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1.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of perceived decreases in three physical activity (PA) behaviors and meeting the PA guideline, by changes in telework. METHODS: U.S. workers (n = 2393) reported teleworking and PA behaviors before and after COVID-19 emergence. Those reporting more and less telework were compared to those reporting stable telework on prevalence of (1) decreasing behaviors and (2) meeting the aerobic guideline (≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity PA). RESULTS: Compared to workers with stable telework, those with increased telework were more likely to report decreases in any PA (by 61%), active transportation (65%), and park use (52%). Workers who deceased telework were also more likely to report decreases in these behaviors. Groups were equally likely to meet the guideline. CONCLUSION: Changes in teleworking status-either more or less-may be associated with decreased participation in PA behaviors.

2.
Br J Sports Med ; 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of leisure-time physical activity with mortality from influenza and pneumonia. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of US adults (aged ≥18 years) who participated in the National Health Interview Survey from 1998 to 2018 were followed for mortality through 2019. Participants were classified as meeting both physical activity guidelines if they reported ≥150 min/week of moderate-intensity equivalent aerobic physical activity and ≥2 episodes/week of muscle-strengthening activity. Participants were also classified into five volume-based categories of self-reported aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity. Influenza and pneumonia mortality was defined as having an underlying cause of death with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision code of J09-J18 recorded in the National Death Index. Mortality risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards, adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health conditions and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination status. Data were analysed in 2022. RESULTS: Among 577 909 participants followed for a median of 9.23 years, 1516 influenza and pneumonia deaths were recorded. Compared with participants meeting neither guideline, those meeting both guidelines had 48% lower adjusted risk of influenza and pneumonia mortality. Relative to no aerobic activity, 10-149, 150-300, 301-600 and >600 min/week were associated with lower risk (by 21%, 41%, 50% and 41%). Relative to <2 episodes/week of muscle-strengthening activity, 2 episodes/week was associated with 47% lower risk and ≥7 episodes/week with 41% higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic physical activity, even at quantities below the recommended level, may be associated with lower influenza and pneumonia mortality while muscle-strengthening activity demonstrated a J-shaped relationship.

3.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(6): 650-656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018358

ABSTRACT

Telehealth is the use of electronic information and telecommunication technologies to provide care when the patient and the provider are not in the same room at the same time. Telehealth accounted for less than 1% of all Medicare Fee-for-Service outpatient visits in the United States in 2019 but grew to account for 46% of all visits in April 2020. Changes in reimbursement and licensure policies during the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to greatly facilitate this increased use. Telehealth will continue to account for a substantial portion of care provided in the United States and globally. A better understanding of telehealth approaches and their evidence base by public health practitioners may help improve their ability to collaborate with health care organizations to improve population health. The article summarizes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) approach to understanding the evidence base for telehealth in public health practice, possible applications for telehealth in public health practice, and CDC's use of telehealth to improve population health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Medicare , Pandemics , Public Health Practice , United States/epidemiology
4.
Prev Med ; 160: 107100, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867905

