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Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States) ; 149(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2245005


Pressure sewer networks offer a flexible alternative to more traditional gravity-based systems for the conveyance of wastewater. Some of the issues associated with pressure sewer networks (e.g., odor, septicity) arise from inappropriate design assumptions. Daily inflow volumes are a crucial part of the design of pressure sewer systems;gravity design parameters are presently used to design pressure sewer networks in New Zealand. This study analyzed flow data from six representative pressure sewer networks (approximately 24% of operating pump units in New Zealand) to identify the daily inflow volumes per connected pump unit. The results indicated that the median inflow volume was approximately 410 L/pump unit/day. This inflow is much lower than current council design standard assumptions, which range from 650 to 1,000 L/pump unit/day. Pressure sewer network designs using higher daily loading rates may result in oversized networks that are detrimental to the network's operation and performance, especially for meeting minimum self-cleansing velocities and wastewater retention times. The data collection period included the first COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. Four lockdown levels were introduced, with Level 4 and Level 3 being the most restrictive and requiring all but essential workers to stay and work from home. Levels 1 and 2 allowed people to return to their place of work. The data indicated that the Level 4 lockdown period caused a 25% increase in daily inflow volumes. In comparison, the Level 3 and 2 lockdown periods increased the daily inflow volumes by 20% and 15%, respectively. The analysis also included the networks' wet-weather responses. Minor rain events did not significantly affect the daily inflow volumes. However, gravity networks that have been retrofitted with pressure sewer networks may be more subject to aging or damaged laterals and illegal stormwater connections, both of which are likely to result in a more significant wet-weather response. The paper also discusses the issues associated with an overreliance on standardized design methods without understanding their proper application and the pitfalls of adopting gravity sewer design assumptions for pressure sewer network designs. The findings of this paper will further allow determination of the sensitivity of network design outcomes, performance, and maintenance requirements to the design methods and assumptions for pressure sewer networks, not only in New Zealand but in any country that uses the technology. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Wellcome Open Research ; 5, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471171


Background: As of August 2021, every region of the world has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with more than 196,000,000 cases worldwide. Methods: We analysed COVID-19 cases among travellers from mainland China to different regions and countries, comparing the region- and country-specific rates of detected and confirmed cases per flight volume to estimate the relative sensitivity of surveillance in different regions and countries. Results: Although travel restrictions from Wuhan City and other cities across China may have reduced the absolute number of travellers to and from China, we estimated that up to 70% (95% CI: 54% - 80%) of imported cases could remain undetected relative to the sensitivity of surveillance in Singapore. The percentage of undetected imported cases rises to 75% (95% CI 66% - 82%) when comparing to the surveillance sensitivity in multiple countries. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that a large number of COVID-19 cases remain undetected across the world. These undetected cases potentially resulted in multiple chains of human-to-human transmission outside mainland China. © 2021 Bhatia S et al.

Wellcome Open Research ; 5:143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464042


Background: Since the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in late 2019, there have been more than 152 affected regions and countries with over 110,000 confirmed cases outside mainland China.