reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication, although to a lesser degree for the Delta and Omicron variants.

2.
Electronic Journal of General Medicine ; 19(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798585

ABSTRACT

Currently, social anomie is a public health problem worldwide since people show behavior that does not conform to the newly established norms. Faced with this, the aim of the study was to develop and validate the psychometric properties of a short scale to assess social anomie in a sample of 406 adults (48% male and 52% female) between the ages of 18 and 62. Validity was evaluated based on internal structure through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability through the internal consistency method with the hierarchical omega coefficient. The results indicate that a bi-factor model presents better indexes of adjustment to the data (χ2=62.86;df=25;p=.000;RMSEA=.061 [IC90%.042-.080];SRMR=.024;CFI=.99;TLI=.99). Furthermore, the bi-factor model presents adequate levels of reliability for the general factor (ωH=.70) and for the affective (ωhs=.32) and behavior (ωhs=.41) dimensions. In conclusion, the study results provide a conceptual and statistical basis for the psychometric development of the SAS-10 scale in subsequent studies.

3.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 149(2):AB102-AB102, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798230
4.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):372-372, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1781791
5.
Journal of Medical Devices, Transactions of the ASME ; 16(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1709113

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic left an unprecedented impact on the general public health, resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths in the U.S. alone. Nationwide testing plans were initiated with drive-through being the currently dominant testing approach, which, however, exhausts personal protective equipment supplies, and is unfriendly to individuals not owning a vehicle. Walkup positive pressure testing booths are a safe alternative, whereby a health care provider situated on the inside of an enclosed and positively pressurized booth swabs a patient on the outside through chemical resistant gloves. The booths, however, are too prohibitively priced on the market to allow for nationwide deployment. To mitigate this, we present in this paper a safe, accessible, mobile, and affordable design of positive-pressure COVID-19 testing booths. The booths have successfully passed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Health care Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee pressure, air exchange, and air quality requirements for positive-pressure rooms, following the guidelines for environmental infection control in health care facilities. The booths are manufactured using primarily off-the-shelf components from U.S. vendors with minimized customization, and the final bill of materials does not surpass USD 3,900. Since August 2019, five booths were deployed and used at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore City Health Department, and two community health centers in Baltimore. No health care provider was infected when using our booths, which have shown to facilitate walkup testing with decreased personal protective equipment consumption, reduced risk of infection, and enhanced accessibility to lower-income communities and nondrivers. Copyright © 2022 by ASME.

6.
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities ; 3:10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1702487

ABSTRACT

Despite a growing number of research outputs on the importance of nature contact during the COVID-19 pandemic, we know of no longitudinal research conducted prior to and during the pandemic among low-income and minority ethnicity populations, i.e., those that might be most affected. Furthermore, we have scant information about how and to what degree contact with nature might protect mental health or mitigate worsening of mental health during the pandemic. We filled these gaps using a subset of a longitudinal study of n = 86 individuals in low-income, predominantly African American, neighborhoods in Detroit, MI, USA. The study addressed the following research questions: (1) did self-reported use and perceived value of nature change during, vs. prior to, the pandemic;(2) did perceived access to outdoor spaces buffer people against mental health issues such as stress, anxiety and depression symptoms;or (3) did objectively measured quality of nature views from home buffer people against mental health issues, taking into account relevant covariates and pandemic experiences (e.g., loss of employment, death of a friend/relative)? While attitudes to nature improved slightly from pre- to during the pandemic, we also observed significant decreases in most types of outdoor physical activity and passive enjoyment of nature (e.g., smelling plants/rain). We found a positive association between visibility of greenspace and perceived stress and anxiety, which not only contradicts previous research findings, but was especially surprising given that overall there was a decrease in perceived stress from 2019-2020. We did not detect associations between perceived access/use of nature and mental health. However, higher depressive symptoms were associated with exposure to more COVID-19-related stressors (lost employment, death of friends from COVID-19, etc.). Taken together, our results indicate that COVID-19 may serve to prolong or exacerbate mental health issues, rather than create them, in this population and that low quality greenspace may perhaps limit the ability for nature view to buffer mental health during the pandemic.

