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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 855713, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862675

ABSTRACT

Conspiracy theories about COVID-19 began to emerge immediately after the first news about the disease and threaten to prolong the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic by limiting people's willingness of receiving a life-saving vaccine. In this context, this study aimed to explore the variation of conspiracy beliefs regarding COVID-19 and the vaccine against it in 5779 people living in 13 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) according to sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, educational level and source of information about COVID-19. The study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic between September 15 and October 25, 2021. The Spanish-language COVID-19 Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (ECCV-COVID) and a sociodemographic survey were used. The results indicate that, in most countries, women, people with a lower educational level and those who receive information about the vaccine and COVID-19 from family/friends are more supportive of conspiracy ideas regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. In the case of age, the results vary by country. The analysis of the responses to each of the questions of the ECCV-COVID reveals that, in general, the countries evaluated are mostly in some degree of disagreement or indecision regarding conspiratorial beliefs about COVID-19 vaccines. The findings could help open further study which could support prevention and treatment efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337634

ABSTRACT

Population-level immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is growing through vaccination as well as ongoing circulation. Given waning immunity and emergence of new variants, it is important to dynamically determine the risk of re-infection in the population. For estimating immune protection, neutralization titers are most informative, but these assays are difficult to conduct at a population level. Measurement of antibody levels can be implemented at high throughput, but has not been robustly validated as a correlate of protection. Here, we have developed a method that predicts neutralization and protection based on variant-specific antibody measurements to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. This approach allowed us to estimate population-immunity in a longitudinal cohort from France followed for up to 2 years. Participants with a single vaccination or immunity caused by infection only are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 or hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2. While the median reduced risk to COVID-19 in participants with 3 vaccinations was 96%, the median reduced risk among participants with infection-acquired immunity only was 42%. The results presented here are consistent with data from vaccine-effectiveness studies indicating robustness of our approach. Our multiplex serological assay can be readily optimized and employed to study any new variant and provides a framework for development of an assay that would include protection estimates.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792669

ABSTRACT

In the face of the psychological crisis of fear caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, it is relevant to know the positive impact of hope and resilience during this context. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between hope and resilience with fear of COVID-19 in young people. The design was non-experimental, cross-sectional, and correlational. The sample consisted of 192 young people living in Metropolitan Lima, Peru. We used the Hope-Despair Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, and the COVID-19 Fear Questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant correlation between hope, resilience, and fear of COVID-19 in young people. On the other hand, a significant difference was found in resilience according to gender. Likewise, it was found that the variables hope and resilience explain 81% (R2 adjusted) of the fear of COVID-19 (F test = 21.53; p < 0.01). Hope and resilience are protective factors that have a positive impact when facing the fear of COVID-19. Thus, policies, programs, and public health strategies related to positive mental health should be promoted, with emphasis on hope and resilience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331294

ABSTRACT

Background: The protective immunity against Omicron following a BNT162b2 Pfizer booster dose among elderly is not well characterized. Methods: Thirty-eight residents from three nursing homes were recruited for the study. Antibodies targeting the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 were measured with the S-Flow assay. Neutralizing activities in sera were measured as effective dilution 50% (ED50) with the S-Fuse assay using authentic isolates of Delta and Omicron. Results: Among the 38 elderly included in the study, with median (inter-quartile range, IQR) age of 88 (81-92) years, 30 (78.9%) had been previously infected. The ED50 of neutralization were lower against Omicron than Delta, and higher among convalescent compared to naive residents. During an Omicron epidemic affecting two of the three nursing homes in December 2021-January 2022, 75% (6/8) of naive residents got infected, compared to 25% (6/24) of convalescents (P=0.03). Antibody levels to Spike and ED50 of neutralization against Omicron after the BNT162b2 booster dose were lower in those with breakthrough infection (n=12) compared to those without (n=20): median of 1256 vs 2523 BAU/mL (P=0.02) and median ED50 of 234 vs 1298 (P=0.0004), respectively. Conclusion: This study confirmed the importance of receiving at least three antigenic exposures to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein for achieving satisfactory neutralizing antibody levels. In this population, protection against Omicron infection was increased in individuals who had been previously infected in addition to the three vaccine doses. Thus, a fourth antigenic exposure may be useful in the elderly population to prevent infection with Omicron, a variant known for its high escape immunity properties.

