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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319992

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe critical condition with a high mortality that is currently in focus given that it is associated with mortality caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neutrophils play a key role in the lung injury characteristic of non-COVID-19 ARDS and there is also accumulating evidence of neutrophil mediated lung injury in patients who succumb to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: We undertook a functional proteomic and metabolomic survey of circulating neutrophil populations, comparing patients with COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS to understand the molecular basis of neutrophil dysregulation. Results: Expansion of the circulating neutrophil compartment and the presence of activated low and normal density mature and immature neutrophil populations occurs in ARDS, irrespective of cause. Release of neutrophil granule proteins, neutrophil activation of the clotting cascade and upregulation of the Mac-1 platelet binding complex with formation of neutrophil platelet aggregates is exaggerated in COVID-19 ARDS. Importantly, activation of components of the neutrophil type I interferon responses is seen in ARDS following infection with SARS-CoV-2, with associated rewiring of neutrophil metabolism, and the upregulation of antigen processing and presentation. Whilst dexamethasone treatment constricts the immature low density neutrophil population, it does not impact upon prothrombotic hyperinflammatory neutrophil signatures. Conclusions: Given the crucial role of neutrophils in ARDS and the evidence of a disordered myeloid response observed in COVID-19 patients, this work maps the molecular basis for neutrophil reprogramming in the distinct clinical entities of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS.

3.
Wellcome Open Res ; 6: 38, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231592

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe critical condition with a high mortality that is currently in focus given that it is associated with mortality caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Neutrophils play a key role in the lung injury characteristic of non-COVID-19 ARDS and there is also accumulating evidence of neutrophil mediated lung injury in patients who succumb to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: We undertook a functional proteomic and metabolomic survey of circulating neutrophil populations, comparing patients with COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS to understand the molecular basis of neutrophil dysregulation. Results: Expansion of the circulating neutrophil compartment and the presence of activated low and normal density mature and immature neutrophil populations occurs in ARDS, irrespective of cause. Release of neutrophil granule proteins, neutrophil activation of the clotting cascade and upregulation of the Mac-1 platelet binding complex with formation of neutrophil platelet aggregates is exaggerated in COVID-19 ARDS. Importantly, activation of components of the neutrophil type I interferon responses is seen in ARDS following infection with SARS-CoV-2, with associated rewiring of neutrophil metabolism, and the upregulation of antigen processing and presentation. Whilst dexamethasone treatment constricts the immature low density neutrophil population, it does not impact upon prothrombotic hyperinflammatory neutrophil signatures. Conclusions: Given the crucial role of neutrophils in ARDS and the evidence of a disordered myeloid response observed in COVID-19 patients, this work maps the molecular basis for neutrophil reprogramming in the distinct clinical entities of COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS.

4.
Lancet ; 397(10288): 1992-2011, 2021 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218908

ABSTRACT

Approximately 13% of the total UK workforce is employed in the health and care sector. Despite substantial workforce planning efforts, the effectiveness of this planning has been criticised. Education, training, and workforce plans have typically considered each health-care profession in isolation and have not adequately responded to changing health and care needs. The results are persistent vacancies, poor morale, and low retention. Areas of particular concern highlighted in this Health Policy paper include primary care, mental health, nursing, clinical and non-clinical support, and social care. Responses to workforce shortfalls have included a high reliance on foreign and temporary staff, small-scale changes in skill mix, and enhanced recruitment drives. Impending challenges for the UK health and care workforce include growing multimorbidity, an increasing shortfall in the supply of unpaid carers, and the relative decline of the attractiveness of the National Health Service (NHS) as an employer internationally. We argue that to secure a sustainable and fit-for-purpose health and care workforce, integrated workforce approaches need to be developed alongside reforms to education and training that reflect changes in roles and skill mix, as well as the trend towards multidisciplinary working. Enhancing career development opportunities, promoting staff wellbeing, and tackling discrimination in the NHS are all needed to improve recruitment, retention, and morale of staff. An urgent priority is to offer sufficient aftercare and support to staff who have been exposed to high-risk situations and traumatic experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to growing calls to recognise and reward health and care staff, growth in pay must at least keep pace with projected rises in average earnings, which in turn will require linking future NHS funding allocations to rises in pay. Through illustrative projections, we show that, to sustain annual growth in the workforce at approximately 2·4%, increases in NHS expenditure of 4% annually in real terms will be required. Above all, a radical long-term strategic vision is needed to ensure that the future NHS workforce is fit for purpose.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , State Medicine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Health Occupations/economics , Health Occupations/education , Health Workforce/economics , Humans , Occupational Stress , Personnel Selection , State Medicine/economics , United Kingdom
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