7.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695158

ABSTRACT

In March of 2020, faculty across the nation had to adapt their teaching methodologies due to the COVID 19 pandemic as universities across the country suspended face-to-face classes. This involved short-term solutions to complete the spring semester such as switching in-person lectures to synchronous lectures utilizing a university purchased platform. During the summer of 2020, many schools and courses saw record enrollment. Instructors were tasked with transitioning the once face-to-face class into a complete online environment of educational equivalence for the entirety of the course (unlike the partial transition during the spring semester). Most faculty are not trained in the pedagogical content knowledge related to designing, organizing, and maintaining an online course environment, yet were tasked with developing their summer courses in a short period of time. In addition to these sudden educational delivery changes, research findings indicate that supportive interventions to reduce loneliness should prioritize younger individuals during the COVID 19 pandemic [1]. This paper reviews the successful online transition of an in-person engineering innovation course that utilizes project based educational methods to an online environment during the summer of 2020 and the subsequent fall semester. In total, 174 undergraduate and graduate multidisciplinary engineering students completed this course in the new online format during the summer and 131 students took the course in the fall semester of 2020. Various methods were used to create a diverse and engaging learning experience for the students, while simultaneously creating a sense of community during a period of loneliness for many of the students. Anecdotal student feedback noted that the sense of community the course encouraged was one of the best aspects of the course. Two main ways the instructor helped to build this element of community was through the user experience and through course assignments. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

8.
Electronic Journal of General Medicine ; 19(2):7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1668005

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Concern about becoming infected is a particularly relevant psychological aspect in the context of a pandemic, as it is associated with social reactions and behavioral changes. Objectives: The present study sought to determine some sociodemographic and health factors associated with concern about COVID-19 infection in Cuban patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 203 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who attended nine primary care areas of four Cuban provinces belonging to different regions of the country (65.52% female, mean age 57.5, SD=19.2), selected through non-probabilistic sampling, participated in the study. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the COVID-19 contagion concern scale (PRE-COVID-19) and an evaluation of blood glucose level were applied. Bivariate associations were examined with a series of analyses of variance (ANOVA). Adjusted (multiple) regression with all predictors running simultaneously was also used. Results: Bivariate analyses showed that age, sex, education, occupation, having comorbidities, and having a family member or friend who had COVID-19 were significantly related to COVID-19 contagion concern. However, when all variables were included simultaneously, only age, technical education, having comorbidities, and having a friend or family member who had COVID-19 remained significant predictors of concern about COVID-19 infection. Conclusions: Male patients, with a technical level of education, with comorbidities and those who had infected family members or friends presented greater concern for the contagion of COVID-19. The public health policies should develop strategies to assess the mental health of people belonging to vulnerable groups and provide interventions to promote mental health in those who show concern about infection.

9.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 76(SUPPL 110):194, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1570350

ABSTRACT

Background: The CORAL study is a cross-sectional study of the impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on allergic and autoimmune dysregulation of infants born in March, April and May 2020, during Ireland's 1 st COVID-19 pandemic Lockdown. Method: Invitations were sent to families of 3065 term, singleton babies. Exclusion criteria were ante-natal PCR-proven SARSCoV-2 in a parent or co-dwelling person, IV antibiotics in neonatal period, multiple births and major congenital anomalies. At 6 months babies were invited to attend CHI Connolly for point-of-care SARSCoV-2 antibody testing. Results: Of the 3065 letters sent 353 babies were enrolled.53.7% of enrolled infants were male, 78.4% were white-Irish, average birth weight was 3.506kg. 45% were first-born and 95.5% of mothers were educated at 3 rd level or higher. Babies' average number of close contacts other than household members was 2.3 during lockdown and 5.6 afterwards. 42.5% were reported to be currently breast-fed at enrolment. By 6 months, 97% of infants had solid foods introduced but only 24.5% had tried egg and 9.6% had tried peanut. Complete primary immunisation uptake at 6 months was 99%. Lastly, 3 babies out of 200 (1.3%) tested showed presence of IgM & IgG SARSCoV-2 antibodies;2 were PCR negative, the other PCR positive. Conclusion: Initial breastfeeding and immunisation uptake to 6 months are reassuringly high in this self-selected, highly-educated cohort. The rare positive antibody tests suggest recent or current infection, so newborn babies appear to have been protected from SARSCoV-2 exposure during the 1 st COVID Pandemic lockdown.