6.
IJID Reg ; 3: 117-125, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720093

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted to capture the true extent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure in Senegal. Methods: Multi-stage random cluster sampling of households was performed between October and November 2020, at the end of the first wave of COVID-19 transmission. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies were screened using three distinct ELISA assays. Adjusted prevalence rates for the survey design were calculated for each test separately, and thereafter combined. Crude and adjusted prevalence rates based on test performance were estimated to assess the seroprevalence. As some samples were collected in high malaria endemic areas, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 seroreactivity and antimalarial humoral immunity was also investigated. Results: Of the 1463 participants included in this study, 58.8% were female and 41.2% were male; their mean age was 29.2 years (range 0.20-84.8.0 years). The national seroprevalence was estimated at 28.4% (95% confidence interval 26.1-30.8%). There was substantial regional variability. All age groups were impacted, and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was comparable in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. An estimated 4 744 392 (95% confidence interval 4 360 164-5 145 327) were potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Senegal, while 16 089 COVID-19 RT-PCR laboratory-confirmed cases were reported by the national surveillance. No correlation was found between SARS-CoV-2 and Plasmodium seroreactivity. Conclusions: These results provide a better estimate of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination in the Senegalese population. Preventive and control measures need to be reinforced in the country and especially in the south border regions.

7.
SSM Popul Health ; 17: 101049, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692864

ABSTRACT

South Africa has a large temporary migrant population with people commonly moving to metropolitan areas to access employment, while maintaining links with their rural origin households. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted patterns of movement, livelihoods and health seeking, and the effects on internal, temporary migrants are unclear. Using longitudinal data spanning 2018 to 2020, this paper employs descriptive statistics and regression analyses to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on a cohort of 2971 persons aged 18-40 at baseline, both residents and migrants, from a rural district in South Africa's northeast. In contrast with 2018-2019, in 2020 the share of rural residents initiating a migration decreased by 11 percentage points (p<0.001), while the share of temporary migrants returning to origin households increased by 5 percentage points (p<0.001). Study participants who were continuing migrants reported fewer job losses in comparison with rural-stayers, while 76% of return migrants who were employed in 2019 were no longer employed in 2020. Further, among those who did not experience food shortages in 2019, rural-stayers had 1.42 times the odds of continuing migrants of suffering shortages in 2020. In 2020 health service use in the cohort decreased overall, with return migrants having still lower odds of utilising health services. The results highlight the differential geographic and socioeconomic manifestations of the pandemic, with worsening socioeconomic circumstances observed for rural-staying (disproportionately female) and returning populations, while continuing migrants fared relatively better. It is vital that a COVID-19 response considers the potentially heterogeneous impact of the pandemic on mobile and stable populations. Policy responses may include targeting migrants at their destinations in health promotion of COVID-19 messaging, and strengthening health care and social support in origin communities in recognition that these areas receive return migrants into their catchment population.

8.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1467-1482, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690085

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic disease of childhood, but for unknown reasons, disease activity sometimes subsides as children mature. In this study, we present clinical and animal model evidence suggesting that the age dependency of childhood asthma stems from an evolving host response to respiratory viral infection. Using clinical data, we show that societal suppression of respiratory virus transmission during coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown disrupted the traditional age gradient in pediatric asthma exacerbations, connecting the phenomenon of asthma remission to virus exposure. In mice, we show that asthmatic lung pathology triggered by Sendai virus (SeV) or influenza A virus is highly age-sensitive: robust in juvenile mice (4-6 wk old) but attenuated in mature mice (>3 mo old). Interestingly, allergen induction of the same asthmatic traits was less dependent on chronological age than viruses. Age-specific responses to SeV included a juvenile bias toward type 2 airway inflammation that emerged early in infection, whereas mature mice exhibited a more restricted bronchiolar distribution of infection that produced a distinct type 2 low inflammatory cytokine profile. In the basal state, aging produced changes to lung leukocyte burden, including the number and transcriptional landscape of alveolar macrophages (AMs). Importantly, depleting AMs in mature mice restored post-SeV pathology to juvenile levels. Thus, aging influences chronic outcomes of respiratory viral infection through regulation of the AM compartment and type 2 inflammatory responses to viruses. Our data provide insight into how asthma remission might develop in children.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aging/physiology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Respirovirus Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sendai virus/physiology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Animals , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , United States/epidemiology
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307907

