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1.
Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed ; 2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305387

ABSTRACT

Post-COVID-19 syndrome is a new condition that can have a major impact on the physical and mental well-being of children and young people, affecting their ability to access activities including education. Paediatricians and general practitioners need to be able to assess and manage patients with this condition; making the diagnosis, excluding serious pathology, managing comorbidities and accessing appropriate management are crucial. This 15 minute consultation presents an approach to history taking, examination, investigations, management principles and referrals.

2.
Paediatr Child Health (Oxford) ; 30(12): 438-443, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252491

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome - coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused high rates of mortality, predominantly in adults. Children are significantly less affected by SARS-CoV-2 with far lower rates of recorded infections in children compared to adults, milder symptoms in the majority of children and very low mortality rates. A suspected late manifestation of the disease, paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome - temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), has been seen in small numbers of children and has a more severe disease course than acute SARS-CoV-2. The pandemic has meant that children around the world have been kept off school, isolated from their extended family and friends and asked to stay inside. The UK has been declared as being in an economic recession and unemployment rates are increasing. These indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 are likely to have a significant impact on many children for years to come. Consolidating the knowledge that has accumulated during the first wave of this pandemic is essential for recognising the clinical signs, symptoms and effective treatment strategies for children; identifying children who may be at increased risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection; planning the safe delivery of healthcare and non-health related services that are important for childrens' wellbeing; and engaging in, and developing, research to address the things that are not yet known. This article summarises the evidence that has emerged from the early phase of the pandemic and offers an overview for those looking after children or planning services.

3.
PLOS global public health ; 3(1), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2253783

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a substantial decline in routine immunisation coverage in children globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study summarises the reasons for disruptions to routine child immunisations in LMICs. A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021286386) was conducted following PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Six databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Scopus and MedRxiv, on 11/02/2022. Observational and qualitative studies published from January 2020 onwards were included if exploring reasons for missed immunisations during the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. Study appraisal used National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. Reasons for disruption were defined with descriptive codes;cross-sectional (quantitative) data were summarised as mean percentages of responses weighted by study population, and qualitative data were summarised narratively. A total of thirteen studies were included describing reasons behind disruptions;7 cross-sectional (quantitative), 5 qualitative and 1 mixed methods. Seventeen reasons for disruptions were identified. In quantitative studies (total respondents = 2,853), the most common reasons identified were fear of COVID-19 and consequential avoidance of health centres (41.2%, SD ±13.3%), followed by transport challenges preventing both families and healthcare professionals from reaching vaccination services (11.1% SD ±16.6%). Most reasons stemmed from reduced healthcare-seeking (83.4%), as opposed to healthcare-delivery issues (15.2%). Qualitative studies showed a more even balance of healthcare-seeking (49.5%) and healthcare-delivery issues (50.5%), with fear of COVID-19 remaining a major identified issue (total respondents = 92). The most common reasons for disruption were parental fear of COVID-19 and avoidance of health services. Health systems must therefore prioritise public health messaging to encourage vaccine uptake and recovery of missed immunisations.

4.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 5(4): e184-e199, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239656

