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1.
Elife ; 112022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786253

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is a significant aspect of morbidity in COVID-19 patients. The clotting cascade is propagated by a series of proteases, including factor Xa and thrombin. While certain host proteases, including TMPRSS2 and furin, are known to be important for cleavage activation of SARS-CoV-2 spike to promote viral entry in the respiratory tract, other proteases may also contribute. Using biochemical and cell-based assays, we demonstrate that factor Xa and thrombin can also directly cleave SARS-CoV-2 spike, enhancing infection at the stage of viral entry. Coagulation factors increased SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung organoids. A drug-repurposing screen identified a subset of protease inhibitors that promiscuously inhibited spike cleavage by both transmembrane serine proteases and coagulation factors. The mechanism of the protease inhibitors nafamostat and camostat may extend beyond inhibition of TMPRSS2 to coagulation-induced spike cleavage. Anticoagulation is critical in the management of COVID-19, and early intervention could provide collateral benefit by suppressing SARS-CoV-2 viral entry. We propose a model of positive feedback whereby infection-induced hypercoagulation exacerbates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation Factors , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
2.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764188

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains a global public health crisis. Although widespread vaccination campaigns are underway, their efficacy is reduced due to emerging variants of concern (VOCs)1,2. Development of host-directed therapeutics and prophylactics could limit such resistance and offer urgently needed protection against VOCs3,4. Attractive pharmacological targets to impede viral entry include type-II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs), such as TMPRSS2, whose essential role in the virus lifecycle is to cleave the viral spike protein to expose the fusion peptide for cell entry5,6. Here, we identify and characterize a small-molecule compound, N-0385, which exhibits low nanomolar potency and a selectivity index of >106 at inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells and in donor-derived colonoids7. In Calu-3 cells it inhibits entry of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.617.2. Importantly, in the K18-human ACE2 transgenic mouse model of severe SARS-CoV-2 disease, we found that N-0385 affords a high level of prophylactic and therapeutic benefit following either multiple or even a single administration. This demonstrates that TTSP-mediated proteolytic maturation of spike is critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo and suggests that N-0385 provides a novel effective early treatment option against COVID-19 and emerging SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

3.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715775

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led the medical and scientific community to address questions surrounding the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of COVID-19; however, relevant clinical models outside of humans are still lacking. In felines, a ubiquitous coronavirus, described as feline coronavirus (FCoV), can present as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)-a leading cause of mortality in young cats that is characterized as a severe, systemic inflammation. The diverse extrapulmonary signs of FIP and rapidly progressive disease course, coupled with a closely related etiologic agent, present a degree of overlap with COVID-19. This paper will explore the molecular and clinical relationships between FIP and COVID-19. While key differences between the two syndromes exist, these similarities support further examination of feline coronaviruses as a naturally occurring clinical model for coronavirus disease in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus, Feline , Feline Infectious Peritonitis , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583223

ABSTRACT

Fusion with, and subsequent entry into, the host cell is one of the critical steps in the life cycle of enveloped viruses. For Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the spike (S) protein is the main determinant of viral entry. Proteolytic cleavage of the S protein exposes its fusion peptide (FP), which initiates the process of membrane fusion. Previous studies on the related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) FP have shown that calcium ions (Ca2+) play an important role in fusogenic activity via a Ca2+ binding pocket with conserved glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV FPs share a high sequence homology, and here, we investigated whether Ca2+ is required for MERS-CoV fusion by screening a mutant array in which E and D residues in the MERS-CoV FP were substituted with neutrally charged alanines (A). Upon verifying mutant cell surface expression and proteolytic cleavage, we tested their ability to mediate pseudoparticle (PP) infection of host cells in modulating Ca2+ environments. Our results demonstrate that intracellular Ca2+ enhances MERS-CoV wild-type (WT) PP infection by approximately 2-fold and that E891 is a crucial residue for Ca2+ interaction. Subsequent electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments revealed that this enhancement could be attributed to Ca2+ increasing MERS-CoV FP fusion-relevant membrane ordering. Intriguingly, isothermal calorimetry showed an approximate 1:1 MERS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, as opposed to an 1:2 SARS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, suggesting significant differences in FP Ca2+ interactions of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV FP despite their high sequence similarity.IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a major emerging infectious disease with zoonotic potential and has reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats. Since its first outbreak in 2012, the virus has repeatedly transmitted from camels to humans, with 2,468 confirmed cases causing 851 deaths. To date, there are no efficacious drugs and vaccines against MERS-CoV, increasing its potential to cause a public health emergency. In order to develop novel drugs and vaccines, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that enable the virus to infect host cells. Our data have found that calcium is an important regulator of viral fusion by interacting with negatively charged residues in the MERS-CoV FP region. This information can guide therapeutic solutions to block this calcium interaction and also repurpose already approved drugs for this use for a fast response to MERS-CoV outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Ions/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Proteolysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virulence , Virus Assembly
5.
SLAS Discov ; 27(2): 86-94, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586501