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric evidence of the original and brief version of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) in Spanish in a sample of 245 Peruvian adolescents and adults (mean age = 21.04 years, SD = 3.07, 47.8% male and 52.2% female), selected by non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Additionally, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, internal consistency reliability methods, hierarchical sequence of variance models and Graded Response Model were used. Results indicate that both versions of the SCSRFQ showed robust psychometric properties: adequate unidimensional structure, adequate difficulty and discrimination parameters, and significant relationships with the measures of fear of COVID-19 and satisfaction with life. The original version of the SCSRFQ showed evidence of strict measurement invariance by gender and age;whereas the short version showed strict invariance by gender and configural invariance by age. Both versions showed acceptable reliability indices. In conclusion, the original and brief versions of the SCSRFQ show evidence of psychometric indicators that support their use to assess the strength of religious faith

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322430

ABSTRACT

Background: Senegal reported the first COVID-19 case on March 2, 2020. A nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted to capture the true extent of COVID-19 exposure. Methods: Multi-stage random cluster sampling of households was carried out between October 24 and November 26, 2020, at the end of the first wave of COVID-19 transmission. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) were screened using three distinct ELISA assays. Adjusted prevalence for the survey design were calculated for each test separately, and thereafter combined. Crude, adjusted prevalence based on tests performances and weighted prevalence by sex-age strata were estimated to assess the seroprevalence.Findings: Of the 1,463 participants included in this study, 58·8% were women and the mean age of participants was 29·2 years (range 0·25–82·0). The national seroprevalence was estimated at 28 . 4% (95% CI: 26·1-30·8). There was substantial regional variability. Four regions recorded the highest seroprevalence: Ziguinchor (56·7%), Sedhiou (48·0%), Dakar (44·0%) and Kaolack (32·7%) whereas, Louga (11·1%) and Matam (11·2%), located in the Center-North, were less impacted in our analysis. All age groups were impacted and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was comparable in symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. We estimated 4,744,392 SARS-CoV-2 (95% CI: 4,360,164 – 5,145,327) potential infected in Senegal compared to 16,089 COVID-19 RT-PCR laboratory-confirmed cases reported at the time of the survey.Interpretation: These results provide an estimate of SARS-CoV-2 virus dissemination in the Senegalese population. Preventive and control measures need to be reinforced in the country and especially in the south border regions.Funding Information: This work was supported by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Senegalese Ministry of Health, the Senegalese National Statistics and Demography Agency (ANSD), the WHO Unity program and the COVID-19 Task-force of the International Pasteur Institute Network (IPIN, REPAIR project).Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: All participants have consented to participate in the study. For people younger than 18 years, a legal representative provided informed consent. The study was approved by the Senegalese National Ethics Committee for Research in Health (reference number N°0176/MSAS/DPRS/CNERS, 10 October 2020).

11.
Electronic Journal of General Medicine ; 19(2):1-3, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1687825

ABSTRACT

The characteristics associated with COVID-19-related dysfunctional grief suggest that we are most likely facing a "dysfunctional grief pandemic" due to COVID-19. Thus this preliminary study reports frequencies of dysfunctional grief in ten Latin American countries that varied between 7.3% in Brazil and 14.6% in El Salvador. This highlights a greater need for Latin American countries to work together to improve the accessibility of treatment for dysfunctional grief. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Electronic Journal of General Medicine is the property of Modestum Publications and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-8, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624239