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a hyperinflammatory condition associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, has emerged as a serious illness in children worldwide. Immunoglobulin or glucocorticoids, or both, are currently recommended treatments. Methods: The Best Available Treatment Study evaluated immunomodulatory treatments for MIS-C in an international observational cohort. Analysis of the first 614 patients was previously reported. In this propensity-weighted cohort study, clinical and outcome data from children with suspected or proven MIS-C were collected onto a web-based Research Electronic Data Capture database. After excluding neonates and incomplete or duplicate records, inverse probability weighting was used to compare primary treatments with intravenous immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, using intravenous immunoglobulin as the reference treatment. Primary outcomes were a composite of inotropic or ventilator support from the second day after treatment initiation, or death, and time to improvement on an ordinal clinical severity scale. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation, clinical deterioration, fever, and coronary artery aneurysm occurrence and resolution. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN69546370. Findings: We enrolled 2101 children (aged 0 months to 19 years) with clinically diagnosed MIS-C from 39 countries between June 14, 2020, and April 25, 2022, and, following exclusions, 2009 patients were included for analysis (median age 8·0 years [IQR 4·2-11·4], 1191 [59·3%] male and 818 [40·7%] female, and 825 [41·1%] White). 680 (33·8%) patients received primary treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, 698 (34·7%) with intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, 487 (24·2%) with glucocorticoids alone; 59 (2·9%) patients received other combinations, including biologicals, and 85 (4·2%) patients received no immunomodulators. There were no significant differences between treatments for primary outcomes for the 1586 patients with complete baseline and outcome data that were considered for primary analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for ventilation, inotropic support, or death were 1·09 (95% CI 0·75-1·58; corrected p value=1·00) for intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids and 0·93 (0·58-1·47; corrected p value=1·00) for glucocorticoids alone, versus intravenous immunoglobulin alone. Adjusted average hazard ratios for time to improvement were 1·04 (95% CI 0·91-1·20; corrected p value=1·00) for intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids, and 0·84 (0·70-1·00; corrected p value=0·22) for glucocorticoids alone, versus intravenous immunoglobulin alone. Treatment escalation was less frequent for intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids (OR 0·15 [95% CI 0·11-0·20]; p<0·0001) and glucocorticoids alone (0·68 [0·50-0·93]; p=0·014) versus intravenous immunoglobulin alone. Persistent fever (from day 2 onward) was less common with intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids compared with either intravenous immunoglobulin alone (OR 0·50 [95% CI 0·38-0·67]; p<0·0001) or glucocorticoids alone (0·63 [0·45-0·88]; p=0·0058). Coronary artery aneurysm occurrence and resolution did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation: Recovery rates, including occurrence and resolution of coronary artery aneurysms, were similar for primary treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin when compared to glucocorticoids or intravenous immunoglobulin plus glucocorticoids. Initial treatment with glucocorticoids appears to be a safe alternative to immunoglobulin or combined therapy, and might be advantageous in view of the cost and limited availability of intravenous immunoglobulin in many countries. Funding: Imperial College London, the European Union's Horizon 2020, Wellcome Trust, the Medical Research Foundation, UK National Institute for Health and Care Research, and National Institutes of Health.

5.
Arch Dis Child ; 108(2): 137-140, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the sensitivity of the lateral flow test is dependent on the viral load and on the location of swabbing in the respiratory tract in children. DESIGN: Phase 1: Routinely performed reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) using nose and throat (NT) swabs or endotracheal (ET) aspirates were compared with Innova lateral flow tests (LFTs) using anterior nasal (AN) swabs. Phase 2: RT-PCR-positive children underwent paired AN RT-PCR and LFT and/or paired AN RT-PCR and buccal LFT. SETTING: Tertiary paediatric hospitals. PATIENTS: Children under the age of 18 years. Phase 1: undergoing routine testing, phase 2: known SARS-CoV-2 positive. RESULTS: Phase 1: 435 paired swabs taken in 431 asymptomatic patients resulted in 8 positive RT-PCRs, 9 PCR test failures and 418 negative RT-PCRs from NT or ET swabs. The test performance of AN LFT demonstrated sensitivity: 25% (4%-59%), specificity: 100% (99%-100%), positive predictive value (PPV): 100% (18%-100%) and negative predictive value (NPV): 99% (97%-99%).Phase 2: 14 AN RT-PCR-positive results demonstrated a sensitivity of 77% (50%-92%) of LFTs performed on AN swabs. 15/16 paired buccal LFT swabs were negative. CONCLUSION: The NPV, PPV and specificity of LFTs are excellent. The sensitivity of LFTs compared with RT-PCR is good when the samples are colocated but may be reduced when the LFT swab is taken from the AN. Buccal swabs are not appropriate for LFT testing. Careful consideration of the swabbing reason, the tolerance of the child and the requirements for test processing (eg, rapidity of results) should be undertaken within hospital settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04629157.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Nose , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We hypothesised that the clinical characteristics of hospitalised children and young people (CYP) with SARS-CoV-2 in the UK second wave (W2) would differ from the first wave (W1) due to the alpha variant (B.1.1.7), school reopening and relaxation of shielding. METHODS: Prospective multicentre observational cohort study of patients <19 years hospitalised in the UK with SARS-CoV-2 between 17/01/20 and 31/01/21. Clinical characteristics were compared between W1 and W2 (W1 = 17/01/20-31/07/20,W2 = 01/08/20-31/01/21). RESULTS: 2044 CYP < 19 years from 187 hospitals. 427/2044 (20.6%) with asymptomatic/incidental SARS-CoV-2 were excluded from main analysis. 16.0% (248/1548) of symptomatic CYP were admitted to critical care and 0.8% (12/1504) died. 5.6% (91/1617) of symptomatic CYP had Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). After excluding CYP with MIS-C, patients in W2 had lower Paediatric Early Warning Scores (PEWS, composite vital sign score), lower antibiotic use and less respiratory and cardiovascular support than W1. The proportion of CYP admitted to critical care was unchanged. 58.0% (938/1617) of symptomatic CYP had no reported comorbidity. Patients without co-morbidities were younger (42.4%, 398/938, <1 year), had lower PEWS, shorter length of stay and less respiratory support. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of increased disease severity in W2 vs W1. A large proportion of hospitalised CYP had no comorbidity. IMPACT: No evidence of increased severity of COVID-19 admissions amongst children and young people (CYP) in the second vs first wave in the UK, despite changes in variant, relaxation of shielding and return to face-to-face schooling. CYP with no comorbidities made up a significant proportion of those admitted. However, they had shorter length of stays and lower treatment requirements than CYP with comorbidities once those with MIS-C were excluded. At least 20% of CYP admitted in this cohort had asymptomatic/incidental SARS-CoV-2 infection. This paper was presented to SAGE to inform CYP vaccination policy in the UK.