ABSTRACT

Effective small molecule therapies to combat the SARS-CoV-2 infection are still lacking as the COVID-19 pandemic continues globally. High throughput screening assays are needed for lead discovery and optimization of small molecule SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. In this work, we have applied viral pseudotyping to establish a cell-based SARS-CoV-2 entry assay. Here, the pseudotyped particles (PP) contain SARS-CoV-2 spike in a membrane enveloping both the murine leukemia virus (MLV) gag-pol polyprotein and luciferase reporter RNA. Upon addition of PP to HEK293-ACE2 cells, the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds to the ACE2 receptor on the cell surface, resulting in priming by host proteases to trigger endocytosis of these particles, and membrane fusion between the particle envelope and the cell membrane. The internalized luciferase reporter gene is then expressed in cells, resulting in a luminescent readout as a surrogate for spike-mediated entry into cells. This SARS-CoV-2 PP entry assay can be executed in a biosafety level 2 containment lab for high throughput screening. From a collection of 5,158 approved drugs and drug candidates, our screening efforts identified 7 active compounds that inhibited the SARS-CoV-2-S PP entry. Of these seven, six compounds were active against live replicating SARS-CoV-2 virus in a cytopathic effect assay. Our results demonstrated the utility of this assay in the discovery and development of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors as well as the mechanistic study of anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds. Additionally, particles pseudotyped with spike proteins from SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants were prepared and used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of viral entry inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , HEK293 Cells , Humans
6.
iScience ; 25(1): 103589, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560710

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the agent causing the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha), a WHO variant of concern first identified in the United Kingdom in late 2020, contains several mutations including P681H in the spike S1/S2 cleavage site, which is predicted to increase cleavage by furin, potentially impacting the viral cell entry. Here, we studied the role of the P681H mutation in B.1.1.7 cell entry. We performed assays using fluorogenic peptides mimicking the Wuhan-Hu-1 and B.1.1.7 S1/S2 sequence and observed no significant difference in furin cleavage. Functional assays using pseudoparticles harboring SARS-CoV-2 spikes and cell-to-cell fusion assays demonstrated no differences between Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.1.7, or a P681H point mutant. Likewise, we observed no differences in viral growth between USA-WA1/2020 and a B.1.1.7 isolate in cell culture. Our findings suggest that, although the B.1.1.7 P681H mutation may slightly increase S1/S2 cleavage, this does not significantly impact viral entry or cell-cell spread.

7.
Nat Methods ; 18(12): 1477-1488, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541247

ABSTRACT

Emergence of new viral agents is driven by evolution of interactions between viral proteins and host targets. For instance, increased infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV-1 arose in part through rapid evolution along the interface between the spike protein and its human receptor ACE2, leading to increased binding affinity. To facilitate broader exploration of how pathogen-host interactions might impact transmission and virulence in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we performed state-of-the-art interface prediction followed by molecular docking to construct a three-dimensional structural interactome between SARS-CoV-2 and human. We additionally carried out downstream meta-analyses to investigate enrichment of sequence divergence between SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 or human population variants along viral-human protein-interaction interfaces, predict changes in binding affinity by these mutations/variants and further prioritize drug repurposing candidates predicted to competitively bind human targets. We believe this resource ( http://3D-SARS2.yulab.org ) will aid in development and testing of informed hypotheses for SARS-CoV-2 etiology and treatments.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Attachment , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Structure , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology
8.
Comp Med ; 71(5): 442-450, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464198

ABSTRACT

With a presumed origin in bats, the COVID-19 pandemic has been a major source of morbidity and mortality in the hu- man population, and the causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, aligns most closely at the genome level with the bat coronaviruses RaBtCoV4991/RaTG13 and RmYN02. The ability of bats to provide reservoirs of numerous viruses in addition to coronaviruses remains an active area of research. Unique aspects of the physiology of the chiropteran immune system may contribute to the ability of bats to serve as viral reservoirs. The coronavirus spike protein plays important roles in viral pathogenesis and the immune response. Although much attention has focused on the spike receptor-binding domain, a unique aspect of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with its closest relatives is the presence of a furin cleavage site in the S1-S2 region of the spike protein. Proteolytic activation is likely an important feature that allows SARS-CoV-2-and other coronaviruses-to overcome the species barriers and thus cause human disease. The diversity of bat species limits the ability to draw broad conclusions about viral pathogenesis, but comparisons across species and with reference to humans and other susceptible mammals may guide future research in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(10): 2807-2815, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402020