ABSTRACT

Most studies only describe mental health indicators (anxiety, depression, insomnia, and stress) and the risk factors associated with these indicators during the pandemic (sex, student status, and specific physical symptoms). However, no explanatory studies have been found that assess the impact of variables associated with COVID-19. Against this background, the objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fear of catching COVID-19 on the level of anxiety, depression, and insomnia in 947 university students of both sexes (41.6% males and 58.4% females) between the ages of 18 and 35 (M = 21.6;SD = 3.4). The Fear of catching COVID-19 Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to measure the variables. The results of the study show that the fear of catching COVID-19 significantly influences the level of anxiety (β = .52;p < .01), insomnia (β = .44;p<.01), and depression (β = .50;p < .01) experienced by university students (χ2 = 2075.93;df = 371;p = .000;RMSEA = .070 [CI 90% .067–.073];SRMR = .055;CFI = .95;TLI = .94). The descriptive results show that a notable percentage of university students present significant symptoms of anxiety (23%), depression (24%), and insomnia (32.9%). It is concluded that the fear of catching COVID-19 is a serious health problem since it influences the appearance of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms.

13.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620367

ABSTRACT

Most studies only describe mental health indicators (anxiety, depression, insomnia, and stress) and the risk factors associated with these indicators during the pandemic (sex, student status, and specific physical symptoms). However, no explanatory studies have been found that assess the impact of variables associated with COVID-19. Against this background, the objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fear of catching COVID-19 on the level of anxiety, depression, and insomnia in 947 university students of both sexes (41.6% males and 58.4% females) between the ages of 18 and 35 (M = 21.6; SD = 3.4). The Fear of catching COVID-19 Scale, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were used to measure the variables. The results of the study show that the fear of catching COVID-19 significantly influences the level of anxiety (ß = .52; p < .01), insomnia (ß = .44; p<.01), and depression (ß = .50; p < .01) experienced by university students (χ2 = 2075.93; df = 371; p = .000; RMSEA = .070 [CI 90% .067-.073]; SRMR = .055; CFI = .95; TLI = .94). The descriptive results show that a notable percentage of university students present significant symptoms of anxiety (23%), depression (24%), and insomnia (32.9%). It is concluded that the fear of catching COVID-19 is a serious health problem since it influences the appearance of anxiety, depression and insomnia symptoms.

14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294499

ABSTRACT

The functional relationship between neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease remains unclear. We jointly estimated protection against infection and disease progression following natural infection and vaccination from meta-study data. We find that NAbs are strongly correlated with prevention of infection and that any history of NAbs will stimulate immune memory to moderate disease progression. We also find that natural infection provides stronger protection than vaccination for the same level of NAbs, noting that infection itself, unlike vaccination, carries risk of morbidity and mortality, and that our most potent vaccines induce much higher NAb levels than natural infection. These results suggest that while sterilizing immunity may decay, we expect protection against severe disease to be robust over time and in the face of immune-evading variants.

15.
J Nutr Metab ; 2021: 4119620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peru has one of the highest infection and death rates in the world for the COVID-19 pandemic. The government implemented house confinement measures with probable consequences on lifestyle, particularly affecting eating habits, physical activity, sleep quality, and mental health. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the lifestyles, physical activity, and sleep characteristics, as well as changes in eating habits in a Peruvian population during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. We analyzed Peruvian adults based on an online self-administered questionnaire divided into sociodemographic, anthropometrics, COVID-19 diagnosis reported, lifestyle habits, and frequency of consumption of foods. RESULTS: During confinement for COVID-19, 1176 participants were studied. Of these, most reported weight gain (1 to 3 kg) and 35.7% were overweight. The lifestyles habits showed that 54.8% reported doing physical activity and 37.2% sleep less. The Peruvian sample presented a main meal pattern of breakfast (95.7%), lunch (97.5%), and dinner (89.1%). Likewise, eating habits before and during COVID-19 pandemic showed that vegetables (OR:1.56, CI95% 1.21-200), fruit (OR: 1.42, CI95% 1.10-1.81), legumes (OR:1.67, CI95% 1.23-2.28), and eggs (OR: 2.00, CI95% 1.52-2.65) presented significant consumption increase during social isolation, while bakery products (OR: 0.74, CI95% 0.56-0.97), meat, snack, refreshment, and fast food decreased in consumption. Other foods showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: This study showed an important frequency of overweight and sleep changes. There was a slight increase in physical activity despite the social isolation measures and an increase in healthy eating habits; nevertheless, the majority reported gaining weight.