8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(12): e1774-e1781, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is concern that the COVID-19 pandemic has damaged global childhood tuberculosis management. Quantifying changes in childhood tuberculosis notifications could support more targeted interventions to restore childhood tuberculosis services. We aimed to use time-series modelling to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on child tuberculosis notifications. METHODS: Annual tuberculosis case notification data reported to WHO by 215 countries were used to calculate annual notification counts for the years 2014-20, stratified by age groups (0-4, 5-14, and ≥15 years) and sex. We used time-series modelling to predict notification counts for 2020, and calculated differences between these predictions and observed notifications in 2020 for each of the six WHO regions and at the country level for 30 countries with high tuberculosis burden. We assessed associations between these differences and the COVID-19 stringency index, a measure of COVID-19 social impact. FINDINGS: From 2014 to 2019, annual tuberculosis notification counts increased across all age groups and WHO regions. More males than females in the 0-4 years age group and ≥15 years age group had notifications in all years from 2014 to 2020 and in all WHO regions. In the 5-14 years age group, more females than males were notified globally in all years, although some WHO regions had higher notifications from males than females. In 2020, global notifications were 35·4% lower than predicted (95% prediction interval -30·3 to -39·9; 142 525 observed vs 220 794 predicted notifications [95% prediction interval 204 509 to 237 078]) for children aged 0-4 years, 27·7% lower (-23·4 to -31·5; 256 398 vs 354 578 [334 724 to 374 431]) in children aged 5-14 years, and 18·8% lower (-15·4 to -21·9; 5 391 753 vs 6 639 547 [6 375 086 to 6 904 007]) for people aged 15 years or older. Among those aged 5-14 years, the reduction in observed relative to predicted notifications for 2020 was greater in males (-30·9% [-24·8 to -36·1]) than females (-24·5% [-18·1 to -29·9]). Among 28 countries with high tuberculosis burden, no association was observed between the stringency of COVID-19 restrictions and the relative difference in observed versus predicted notifications. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 has substantially affected childhood tuberculosis services, with the youngest children most affected. Although children have mostly had fewer severe health consequences from COVID-19 than have adults, they have been disproportionately affected by the effects of the pandemic on tuberculosis care. Observed sex differences suggest that targeted interventions might be required. As countries rebuild health systems following the COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial that childhood tuberculosis services are placed centrally within national strategic plans. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Child , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Family , Time Factors
11.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 979769, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022828

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine childhood vaccinations worldwide with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) most affected. This study aims to quantify levels of disruption to routine vaccinations in LMICs. Methods: A systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021286386) was conducted of MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Scopus and MedRxiv, on the 11th of February 2022. Primary research studies published from January 2020 onwards were included if they reported levels of routine pediatrics vaccinations before and after March 2020. Study appraisal was performed using NHLBI tool for cross-sectional studies. Levels of disruption were summarized using medians and interquartile ranges. Results: A total of 39 cross-sectional studies were identified. These showed an overall relative median decline of -10.8% [interquartile range (IQR) -27.6%, -1.4%] across all vaccines. Upper-middle-income countries (upper-MICs) (-14.3%; IQR -24.3%, -2.4%) and lower-MICs (-18.0%; IQR -48.6%, -4.1%) showed greater declines than low-income countries (-3.1%; IQR -12.8%, 2.9%), as did vaccines administered at birth (-11.8%; IQR -27.7%, -3.5%) compared to those given after birth (-8.0%; IQR -28.6%, -0.4%). Declines during the first 3 months of the pandemic (-8.1%; IQR -35.1%, -1.4%) were greater than during the remainder of 2020 (-3.9%; IQR -13.0%, 11.4%) compared to baseline. Conclusion: There has been a decline in routine pediatric vaccination, greatest in MICs and for vaccines administered at birth. Nations must prioritize catch-up programs alongside public health messaging to encourage vaccine uptake. Systematic review registration: Identifier: CRD42021286386.