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus is responsible for an ongoing pandemic and concomitant public health crisis around the world. While vaccine development is proving to be highly successful, parallel drug development approaches are also critical in the response to SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses. Coronaviruses require Ca2+ ions for host cell entry, and we have previously shown that Ca2+ modulates the interaction of the viral fusion peptide with host cell membranes. In an attempt to accelerate drug repurposing, we tested a panel of L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB) drugs currently developed for other conditions to determine whether they would inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture. All the CCBs tested showed varying degrees of inhibition, with felodipine and nifedipine strongly limiting SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in epithelial lung cells at concentrations where cell toxicity was minimal. Further studies with pseudotyped particles displaying the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein suggested that inhibition occurs at the level of virus entry. Overall, our data suggest that certain CCBs have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections and are worthy of further examination for possible treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Calcium Channels, L-Type , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
10.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(10): e488-e489, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347893
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2099: 21-37, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292545

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus spike envelope glycoprotein is an essential viral component that mediates virus entry events. Biochemical assessment of the spike protein is critical for understanding structure-function relationships and the roles of the protein in the viral life cycle. Coronavirus spike proteins are typically proteolytically processed and activated by host cell enzymes such as trypsin-like proteases, cathepsins, or proprotein-convertases. Analysis of coronavirus spike proteins by western blot allows the visualization and assessment of proteolytic processing by endogenous or exogenous proteases. Here, we present a method based on western blot analysis to investigate spike protein proteolytic cleavage by transient transfection of HEK-293 T cells allowing expression of the spike protein of the highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the presence or absence of a cellular trypsin-like transmembrane serine protease, matriptase. Such analysis enables the characterization of cleavage patterns produced by a host protease on a coronavirus spike glycoprotein.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Proteolysis , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization
12.
One Health ; 13: 100282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275604

ABSTRACT

Bats and rodents comprise two of the world's largest orders of mammals and the order Chiroptera (bats) has been implicated as a major reservoir of coronaviruses in nature and a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. However, the order Rodentia (rodents) also harbors coronaviruses, with two human coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1) considered to have rodent origins. The coronavirus spike protein mediates viral entry and is a major determinant of viral tropism; importantly, the spike protein is activated by host cell proteases at two distinct sites, designated as S1/S2 and S2'. SARS-CoV-2, which is considered to be of bat origin, contains a cleavage site for the protease furin at S1/S2, absent from the rest of the currently known betacoronavirus lineage 2b coronaviruses (Sarbecoviruses). This cleavage site is thought to be critical to its replication and pathogenesis, with a notable link to virus transmission. Here, we examine the spike protein across coronaviruses identified in both bat and rodent species and address the role of furin as an activating protease. Utilizing two publicly available furin prediction algorithms (ProP and PiTou) and based on spike sequences reported in GenBank, we show that the S1/S2 furin cleavage site is typically not present in bat virus spike proteins but is common in rodent-associated sequences, and suggest this may have implications for zoonotic transfer. We provide a phylogenetic history of the Embecoviruses (betacoronavirus lineage 2a), including context for the use of furin as an activating protease for the viral spike protein. From a One Health perspective, continued rodent surveillance should be an important consideration in uncovering novel circulating coronaviruses.

14.
Curr Opin Virol ; 47: 113-120, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120446

ABSTRACT

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has risen to shape scientific research during 2020, with its spike (S) protein being a predominant focus. The S protein is likely the most complicated of all viral glycoproteins and is a key factor in immunological responses and virus pathogenesis. It is also the driving force dictating virus entry mechanisms, which are highly 'plastic' for coronaviruses, allowing a plethora of options for different virus variants and strains in different cell types. Here we review coronavirus entry as a foundation for current work on SARS-CoV-2. We focus on the post-receptor binding events and cellular pathways that direct the membrane fusion events necessary for genome delivery, including S proteolytic priming and activation. We also address aspects of the entry process important for virus evolution and therapeutic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Signal Transduction/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
15.
Front Genet ; 12: 571707, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116662

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), and since its first report, it has become a major public health concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to SARS-CoV and SARS-related bat coronaviruses, and it has been described to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor. Natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic and wildlife animals, measured by RT-qPCR, has been confirmed in different countries, especially from the Felidae family. In silico analysis of the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the cellular receptor ACE2 in various animal species has suggested that wild felids and domestic cats could be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 based on this interaction. Here, we performed a protein-protein molecular docking analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with the ACE2 receptor from different animals to elucidate the potential of those species as intermediate hosts or susceptible animals for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Compared to human ACE2, we found that ACE2 receptors from domestic cats and tigers could efficiently interact with RBD of SARS CoV-2 Spike protein. However, dog, ferret, and hamster ACE2 receptor interaction with SARS-CoV-2 S protein RBD was not predicted as favorable, demonstrating a potential differentiated susceptibility in the evaluated species.