16.
Front Psychol ; 12: 695989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528849

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has gravely impacted Latin America. A model was tested that evaluated the contribution of socio-demographic factors and fear of COVID-19 on anxiety and depression in samples of residents in seven Latin American countries (Argentina, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, Colombia, and El Salvador). A total of 4,881 individuals, selected by convenience sampling, participated in the study. Moderate and severe levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety were identified, as well as a moderate average level of fear of COVID-19. In addition, it was observed that about a quarter of the participants presented symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and a major depressive episode. Fear of COVID-19 significantly and positively predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms, whereas the effects of socio-demographic variables are generally low [χ2(287) = 5936.96, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.064 [0.062, 0.065]; CFI = 0.947; and SRMR = 0.050]. This suggests the need for the implementation of preventive actions in the general population of these countries, with the aim of reducing the prevalence of depressive, anxious and fearful symptoms related to COVID-19.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
18.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Concern about getting sick could help prevent disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of a COVID-19 concern scale (EPCov-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an instrument-based study and information was collected from 224 people of Peruvian nationality in the context of social isolation. The items of the Cancer Concern Scale were adapted for this study. RESULTS: A scale with satisfactory psychometric properties was obtained. With a matrix of polychoric correlations, values higher than the standard were obtained in all 6 items (r >0.3) and the reliability was acceptable (α=0.866;95% CI=0.83 - 0.89). Parallel analysis suggested unidimensionality of the EPCov-19, the variance explained was 79.7% and saturations were higher than 0.4. Goodness-of-fit índices were satisfactory (CFI=0.995;GFI=0.997;TLI=0.991;and RMSEA=0.059, 95% CI=0.012 - 0.077). CONCLUSIONS: This is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring concern about the spread of COVID-19 and can be used in future studies.

19.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 57(1): 20-27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) is an instrument that measures the severity of anxiety due to COVID-19 or coronaphobia. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, older adults are the most vulnerable age group; therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CAS in this group. MATERIALS AND METHOD: 274 Peruvian older adults participated (Mage=67.86; SD=6.34, 64.6% women). In addition to the CAS, the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), and 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-2) were applied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure of the CAS and Item Response Theory was used to analyze item characteristics. A sequence of hierarchical variance models was used to evaluate the measurement invariance of the CAS according to age. To assess reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α) and the omega coefficient (ω) were used. The correlations between the CAS score and the scores of the PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scales were calculated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). RESULTS: The results of the CFA indicated that the unidimensional model of the CAS fitted the data adequately and showed very good reliability (α and ω≥.83). Likewise, all items provided high information and adequate discrimination, which allowed for better detection of average and high levels of coronaphobia in the older adult population. However, the CAS did not show evidence of being strictly invariant between older adults aged 60-65 years and 66-86 years. The CAS showed significant correlations with anxiety (r=.72; [95%CI: .66, .87] p<.01) and depression (r=.53; [95%CI: .43, .76] p<.01). CONCLUSION: The CAS in Spanish shows evidence of validity based on internal structure, convergent and divergent validity, as well as an adequate reliability estimate to assess coronaphobia in older adults. The CAS can be used to detect average and high levels of coronaphobia in the older adult population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Pastoral Psychol ; : 1-20, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric evidence of the original and short versions of the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire (SCSRFQ) in Spanish in a sample of 245 Peruvian adolescents and adults (mean age = 21.04 years, SD = 3.07, 47.8% male and 52.2% female), selected by nonprobabilistic convenience sampling. Additionally, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were applied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, internal consistency reliability methods, hierarchical sequence of variance models, and a graded response model were used. Results indicate that both versions of the SCSRFQ showed robust psychometric properties: adequate unidimensional structure, adequate difficulty and discrimination parameters, and significant relationships with the measures of fear of COVID-19 and satisfaction with life. The original version of the SCSRFQ showed evidence of strict measurement invariance by sex and age, whereas the short version showed strict invariance by sex and configural invariance by age. Both versions showed acceptable reliability indices. In conclusion, the original and short versions of the SCSRFQ in Spanish show evidence of psychometric indicators that support their use to assess the strength of religious faith.

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