12.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Suppl 2):A521, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019944

ABSTRACT

1244 Figure 1[Figure omitted. See PDF] 1244 Figure 2[Figure omitted. See PDF]ConclusionThis study describes the CYP patients presenting to a novel tertiary post-COVID service. This is an emerging group for whom symptom aetiology and best management strategies are still being established. Our data highlighted the range of patients presenting to the service, and the complexity of symptoms causing significant functional disruption to their lives. These results support the need for an MDT service that can tailor care of these patients and offer management with the best clinical outcomes.ReferenceRecent WHO Delphi consensus re ‘Post-Covid Condition’ https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Post_COVID-19_condition-Clinical_case_definition-2021.1

14.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(7): e1405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955899

ABSTRACT

Symptoms and outcomes for paediatric COVID-19 differ vastly from those for adults, with much lower morbidity and mortality. Immunopathogenesis drives severe outcomes in adults, and it is likely that age-related differences in both the innate and specific immune responses underlie much of the variation. Understanding the protective features of the paediatric immune system may be crucial to better elucidate disease severity in adult COVID-19 and may pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches. However, as well as uncommon cases of severe paediatric acute COVID-19, there have been children who have presented with delayed multisystem inflammation, including cardiac, gastrointestinal, skin, mucosa and central nervous system involvement. The occurrence of coronary artery aneurysms has drawn comparisons with Kawasaki Disease, but similarities with the inflammatory phase of adult acute COVID-19 have also been drawn. In this review, we summarise findings from studies investigating pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles, innate, B-cell, antibody, T-cell and vaccine responses in children with acute COVID-19 and multisystem inflammation, compared with COVID-19 adults and controls. We further consider the relevance to therapeutics in the context of limited evidence in children and highlight key questions to be answered about the immune response of children to SARS-CoV-2.

15.
J Pediatr ; 248: 114-118, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907353

ABSTRACT

The optimal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine strategy for patients with a history of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is unclear. We performed an international survey (32 countries) and found substantial variations in vaccine policies. Respondents did not report relapses of MIS-C or other severe inflammatory side effects after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination in 273 patients with a history of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccination/adverse effects
16.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 905046, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879467

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2020, a new disease entitled Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporally associated with COVID-19 (PIMS-TS), or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), emerged, with thousands of children affected globally. There is no available evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) to date on the two most commonly used immunomodulatory treatments, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Therefore, the Swissped RECOVERY trial was conducted to assess whether intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone shortens hospital length of stay compared with IVIG. Methods and Analysis: Swissped RECOVERY is an ongoing investigator-initiated, open-label, multicenter two-arm RCT in children and adolescents <18 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of PIMS-TS. The trial is recruiting at 10 sites across Switzerland. Patients diagnosed with PIMS-TS are randomized 1:1 to methylprednisolone IV (10 mg/kg/day for 3 days) or IVIG (2 g/kg as a single dose). The primary outcome is hospital length of stay censored at day 28, death, or discharge (whichever is first). The target total sample size is ~80 patients 1:1 randomized to each study arm. Ancillary and exploratory studies on inflammation, vaccination acceptance and coverage, long-term outcomes, and healthcare costs are pre-planned. Significance: Currently, robust trial evidence for the treatment of PIMS-TS is lacking, with a controversy surrounding the use of corticosteroids vs. IVIG. This trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness and safety of these two treatments. Ethics and Dissemination: The study protocol, which was designed based on the U.K. RECOVERY trial, the patient information and consent forms, and other study-specific study documents were approved by the local ethics committees (Project ID: 2021-00362). Registration Details: The study is registered on the Swiss National Clinical Trials Portal (SNCTP000004720) and Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04826588).