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted built environment changes throughout the United States. We assessed the prevalence of new places and changed spaces for physical activity as observed by US adults and their intentions to use them. We used data from SummerStyles, a web-based survey of US adults conducted in June 2021 (n = 4073). Respondents were asked if they had discovered new places to be physically active during the past year, and if changes had been made to streets or outdoor areas to allow additional space for recreating. Those responding "yes" were asked if they intended to use the respective space. We estimated the weighted prevalence of adults who observed new places and changed spaces, and their intended use, by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics, physical activity level, and walking status. We compared subgroups with prevalence ratios (PR). Overall, 25.0% of US adults reported discovering new places for physical activity, and 25.3% reported changes to streets and outdoor spaces. Intention to use new places and changed spaces exceeded 50% among all sociodemographic and geographic subgroups. Among those reporting changes, adults who were physically inactive compared to those who were sufficiently active had similar intentions to use new places (PR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.63, 1.10) and changed spaces (PR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.69, 1.17). Approximately 1 in 4 adults reported discovering new places or changed spaces to support physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, and most intended to use these features. Expanding access to such supportive environments may help promote physical activity participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Walking
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 91, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) provides numerous health benefits relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, concerns exist that PA levels may have decreased during the pandemic thus exacerbating health disparities. This study aims to determine changes in and locations for PA and reasons for decreased PA during the pandemic. METHODS: Reported percentage of changes in and locations for PA and reasons for decreased PA were examined in 3829 US adults who completed the 2020 SummerStyles survey. RESULTS: Overall, 30% reported less PA, and 50% reported no change or no activity during the pandemic; percentages varied across subgroups. Adults who were non-Hispanic Black (Black) or Hispanic (vs. non-Hispanic White, (White)) reported less PA. Fewer Black adults (vs. White) reported doing most PA in their neighborhood. Concern about exposure to the virus (39%) was the most common reason adults were less active. CONCLUSIONS: In June 2020, nearly one-third of US adults reported decreased PA; 20% reported increased PA. Decreased activity was higher among Black and Hispanic compared to White adults; these two groups have experienced disproportionate COVID-19 impacts. Continued efforts are needed to ensure everyone has access to supports that allow them to participate in PA while still following guidance to prevent COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(1): ofab599, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may vary over time; trends in clinical severity at admission during the pandemic among hospitalized patients in the United States have been incompletely described, so a historical record of severity over time is lacking. METHODS: We classified 466677 hospital admissions for COVID-19 from April 2020 to April 2021 into 4 mutually exclusive severity grades based on indicators present on admission (from most to least severe): Grade 4 included intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV); grade 3 included non-IMV ICU and/or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; grade 2 included diagnosis of acute respiratory failure; and grade 1 included none of the above indicators. Trends were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and comorbid conditions. We also examined severity in states with high vs low Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant burden. RESULTS: Severity tended to be lower among women, younger adults, and those with fewer comorbidities compared to their counterparts. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 1 or 2 fluctuated over time, but these less-severe grades comprised a majority (75%-85%) of admissions every month. Grades 3 and 4 consistently made up a minority of admissions (15%-25%), and grade 4 showed consistent decreases in all subgroups, including states with high Alpha variant burden. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical severity among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 has varied over time but has not consistently or markedly worsened over time. The proportion of admissions classified as grade 4 decreased in all subgroups. There was no consistent evidence of worsening severity in states with higher vs lower Alpha prevalence.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1235-1241, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404132

ABSTRACT

Long-term symptoms often associated with COVID-19 (post-COVID conditions or long COVID) are an emerging public health concern that is not well understood. Prevalence of post-COVID conditions has been reported among persons who have had COVID-19 (range = 5%-80%), with differences possibly related to different study populations, case definitions, and data sources (1). Few studies of post-COVID conditions have comparisons with the general population of adults with negative test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, limiting ability to assess background symptom prevalence (1). CDC used a nonprobability-based Internet panel established by Porter Novelli Public Services* to administer a survey to a nationwide sample of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years to compare the prevalence of long-term symptoms (those lasting >4 weeks since onset) among persons who self-reported ever receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result with the prevalence of similar symptoms among persons who reported always receiving a negative test result. The weighted prevalence of ever testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 22.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20.6%-23.8%). Approximately two thirds of respondents who had received a positive test result experienced long-term symptoms often associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Compared with respondents who received a negative test result, those who received a positive test result reported a significantly higher prevalence of any long-term symptom (65.9% versus 42.9%), fatigue (22.5% versus 12.0%), change in sense of smell or taste (17.3% versus 1.7%), shortness of breath (15.5% versus 5.2%), cough (14.5% versus 4.9%), headache (13.8% versus 9.9%), and persistence (>4 weeks) of at least one initially occurring symptom (76.2% versus 69.6%). Compared with respondents who received a negative test result, a larger proportion of those who received a positive test result reported believing that receiving a COVID-19 vaccine made their long-term symptoms better (28.7% versus 15.7%). Efforts to address post-COVID conditions should include helping health care professionals recognize the most common post-COVID conditions and optimize care for patients with persisting symptoms, including messaging on potential benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
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