12.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293454

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Common alphacoronaviruses and human rhinoviruses (HRV) induce type I and III interferon (IFN) responses important to limiting viral replication in the airway epithelium. In contrast, highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 may evade or antagonize RNA-induced IFN I/III responses. Methods: In airway epithelial cells (AECs) from children and older adults we compared IFN I/III responses to SARS-CoV-2 and HRV-16, and assessed whether pre-infection with HRV-16, or pretreatment with recombinant IFN-beta or IFN-lambda, modified SARS-CoV-2 replication. Bronchial AECs from children (ages 6-18 yrs.) and older adults (ages 60-75 yrs.) were differentiated ex vivo to generate organotypic cultures. In a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility, cultures were infected with SARS-CoV-2 or HRV-16, and RNA and protein was harvested from cell lysates 96 hrs. following infection and supernatant was collected 48 and 96 hrs. following infection. In additional experiments cultures were pre-infected with HRV-16, or pre-treated with recombinant IFN-beta1 or IFN-lambda2 before SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Despite significant between-donor heterogeneity SARS-CoV-2 replicated 100 times more efficiently than HRV-16. IFNB1, INFL2, and CXCL10 gene expression and protein production following HRV-16 infection was significantly greater than following SARS-CoV-2. IFN gene expression and protein production were inversely correlated with SARS-CoV-2 replication. Treatment of cultures with recombinant IFNbeta1 or IFNlambda2, or pre-infection of cultures with HRV-16, markedly reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication. Discussion: In addition to marked between-donor heterogeneity in IFN responses and viral replication, SARS-CoV-2 elicits a less robust IFN response in primary AEC cultures than does rhinovirus, and heterologous rhinovirus infection, or treatment with recombinant IFN-beta1 or IFN-lambda2, markedly reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication.

13.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; 8(11):995-1001, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1531974

ABSTRACT

Initial recommendations for surface disinfection to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission were developed using previous evidence from potential surrogates. To the best of our knowledge, no appropriate surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 has been identified or confirmed for chlorine and antimicrobial surface disinfection. We completed a study to evaluate the efficacy of two hypothesized antimicrobial surfaces, and four chlorine solutions on nonporous and porous surfaces, against SARS-CoV-2 and three potential SARS-CoV-2 surrogates [coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and bacteriophages Phi6 and MS2], to identify a BSL-1 or BSL-2 virus to use in future studies. We found SARS-CoV-2 can be reduced >4 log10 on porous and nonporous surfaces within 30 s upon exposure to 0.5% NaOCl. The results indicate coronavirus MHV-GFP is inactivated faster than SARS-CoV-2 (MHV-GFP >= 6.08 log(10);SARS-CoV-2 = 0.66 log(10) at 30 s with 0.05% NaOCl on steel) and MS2 is inactivated more slowly. Phi6 is inactivated like SARS-CoV-2, and we propose Phi6 as a slightly conservative surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 chlorine disinfection. Additionally, disinfection of bacteriophages on wood was challenging, and exposure to antimicrobial surfaces had no disinfection efficacy as tested. We recommend using 0.5% chlorine on surfaces for a minimum of 30 s of contact to disinfect SARS-CoV-2 and recommend additional research on Phi6 disinfection with varied surfaces and conditions.

15.
18.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1369285

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in high fatality rates, especially for patients who suffer from underlying health issues. One of the more serious symptoms exhibited from patients suffering from an acute COVID-19 infection is breathing difficulties and shortness of breath, which is largely due to the excessive fluid (cellular leakage and cytokine storm) and mucoid debris that have filled lung alveoli, and reduced the surfactant tension resulting in heavy and stiff lungs. In this paper we propose the use of micro-bubbles filled with exosomes that can be released upon exposure to ultrasound signals as a possible rescue therapy in deteriorating COVID-19 patients. Recent studies have shown that exosomes can be used to repair and treat lung damage for patients who have suffered from the viral infection. We have conducted simulations to show the efficacy of the ultrasound signals that will penetrate through layers of tissues reaching the alveoli that contains the micro-bubbles. Our results have shown that ultrasound signals with low frequencies are required to oscillate and rupture the polymer-based micro-bubbles. Our proposed system can be used for patients who require immediate rescue treatments for lung damage, as well as for recovered patients who may suffer from viral relapse infection, where the micro-bubbles will remain dormant for a temporary therapeutic window until they are exposed to the ultrasound signals. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
Journal of Neurosurgery ; 132(2):669-669, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1354816
20.
Wellbeing and Resilience Education: COVID-19 and Its Impact on Education ; : 1-283, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1337788

ABSTRACT

Wellbeing and Resilience Education engages with the immediate impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and the theoretical and applied elements of wellbeing and resilience education. It explores the implications for students, teachers, and teaching from a transdisciplinary and international perspective. Featuring thirteen chapters written by 27 academics from across the globe, it includes new transdisciplinary research by organisational psychologists, psychologists, neuroscientists, policy experts and education researchers. The book comprises a wide range of topics including: appreciative inquiry, educational leadership, refugee education, resilience education, designing online courses, teacher wellbeing and community responses during the Covid-19 pandemic. This timely volume will be of interest to academics, initial teacher educators, postgraduate students, school leaders and policymakers researching the field of wellbeing, resilience, education, schools, and schooling. © 2021 selection and editorial matter, Mathew A. White and Faye McCallum. All rights reserved.

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