17.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 18: 100412, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867456
18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 44: 101287, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe pre-existing factors associated with severe disease, primarily admission to critical care, and death secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalised children and young people (CYP), within a systematic review and individual patient meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, European PMC, Medline and Embase for case series and cohort studies published between 1st January 2020 and 21st May 2021 which included all CYP admitted to hospital with ≥ 30 CYP with SARS-CoV-2 or ≥ 5 CYP with PIMS-TS or MIS-C. Eligible studies contained (1) details of age, sex, ethnicity or co-morbidities, and (2) an outcome which included admission to critical care, mechanical invasive ventilation, cardiovascular support, or death. Studies reporting outcomes in more restricted groupings of co-morbidities were eligible for narrative review. We used random effects meta-analyses for aggregate study-level data and multilevel mixed effect models for IPD data to examine risk factors (age, sex, comorbidities) associated with admission to critical care and death. Data shown are odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI).PROSPERO: CRD42021235338. FINDINGS: 83 studies were included, 57 (21,549 patients) in the meta-analysis (of which 22 provided IPD) and 26 in the narrative synthesis. Most studies had an element of bias in their design or reporting. Sex was not associated with critical care or death. Compared with CYP aged 1-4 years (reference group), infants (aged <1 year) had increased odds of admission to critical care (OR 1.63 (95% CI 1.40-1.90)) and death (OR 2.08 (1.57-2.86)). Odds of death were increased amongst CYP over 10 years (10-14 years OR 2.15 (1.54-2.98); >14 years OR 2.15 (1.61-2.88)).The number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased odds of admission to critical care and death for COVID-19 in a step-wise fashion. Compared with CYP without comorbidity, odds ratios for critical care admission were: 1.49 (1.45-1.53) for 1 comorbidity; 2.58 (2.41-2.75) for 2 comorbidities; 2.97 (2.04-4.32) for ≥3 comorbidities. Corresponding odds ratios for death were: 2.15 (1.98-2.34) for 1 comorbidity; 4.63 (4.54-4.74) for 2 comorbidities and 4.98 (3.78-6.65) for ≥3 comorbidities. Odds of admission to critical care were increased for all co-morbidities apart from asthma (0.92 (0.91-0.94)) and malignancy (0.85 (0.17-4.21)) with an increased odds of death in all co-morbidities considered apart from asthma. Neurological and cardiac comorbidities were associated with the greatest increase in odds of severe disease or death. Obesity increased the odds of severe disease and death independently of other comorbidities. IPD analysis demonstrated that, compared to children without co-morbidity, the risk difference of admission to critical care was increased in those with 1 comorbidity by 3.61% (1.87-5.36); 2 comorbidities by 9.26% (4.87-13.65); ≥3 comorbidities 10.83% (4.39-17.28), and for death: 1 comorbidity 1.50% (0.00-3.10); 2 comorbidities 4.40% (-0.10-8.80) and ≥3 co-morbidities 4.70 (0.50-8.90). INTERPRETATION: Hospitalised CYP at greatest vulnerability of severe disease or death with SARS-CoV-2 infection are infants, teenagers, those with cardiac or neurological conditions, or 2 or more comorbid conditions, and those who are obese. These groups should be considered higher priority for vaccination and for protective shielding when appropriate. Whilst odds ratios were high, the absolute increase in risk for most comorbidities was small compared to children without underlying conditions. FUNDING: RH is in receipt of a fellowship from Kidney Research UK (grant no. TF_010_20171124). JW is in receipt of a Medical Research Council Fellowship (Grant No. MR/R00160X/1). LF is in receipt of funding from Martin House Children's Hospice (there is no specific grant number for this). RV is in receipt of a grant from the National Institute of Health Research to support this work (grant no NIHR202322). Funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

19.
Eur Respir J ; 59(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children remain poorly characterised. This study aimed to assess long-term outcomes in children previously hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated risk factors. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of children (≤18 years old) admitted to hospital with confirmed COVID-19. Children admitted between 2 April 2020 and 26 August 2020 were included. Telephone interviews used the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) COVID-19 Health and Wellbeing Follow-up Survey for Children. Persistent symptoms (>5 months) were further categorised by system(s) involved. RESULTS: 518 out of 853 (61%) eligible children were available for the follow-up assessment and included in the study. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) age was 10.4 (3-15.2) years and 270 (52.1%) were girls. Median (IQR) follow-up since hospital discharge was 256 (223-271) days. At the time of the follow-up interview 126 (24.3%) participants reported persistent symptoms, among which fatigue (53, 10.7%), sleep disturbance (36, 6.9%) and sensory problems (29, 5.6%) were the most common. Multiple symptoms were experienced by 44 (8.4%) participants. Risk factors for persistent symptoms were: older age "6-11 years" (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.37-5.75) and "12-18 years" (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.41-5.4), and a history of allergic diseases (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67). CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of children experienced persistent symptoms months after hospitalisation with acute COVID-19 infection, with almost one in 10 experiencing multisystem involvement. Older age and allergic diseases were associated with higher risk of persistent symptoms at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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