17.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066820

ABSTRACT

Among the animal superfamily Musteloidea, which includes those commonly known as mustelids, naturally occurring and species-specific alphacoronavirus infections have been observed in both mink (Mustela vison / Neovison vison) and domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV), in particular, has been associated with a rare but fatal systemic disease. In recent months, it has become apparent that both minks and ferrets are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a betacoronavirus and the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several mink farms have experienced SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, and experimental models have demonstrated susceptibility of ferrets to SARS-CoV-2. The potential for pet ferrets to become infected with SARS-CoV-2, however, remains elusive. During the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic, it was also apparent that ferrets were susceptible to SARS-CoV and could be utilized in vaccine development. From a comparative standpoint, understanding the relationships between different infections and disease pathogenesis in the animal superfamily Musteloidea may help elucidate viral infection and transmission mechanisms, as well as treatment and prevention strategies for coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Caniformia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/classification , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Disease Susceptibility , Farms , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Species Specificity
18.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(2): 264-272, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023823

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses its spike (S) protein to mediate viral entry into host cells. Cleavage of the S protein at the S1/S2 and/or S2' site(s) is associated with viral entry, which can occur at either the cell plasma membrane (early pathway) or the endosomal membrane (late pathway), depending on the cell type. Previous studies show that SARS-CoV-2 has a unique insert at the S1/S2 site that can be cleaved by furin, which appears to expand viral tropism to cells with suitable protease and receptor expression. Here, we utilize viral pseudoparticles and protease inhibitors to study the impact of the S1/S2 cleavage on infectivity. Our results demonstrate that S1/S2 cleavage is essential for early pathway entry into Calu-3 cells, a model lung epithelial cell line, but not for late pathway entry into Vero E6 cells, a model cell line. The S1/S2 cleavage was found to be processed by other proteases beyond furin. Using bioinformatic tools, we also analyze the presence of a furin S1/S2 site in related CoVs and offer thoughts on the origin of the insertion of the furin-like cleavage site in SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Furin/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Models, Molecular , Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization
19.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(1): 80-86, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920981

ABSTRACT

In the United States, horses are used for a variety of purposes including recreation, exhibition, and racing. As farm, performance, and companion animals, horses are a unique species from a zoonotic disease risk perspective, and the risks of subclinical infections spreading among horses can pose challenges. Using a nanoscale real-time PCR platform, we investigated the prevalence of 14 enteric pathogens, 11 Escherichia coli genes, and 9 respiratory pathogens in fecal samples from 97 apparently healthy horses at a multi-day horse event. In addition, sugar flotation test was performed for fecal parasites. E. coli f17 was commonly detected, prevalent in 59% of horses, followed closely by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (55%). Additional pathogens recognized included betacoronavirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptosporidium sp., E. coli O157, equine adenovirus 1, equine rhinitis B virus, and others. The use of PCR data may overestimate the true prevalence of these pathogens but provides a sensitive overview of common pathogens present in healthy horses. Our results prompt the continued need for practical biosecurity measures at horse shows, both to protect individuals interacting with these horses and to minimize transmission among horses.


Subject(s)
Animal Husbandry , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Female , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses , Male , New York/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
20.
Cell ; 183(6): 1520-1535.e14, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915356

ABSTRACT

ß-Coronaviruses are a family of positive-strand enveloped RNA viruses that includes the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Much is known regarding their cellular entry and replication pathways, but their mode of egress remains uncertain. Using imaging methodologies and virus-specific reporters, we demonstrate that ß-coronaviruses utilize lysosomal trafficking for egress rather than the biosynthetic secretory pathway more commonly used by other enveloped viruses. This unconventional egress is regulated by the Arf-like small GTPase Arl8b and can be blocked by the Rab7 GTPase competitive inhibitor CID1067700. Such non-lytic release of ß-coronaviruses results in lysosome deacidification, inactivation of lysosomal degradation enzymes, and disruption of antigen presentation pathways. ß-Coronavirus-induced exploitation of lysosomal organelles for egress provides insights into the cellular and immunological abnormalities observed in patients and suggests new therapeutic modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Secretory Pathway , Virus Release , ADP-Ribosylation Factors/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Female , HeLa Cells , Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring/pharmacology , Humans , Lysosomes , Mice , Thiourea/analogs & derivatives , Thiourea/pharmacology , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , rab GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
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